Art > Syllabus > ARH 319 - INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN ART Fall 2019: The SyLlabus: University of Arizona (All)
This syllabus is designed to assist the student and provide a guide to the path we will be following throughout the course of the semester. Moreover, it serves as a contract, as it were, between the s... tudent and the instructor as the student assumes responsibility to familiarize herself/himself with all the information contained here. All dates for exams, assignments, and other requirements are clearly spelled out and will not be altered during the course of the semester. Any changes to the syllabus or announcements will be posted on the course D2L page. It is the student’s responsibility to be current on all postings related to this course. I: COURSE DESCRIPTION This survey course of over 250 years of American art is designed to provide the student with a clear idea of how the arts--primarily painting, and to a lesser degree sculpture and architecture--developed in the United States from the late colonial period to the present. Lectures and readings will present a comprehensive view of dominant trends in American art and will relate these to the cultural, political, and historical contexts in which works of art were produced and discussed. The time frame of the course brackets over two centuries during which time American art developed as a largely provincial extension of European, particularly British, art to one with aspirations of national distinctiveness. The discourse of nationalism has inflected the history of American art since the early nineteenth century when the ideology of the United States as an independent nation began to shape cultural production; the vicissitudes of this nationalist discourse will be considered throughout the course. II: OUTCOME Upon completion of the course, students will be familiar not only with many of the major artists and art works in American art but will be aware of broader historical, political, and cultural issues that underlie art production in the United States. III: COURSE REQUIREMENTS Readings The following text-- Frances K. Pohl, Framing America: A Social History of American Art, Fourth Edition, 2017 Volumes 1 and 2--is required for the course and is available, in limited supply, at the ASUA Bookstore as well as well as an e-book version. The URL for the e-book will be posted on D2L once it is available. Required weekly readings are listed in the weekly schedule below. Week 1: August 26 [Extra credit week: due 9/1] Introduction: America as Art • Powerpoint presentations: Introduction: America as Art • Readings: I: 11-15 Week 2: September 2 [Labor Day 9/2] Collision, Conquest, and Colonization • Powerpoint presentations: Lecture 1: Art and Conquest I: New Spain in the 16th & 17th Centuries Lecture 2: Art and Conquest II: New France in the 16th & 17th Centuries Lecture 3: Art and Conquest III: British Colonies in the 17th & 18th Centuries • Readings: I: 16-40; 52-53; 63-68 Week 3: September 9 [Quiz week #1: due 9/15] Portraiture on Both Sides of the Atlantic I • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 4: Beginnings of Portraiture in the Colonies Lecture 5: Painting America on Both Sides of the Atlantic: Benjamin West I Lecture 6: Painting America on Both Sides of the Atlantic: Benjamin West II • Readings: I: 69-79; 81-85 Week 4: September 16 Portraiture on Both Sides of the Atlantic II Defining the New Nation I • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 7: Painting America on Both Sides of the Atlantic: John S. Copley I Lecture 8: Painting America on Both Sides of the Atlantic: John S. Copley II Lecture 9: Defining the New Nation: Iconography & History in Federal Era I • Readings: I: 86-97 Week 5: September 23 [Quiz week #2: due 9/29] Defining the New Nation II • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 10: Defining the New Nation: Iconography & History in Federal Era II Lecture 11: Constructing the Capitol & Native Americans