Philosophy > SOPHIA Milestone > PHL MISC_Sophia Philosophy Milestone 1. Ancient Greek Philosophers Milestone. Answers With Rationale (All)

PHL MISC_Sophia Philosophy Milestone 1. Ancient Greek Philosophers Milestone. Answers With Rationale. Scored 95%.

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PHL MISC_Sophia Philosophy Milestone 1. Ancient Greek Philosophers Milestone. You passed this Milestone 20 questions were answered correctly. 5UquNestiIonTs we1re a—nswerMed inIcLorrEectSly.TONE ... 1 Karen believes that she has a responsibility to protect the environment. Choose the statement that is consistent with Karen's belief. “I have eliminated all plastic from my day-to-day life.” “I go to the farmer’s market if I have time to do so on the weekends.” “I serve meat to my family only on holidays and special occasions.” "I only drive my car to work when it is raining or too cold outside.” CONCEPT Philosophical Analysis as a Way of Life 2 In the passage below, Socrates imagines a dialogue between himself and Athens, personified as the laws: “Then the laws will say: ‘Consider, Socrates, if we are speaking truly that in your present attempt you are going to do us an injury. For, having brought you into the world, and nurtured and educated you, and given you and every other citizen a share in every good which we had to give, we further proclaim to any Athenian by the liberty which we allow him, that if he does not like us when he has become of age and has seen the ways of the city, and made our acquaintance, he may go where he pleases and take his goods with him. None of us laws will forbid him or interfere with him. Anyone who does not like us and the city, and who wants to emigrate to a colony or to any other city, may go where he likes, retaining his property. But he who has experience of the manner in which we order justice and administer the state, and still remains, has entered into an implied contract that he will do as we command him.’” Reconstruct the argument from this text and choose the sentence that accurately states the main premise of Socrates’ argument. Our senses do not provide us with truth, so the soul must attain truth without the distraction and deception caused by bodily experiences. By neither leaving Athens nor attempting to change its laws, Socrates consented to the terms of a Social Contract with Athens. An unjust act is obvious, just as a just act is obvious, but unless we know the true essence of justice, we cannot judge others. Socrates believes that taking advantage of opportunities to save his life would be giving in to his enemies, and approving his own destruction. CONCEPT The Apology — Socrates' Arguments 3 In the Phaedo, Socrates makes all of the following claims, EXCEPT: Sensory distractions hinder the soul's pursuit of truth and knowledge. Valuing what is right more than life is illogical and meaningless. Without a body to impede his or her progress, the philosopher may see things as they truly are. The philosopher is concerned with the soul and not with the body. CONCEPT The Phaedo: The Death of Socrates 4 Recall the similarities and differences between Plato and Aristotle's philosophical approaches. Select the statement that would most likely have been made by Plato, rather than by Aristotle. “My ideas have served as a starting point for both philosophy and the physical sciences.” “My approach is scientific and empirical; we learn about truth from observation and discovery.” “I teach by example and I live by what I teach, no matter the consequences.” “In order to find truth, we must first identify what makes a thing what it is, its essence. CONCEPT Aristotle: The Dissection of Reality 5 Choose the statement that describes a central theme of Parmenidean metaphysics. The opinions of mortals are universally reliable. Mortal and divine knowledge can be joined. The universe consists of one, unchanging entity. The world is composed of linked opposites. CONCEPT Parmenides and the Doctrine of Permanence 6 For Plato, the Forms are the foundation of reality, which means that knowledge of reality is grounded in knowledge of the Forms. natural metaphysical logical ethical CONCEPT Plato's Forms: The Objects of Knowledge 7 Which of the following statements about Aristotle’s metaphysics is FALSE? Humans have the natural capacity to know many things without divine revelation or empirical evidence. In order for a statement to be true, one must state that an object exists, what the object is, and the state in which it exists. Examining the nature of being, and knowing what kinds of things exist, is a sensible beginning point for philosophical inquiry. The distinction between form and matter is purely conceptual— one does not, and cannot, exist without the other. CONCEPT Aristotle on What There Is 8 Choose the question that distinguishes the focus of Socrates’ philosophical inquiry from that of the philosophers who preceded him. What is the role of the gods? What is real? What is the nature of the universe? What is knowledge? RATIONALE Socrates redirected philosophical inquiry from the topics that interested the Pre-Socratic philosophers (e.g., natural philosophy and cosmology) to ethics and epistemology. He sought to answer epistemological questions including "What is knowledge?" and "How do I know what I know?" CONCEPT Socrates: The Father of Western Philosophy 9 Kenny is a chef who is trying to determine how carefully he should focus on details while doing his job. He wants to avoid being too detail-oriented because it would be inefficient for him to do so. However, if he doesn't pay enough attention to details, the