Philosophy > EXAM > PHIL 2030Final Milestone Sophia-Intro to Ethics/ complete solution/ Graded A+ (All)

PHIL 2030Final Milestone Sophia-Intro to Ethics/ complete solution/ Graded A+

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Final Milestone Sophia-Intro to Ethics 1 When a utilitarian evaluates an action, which of the following is most important? Utilitarianism 2 Russ plays the bassoon. Most bassoon players can easily ... learn the saxophone. It's therefore likely that Russ could easily learn the saxophone. 3 What is meant by the formulation of humanity? 4 Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? • Socially determined actions are usually more successful than self- determined actions. • 5 Choose the true statement about virtue-based ethics. • 6 Which of the following people would be most satisfied with virtue-based ethics? • 7 Most people would agree that this action is immoral. How might it be evaluated by a utilitarian? • The statement, "I will read a book when I get bored so as to improve my mind," is a . • universal law • categorical imperative CONCEPT The Formulation of Universal Law 9 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? • God says to love him above all else, a fact of which my mother often reminds me. • God says to support the poor, so there are a lot of religious charities. • God forbids wearing mixed fibers, but most people aren't concerned with what their clothes are made of. • God commands people to be generous, so I give 10% of my paycheck to an organization that helps at-risk youth in my community. CONCEPT Applying Divine Command Theory 10 Consider the following argument: (1) Mortgage rates are at an all time low. (2) It is therefore a good time to buy a home. (3) Also, property values have been increasing over the last five years, and (4) a number of new homes in my neighborhood are for sale. Which of the four numbered statements is the conclusion? • 4 • 1 • 3 • 2 CONCEPT Premises and Conclusions 11 Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy? • Philosophy improves critical thinking skills. • Philosophy more easily explains social problems. • Philosophy harnesses passion to reveal truths. • Philosophy makes everyone's opinion equal. CONCEPT Benefits of Philosophy and Ethics 12 Which of the following statements displays the speaker's unfair bias? • "We're accepting Kim to our college because her goals align with our school's values." • "We're accepting Kim to our college because her parents are big donors." • "We're accepting Kim to our college because her extracurricular involvements are impressive." • "We're accepting Kim to our college because she has a 4.0 GPA." CONCEPT The Effect of Bias in Moral Decision Making 13 In Kantian deontology, the must be derived from reason. • command theory • categorical imperative • utility principle • formal maxim CONCEPT Kantian Deontology 14 According to an egoist, working hard to succeed in order to take care of oneself and one’s needs is good because . • hard work is valued by all • individual flourishing is the sole basis for ethics • it sets a positive example for others • societal standards demand it CONCEPT Applying Egoism 15 Francis believes that every person should have ambition. Which of the following actions is inconsistent with his belief? • Francis commits to learning a new skill every year. • Francis is content to keep his dead-end job. • Francis dresses for the job he wants rather than the one he has. • Francis starts a new company with two friends. CONCEPT Establishing a Consistent Value System 16 An argument is invalid, but the conclusion is true. Which of the following terms best describes the argument? • Unsound • Uncogent • Cogent • Sound CONCEPT Evaluating an Argument 17 "Capital punishment is morally acceptable if it prevents more people from being murdered." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? • Egoism • Virtue-based ethics • Kantian deontology • Utilitarianism CONCEPT Case Study: Capital Punishment 18 Which of the following is an advantage of divine command theory? • Divine command theory is often associated with motivations for being moral. • Divine command theory aims to satisfy personal needs. • Divine command theory prioritizes intent over outcome. • Divine command theory is about personal development. CONCEPT Support for Divine Command Theory 19 What is the goal of philosophy? • To gain self-knowledge • To pursue truth • To justify beliefs • To persuade others CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophy 20 Jimmy is a nurse who cares for the aging Mr. Buckner in New York City. Mr. Buckner is a very wealthy man who has saved a lot of money over the years. One day, Mr. Buckner takes Jimmy aside and tells him that he has decided what to do with his money after he dies. Mr. Buckner tells Jimmy that he wants Jimmy to give all of the money to the New York Knicks basketball team. He makes Jimmy promise three times that he will do this. Jimmy thinks Mr. Buckner has gone crazy, but Mr. Buckner dies before they can discuss it further. Which action is supported by utilitarianism but intuitively seems unethical? • Jimmy does what he promised and gives Mr. Buckner’s fortune to the New York Knicks. • Jimmy breaks his promise to Mr. Buckner and instead donates the money to a basketball league that helps inner city youth. • Jimmy breaks his promise to Mr. Buckner and uses the money to pay for an operation his mother needs. • Jimmy decides to keep Mr. Buckner’s fortune for himself, as payment for all his work. CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Utilitarianism 21 Which of the following considerations is relevant to a person whose elderly parents are sick but refuse to make an appointment at the doctor? • Which days of the week are appointments available? • Is it her place to make decisions for her parents? • Does she have medical expertise? • Who has treated their illnesses in the past? CONCEPT Actions and Events 22 Which of the following is a philosophical question? • How many people are religious? • What time does the movie start on Friday? • Will you continue with your college education? • What is the best system of morality? CONCEPT Philosophical and Non-Philosophical Inquiry 23 Most people in Dave's culture volunteer an hour every other week at a local food shelf. In addition to this, Dave also helps coordinate volunteers and fills in for people who can't make their hour. What would a conventionalist call Dave's actions? • Impermissible • Obligatory • Neutral • Supererogatory CONCEPT Commitments of Conventionalism 24 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? • Divine command theory states that the ends justify the means. • Divine command theory states that right is right only because God says so. • Divine command theory is a basic principle of all religions. • Divine command theory states that what is religious is inherently good and what isn't is bad. CONCEPT Divine Command Theory 25 Which action, while seemingly good, may reveal a vice rather than a virtue? • Abraham does not like classical music, but he still takes his mother to the symphony. • Carol gives a homeless man $10 to move away from her office building. • Sasha cooperates with a colleague she does not like to complete an important project. • Glenn shows up for work every day, even when he's had trouble sleeping the night before. CONCEPT [Show More]

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