I Lecture 12: Constructing the Capitol & Native Americans II • Readings: I: 100-109; 110-115; 121-130 Week 6: September 30 [Exam week #1: due 10/6] Defining the Culture • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 13: Defining the Culture: Early Institutions of Art I Lecture 14: Defining the Culture: Early Institutions of Art II • Readings: I: 131-135 • Exam I due Sunday, 10/6 by 11:59 pm in D2L dropbox Week 7: October 7 Nature as Nation I • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 15: America as Nature’s Nation: Development of Landscape Painting I Lecture 16: America as Nature’s Nation: Development of Landscape Painting II Lecture 17: Landscape Painting at Mid-Century I • Readings: I: 148-149; 153-163 Week 8: October 14 [Quiz week #3: due 10/20] Nature as Nation II Painting the Nation’s Stories I • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 18: Landscape Painting at Mid-Century II Lecture 19: Painting the Nation’s Stories: Genre Painting I Lecture 20: Painting the Nation’s Stories: Genre Painting II • Readings: I: 166-171; 186-196; 212-213 Week 9: October 21 Westward the Course of Empire • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 21: Manifest Destiny I Lecture 22: Manifest Destiny II Lecture 23: Manifest Destiny III • Readings: I: 172-186 Week 10: October 28 [Quiz week #4: due 11/3] Civil War & Reconstruction: The Death of Idealism • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 24: Civil War & Reconstruction I Lecture 25: Civil War & Reconstruction II Lecture 26: Civil War & Reconstruction III • Readings: I: 221-248 Week 11: November 4 Painting Post-Civil War America • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture: 27: Winslow Homer in Post-Civil War Years I Lecture 28: Winslow Homer in Post-Civil War Years II Lecture 29: Thomas Eakins Paints Post- Civil War America I Lecture 30: Thomas Eakins Paints Post-Civil War America II • Readings: I: 264-272; 278-283 Week 12: November 11 [Veteran’s Day 11/11] America Comes of Age: Cosmopolitanism in the Late 19th Century • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 31: The Lure of Paris I Lecture 32: The Lure of Paris II Lecture 33: World’s Columbian Exposition I Lecture 34: World’s Columbian Exposition II • Readings: I: 300-313; 318-331 Week 13: November 18 [Exam week #2: due 11/24] • Exam 2 is due Sunday, 11/24 by 11:59pm in D2L dropbox Shift from Rural to Urban: America Moves to the City • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 35: Ashcan Realism I Lecture 36: Ashcan Realism II • Readings: II: 338-350 Week 14: November 25 [Thanksgiving Recess 11/ 28-29] Modernism and the Avant Garde • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 37: 291 & Early Modernism I Lecture 38: 291 & Early Modernism II • Readings: II: 352-359; 362-270; 434-436 Week 15: December 2 [Quiz week #5: due 12/8] New Realisms/New Sponsors: Art Between the Wars I & II Abstraction & the Politics of Realism I • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 39: Realisms in the 1930s I Lecture 40: Realisms in the 1930s II Lecture 41: Abstract Expressionism as the “New” American Art I • Readings: II: 402-416; 420-433; 436-439; 440-450; 461-461; 470-479 Week 16: December 9 [last day classes 12/11+ Exam week #3: due 12/15] Art vs. Life: What and Where is American Art?: • Powerpoint Presentations: Lecture 42: Abstract Expressionism as the “New” American Art II Lecture 43: From Coca-Cola to Land Art I Lecture 44: From Coca-Cola to Land Art II • RReadings: II: 487-491; 505-507; 520-523; 538; 551-55 • Take-home essay due Friday, 12/15 by 11:59pm in D2L dropbox • Cumulative essay due Wednesday, 12/18 by 11:59pm in D2L dropbox VI: COURSE OVERVIEW • Week 2 Jan Van Der Streat, Amerigo Vespucci Awakens America, c. 1600 Spanish – first to establish foothold on North American Continent 1588, English fleet defeated the Armada, sent by Phillip II of Spain, marking end of Spanish ascendancy Hernán Cortés, 1519 landed on eastern coast of Aztec Empire; Cortés named