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ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHERS MILESTONE 1 1 When Crito tries to convince Socrates that he must not betray his own life, how does Socrates respond? • He says that life would not be worth living if t... he principle of justice was violated. • He says that all life has value, but society determines the fate of man. • He says that what is right is often misunderstood by mortals and must be left to the gods. • He says that he is not afraid of dying and knows that his followers will restore his good name. 2 A Stoic avoids looking for good in external things and recognizes that value __________. • has little to do with ethics • is determined by intrinsic personality traits • can be found in every living entity • lies in our judgment of the world 3 Choose the example that best demonstrates a central tenet of Stoicism. • Bob is such a rabid Cubs fan that it isn’t fun to watch a baseball game with him. • Stephanie is a good nurse because she is skillful and always remains composed. • Carlene is devastated when her outdoor party is interrupted by a thunderstorm. • Mr. Donovan insists that he begin each morning with pastry and a cup of sweet tea. 4 Which branch of philosophy examines the ultimate nature of reality? • Natural philosophy • Epistemology • Cosmology • Metaphysics 5 Being a good parent is a __________ condition for having a child. Apply conceptual analysis to this statement and choose the answer that correctly describes the relationship. • neither necessary nor sufficient • necessary, not sufficient • sufficient, not necessary • both necessary and sufficient 6 Read the following statement by Socrates: “In questions of just and unjust, fair and foul, good and evil, which are the subjects of our present consultation, ought we to follow the opinion of the many and to fear them; or the opinion of the one man who has understanding?” Extract Socrates' argument from this text and choose the sentence that accurately reflects it. • Absolute justice can only be achieved when the state agrees with the opinion of the masses. • He who has experienced the administration of justice will do as the majority commands him to do. • Any man who cares about ethics and wisdom has an obligation to listen to himself over others. • Non-experts have opinions, but the man who is an expert in a field has true knowledge. 7 Which of the following statements about the atomistic worldview is FALSE? • Philosophical atoms of different shapes and consistencies are the fundamental components of reality. • Everything in the universe exists as a single atom, or a collection of atoms. • The worldview of philosophical atomists, with some revisions, has been adopted by contemporary science. • The philosophical worldview of the early Greek atomists had great influence on philosophical, scientific, and religious thinking, but only for a brief period of time. 8 Recall the similarities and differences between Plato and Aristotle's philosophical approaches. Select the statement that would most likely have been made by Plato, rather than by Aristotle. • “My ideas have served as a starting point for both philosophy and the physical sciences.” • “I teach by example and I live by what I teach, no matter the consequences.” • “In order to find truth, we must first identify what makes a thing what it is, its essence. • “My approach is scientific and empirical; we learn about truth from observation and discovery.” 9 In the Apology, what does Socrates do when he is found guilty and sentenced to death? • He tries to convince the jury to accept his defense. • He agrees that his actions were immoral and that the decision of the judges is just. • He is willing to face death rather than violate the principles of his moral philosophy. • He asks Plato to record his life. 10 Select the statement upon which Plato and Aristotle would disagree. • Truth is important above all else. • Reasoning and logic are key to finding truth. • Essences exist and are genuine entities. • Essences exist independently of the world. 11 All teachers are robots. Cynthia is a teacher. Therefore, Cynthia is a robot. Evaluate the argument and select the option that describes it. • Deductive, valid, unsound • Inductive, strong, cogent • Inductive, weak, uncogent • Deductive, invalid, sound 12 Roland is a compassionate person. He sometimes gives money that he needs for himself to strangers who beg on the street. According to Aristotle’s ethics, Roland should do which of the following in order to cultivate the virtue of compassion? • Find middle ground between being too compassionate and not compassionate enough. • Spend time with compassionate people in order to learn the essence of compassion. • Find other ways to help people besides giving his money away. • Stop giving away his money so that he can focus on taking care of himself. 13 For Plato and his Doctrine of Forms, a person can determine whether an act is courageous if he or she can __________. • accurately describe the Form of Courage • explain what courage means in the real world • clearly understand the value of courage • imagine an unambiguously courageous action 14 Choose the statement that describes a central theme of Parmenidean metaphysics. • Mortal and divine knowledge can be joined. • The opinions of mortals are universally reliable. • The world is composed of linked opposites. • The universe consists of one, unchanging entity. 15 Which of the following statements about Aristotle’s metaphysics is FALSE? • In order for a statement to be true, one must state that an object exists, what the object is, and the state in which it exists. • The distinction between form and matter is purely conceptual— one does not, and cannot, exist without the other. • Examining the nature of being, and knowing what kinds of things exist, is a sensible beginning point for philosophical inquiry. • Humans have the natural capacity to know many things without divine revelation or empirical evidence. 16 Socrates differed from the pre-Socratics in that his interests were primarily in __________. • ethics and epistemology • how the universe works • the true nature of reality • cosmology and natural philosophy 17 When Socrates is asked about suicide in the Phaedo, he replies that __________. • our bodies belong to the gods • the body is eternal and cannot die • it is man’s choice to live or to die • philosophers must always be prepared for death 18 “It is my belief that everything in the cosmos is made of water.” Which ancient philosopher would most likely have made this statement? • Thales • Protagoras • Empedocles • Pythagoras 19 According to Aristotle’s ethics, virtues should be pursued by __________. • thinking abstractly • defining what is true • finding a rational mean between two extremes • determining the purest form of action 20 Heraclitus' Logos is part of his __________. • ethics • mathematics • metaphysics • science 21 The value of the Socratic Method lies in showing students how to __________ on their own, rather than having it dictated to them. • evaluate an opinion • gain knowledge • explain rhetoric • create an argument 22 In Plato's view, justified true beliefs must be related to his metaphysical notion of __________, which he called the Forms. • knowledge • essence • wisdom • truth 23 Which of the following statements about the metaphysical tenets of Plato’s Doctrine of the Forms is FALSE? • The intellectual realm in which the Forms exist is unchanging and eternal. • Worldly objects imitate the more real, genuine Forms of objects. • There is no knowledge because everything is in a state of transition and nothing is true. • Plato’s Doctrine of the Forms grounds knowledge and being. 24 Which of the following is NOT an example of Aristotle’s notion of hylomorphism? • The soul and a human being • An unborn child and a human being • A statue and a human being • Bodily organs and a human being 25 Kendra believes that women have a right to choose to have an abortion. Select the statement that is consistent with Kendra's belief. • “I voted for this presidential candidate because she supports a woman's right to have an abortion.” • “Some women use abortion as a form of birth control, which is wrong.” • “Every woman should be a mother; it is our function and purpose as human beings.” • "The man should have an equal say in whether or not a woman ends her pregnancy.” [Show More]

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