quality of the food he prepares will be inconsistent. According to Aristotle’s ethics, this is an example of the . Ethics of Virtue Doctrine of the Forms Function Argument Doctrine of the Mean CONCEPT Aristotle's Highest Good 10 When Crito tries to convince Socrates that he must not betray his own life, how does Socrates respond? He says that life would not be worth living if the principle of justice was violated. He says that he is not afraid of dying and knows that his followers will restore his good name. He says that all life has value, but society determines the fate of man. He says that what is right is often misunderstood by mortals and must be left to the gods. CONCEPT The Crito: The Duties of the Social Contract 11 According to Plato’s doctrine of the Forms, is Leonardo da Vinci's painting, the Mona Lisa, beauty? No, because not everyone agrees that it represents that which is beautiful. Yes, if each individual applies his or her concept of beauty to the painting. Yes, if beauty represents all that is good in Platonic Heaven. No, because it only participates in the Form of Beauty. CONCEPT Applying Plato's Metaphysics 12 The value of the Socratic Method lies in showing students how to on their own, rather than having it dictated to them. evaluate an opinion create an argument explain rhetoric gain knowledge CONCEPT The Socratic Approach 13 Choose the example that best demonstrates a central tenet of Stoicism. Bob is such a rabid Cubs fan that it isn’t fun to watch a baseball game with him. Mr. Donovan insists that he begin each morning with pastry and a cup of sweet tea. Stephanie is a good nurse because she is skillful and always remains composed. Carlene is devastated when her outdoor party is interrupted by a thunderstorm. CONCEPT Stoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion 14 Lisa is considering whether it is morally permissible to eat meat. Which branch of philosophy can help her answer this question? Metaphysics Ethics Epistemology Cosmology CONCEPT What is Philosophy? 15 Water is a condition for staying alive. Apply conceptual analysis to this statement and choose the answer that correctly describes the relationship. both necessary and sufficient neither necessary nor sufficient sufficient, not necessary necessary, not sufficient CONCEPT Plato: An academic approach to concepts 16 Which of the following statements about the atomistic worldview is FALSE? Philosophical atoms of different shapes and consistencies are the fundamental components of reality. The philosophical worldview of the early Greek atomists had great influence on philosophical, scientific, and religious thinking, but only for a brief period of time. Everything in the universe exists as a single atom, or a collection of atoms. The worldview of philosophical atomists, with some revisions, has been adopted by contemporary science. CONCEPT The Atomistic Worldview 17 All teachers are robots. Cynthia is a teacher. Therefore, Cynthia is a robot. Evaluate the argument and select the option that describes it. Deductive, invalid, sound Inductive, weak, uncogent Inductive, strong, cogent Deductive, valid, unsound CONCEPT Evaluating an Argument in Action 18 “I view the world as a mathematical entity of perfect harmony.” Which ancient philosopher would most likely have made this statement? Protagoras Xenophanes Pythagoras Anaxagoras CONCEPT Cosmology and the First Philosophers 19 Which of the following is the most important tenet of Stoicism? To understand that reality is either good or bad To resist playing a role To let go of what we cannot control To feed our desires CONCEPT Stoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion 20 In the Apology, what does Socrates do when he is found guilty and sentenced to death? He asks Plato to record his life. He is willing to face death rather than violate the principles of his moral philosophy. He tries to convince the jury to accept his defense. He agrees that his actions were immoral and that the decision of the judges is just. CONCEPT The Apology: A Defense of Philosophy 21 Which of the following is NOT an example of Aristotle’s notion of hylomorphism? Bodily organs and a human being The soul and a human being A statue and a human being An unborn child and a human being CONCEPT Aristotle on What There Is 22 All of the following are central tenets of Aristotle’s ethics, EXCEPT: Any virtue can become a vice. Something is good when it excels at its function. An action is evaluated based on how it informs character. Knowing the essence of a thing can justify a belief. CONCEPT Aristotle's Highest Good 23 Which of the following statements about the metaphysical tenets of Plato’s Doctrine of the Forms is FALSE? The intellectual realm in which the Forms exist is unchanging and eternal. Plato’s Doctrine of the Forms grounds knowledge and being. Worldly objects imitate the more real, genuine Forms of objects. There is no knowledge because everything is in a state of transition and nothing is true. CONCEPT Plato Forms: The Foundations of Being 24 Heraclitus developed , which stated that all things change over time. the Philosophical Atom the Paradoxes of Zeno the Doctrine of Flux Parmenidean Theory CONCEPT Heraclitus and the Doctrine of Impermanence 25 Select the statement upon which Plato and Aristotle would disagree. Essences exist and are genuine entities. Truth is important above all else. Reasoning and logic are key to finding truth. Essences exist independently of the world. CONCEPT Plato vs. Aristotle: The Mathematician or the Biologist [Show More]

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