site Veracruz (the true cross); he was preceded by Christopher Columbus in 1492 (first of four trips between Spain and the Americas); landed in Caribbean Aztec Empire – under leadership of Montezuma; capital Tenochtitlan, founded c. 1345 Codex Borgia, pre 16th-C codex 1521 Cortés defeats Aztec Empire Florentine Codex, 1570 San Estevan, Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico, 1629-42 Retablo, San José, Old Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico, c. 1760-1846 The Virgin, Anon. from New Mexico, 18th C San Xavier del Bac, 1692-1797, Tucson, Arizona New France First French colony established near Quebec City, 1541 France Bringing the Faith to the Indians of New France, c. 1675 French Protestants (Huegenots) colonies expand in 1560s JACQUES LE MOYNE DE MORGUES, René de Laudonnière and the Indian Chief Athore visit Ribaut’s Column, c. 1570 British Colonies: 1585 Roanoke and Virginia Expeditions JOHN WHITE (active 1585-93), The Village of Secoton, c. 1585 Indian Dancing, c. 1585 THEODORE DE BRY (1528-98), 1590 published A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia, first of 30-volume series of illustrated accounts of European exploration throughout the world, known collectively as Great Voyages (the Americas, Oceania) and Small Voyages (India, Japan, China, Africa); first widely-available illustrated narrative of cross-Atlantic travel; narrative account by Thomas Harriot; illustrations by John White Jamestown, first successful British colony established in 1607 Powhatan, Chief and Leader of local tribe; daughter Pocahontas who in 1616 marries John Rolfe, English colonist SIMON VAN DE PASSE, Pocahontas, c. 1616 First Africans brought to Jamestown in 1619 on Dutch ship as indentured servants Plymouth, 1614, founded by John Smith in the territory of New England; first settlement by Puritans in 1620, who called themselves Pilgrims Protestant Reformation; Henry VIII 1536 break with Rome Grand Manner Portraiture English Baroque Portraiture Sir Anthony VAN DYCK (1599-1641) Charles I, 1635 Charles I reigned 1625-44; Van Dyck appointed court portraitist in 1632 Mezzotints Unknown artist, John Freake, 1671-74 Elizabeth Freake, 1671-74 • Weeks 3 and 4 Dutch New Amsterdam founded 1624 Governor Peter Stuyvesant, c. 1663 View of Waterfront of New Amsterdam, 1641-42 1664, New Amsterdam surrenders to British, name changed to New York Thomas SMITH, Self-Portrait, c. 1680 18th-Century Colonial Portraiture Justus Engelhardt KUHN (active 1708-1717) Eleanor Darnell, 1710** Henry Darnell III as a Child, 1710 John SMIBERT (1688-1751) Bermuda Group, 1729-31 View of Boston, 1738 Robert FEKE (1705?-1750?) Isaac Royall and Family, 1741 Brig. General Samuel Waldo, 1748 • Painting the Revolution on both sides of the Atlantic I and II American Revolution, 1775-1783 1774 First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia April 18, 1775 1st battle between British and American troops at Lexington and Concord May 1775 Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia; George Washington appointed Commander in Chief of Continental Army July 1775-March 1776 Siege of Boston by Washington’s troops; British flee Boston July 4, 1776 Continental Congress issues Declaration of Independence Fall 1783 Conflicts over and final treaties signed Paul REVERE (1735-1818), The Bloody Massacre, 1770 Benjamin WEST (1738-1820) Death of Socrates1756 Gravelot engraving in Charles Rollin Ancient History, 1740s Jacques-Louis DAVID, Death of Socrates, 1787 Wincklemann, Reflection of the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks, 1755 Excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii in 1740s Thomas Mifflin, 1758 Royal Academy in London, organized in 1768, Sir Joshua REYNOLDS first president King George III (reigned 1760-1801) Agrippina Landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus, 1768 Death of General Wolfe, 1770 VAN DYCK, Descent from the Cross, 1634 Neoclassical history painting French Academy Exemplum virtutis Jacques-Louis DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 French and Indian Wars, 1754-1760 William Penn’s Treaty with the Indians, 1771 1682, year of Penn’s arrival: Quakers, Religious Society of Friends, founded in England in 1640s Matthew PRATT, American School, 1765 John Singleton COPLEY (1738-1815) Mrs. Joseph Mann, 1763 Boy with a Squirrel, 1765 Paul Revere, 1768-70 Samuel Adams, 1772 Colonial style vs. Cosmopolitan style Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin, 1774 Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Izard, 1775 Watson and the Shark, 1778 Copley Family, 1776-77 Ralph EARL (1751-1801) Roger Sherman, 1775 • Week 6 John TRUMBULL (1756-1843) National history series Death of Gen. Warren at Battle of Bunker Hill, 17 June 1775, 1786 Death of General Montgomery in the Attack on Quebec, 13 December 1775, 1786 George Washington Before the Battle of Trenton, 1792 1789 Washington elected first president of the United States of America Edward SAVAGE (1761-1817) Liberty as Goddess of Youth, 1796 The Washington Family, 1789-96 Charles Wilson PEALE (1741-1827) George Washington After the Battle of Princeton, 1779 Gilbert STUART (1755-1828) The Skater, 1782 Portraits of George Washington, 1796: Vaugn and Lansdowne Thomas SULLY (1783-1872) The Passage of the Delaware, 1819 Rembrandt PEALE (1778-1860) George Washington,, 1823 “Port-hole portrait” trompe-l’oeil Sculpted images of George Washington Jean-Antoine HOUDON (1741-1828), George Washington, 1788 Horatio GREENOUGH (1805-1852) George Washington, 1832-1841 Thomas JEFFERSON (1743-1826) (Vice President, 1796-1800; President, 1800-1808 Monticello, 1770-82, 1796-1809 PALLADIO, Villa Rotunda, 1567-70 State Capitol, Richmond, 1785-89 Maison Carée, Nimes, 1stC BCE • Constructing the Capitol and the Native American Pierre-Charles L’ENFANT (1754-1825), Plan for Washington, DC, 1791 William THORNTON (1759-1828), United States Capitol design, 1792 War of 1812, USA declared war on Britain June 1, 1812; ended December 1814 Benjamin LATROBE (1764-1820), architect of US Capitol, begun 1815 after building destroyed by fire 1814 1817 Charles BULFINCH (1763-1844) named Architect of Capitol 1850s Thomas Ustick WALTER (1804-87) further enlarged Capitol US Capitol rotunda murals (8 total) John Trumbull 1817 Congressional Commission for 4 paintings on American Revolution, 2 military and 2 civic Declaration of Independence 4 July 1776, 1817-1824 Relief Panels above Capitol Rotunda Doorways Antonio CAPELLANO, Preservation of Captain John Smith by Pocahontas, 1825 Enrico CAUSICI, Landing of Pilgrims, 1825 Conflict of Daniel Boone and Indians, 1826-27 Nicholas GEVELOT, Landing of Pilgrims, 1825 Diplomatic Medal, 1790 Anonymous, America, from The Four Continents John VANDERLYN (1755-1852) Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris Paris Salon Niagara Falls, 1801 Topographical view Death of Jane McCrae, 1804 Joel Barlow, The Columbiad Marius Admidst the Ruins of Carthage, 1808 Ariadne Asleep and Abandoned by Theseus on the Island of Naxos, 1812 TITIAN, Venus of Urbino, 1538 The Landing of Columbus, 1839-46, US Capitol Rotunda John Gadsby CHAPMAN, Baptism of Pocahontas, 1837-40, US Capitol Rotunda Charles Bird KING (1785-1862), Young Omawhaw, War Eagle, Little Missouri, and Pawnees, 1822 • Week 6 American Academy of Fine Arts, New York, 1802, John Trumbull founder Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, organized 1805, first exhibition 1807, Philadelphia Charles Wilson PEALE (1741-1827) Physiognotrace Enlightenment William Pitt, 1768 Peale Family Group, 1770-1773, completed 1808 Rachel Weeping Beside Dead Infant Margaret, 1772 Peale’s Natural History Museum, opened in mid-1780s, Philadelphia Exhumation of the Mastodon, 1806-1808 Artist in His Museum, 1822 Samuel F. B. MORSE (1791-1872) House of Representatives, 1822-23 Marquis de Lafayette, 1826 Gallery of the Louvre, 1830 Salon Carre, Louvre Museum, Paris National Academy of Design, New York, founded in 1826 Washington ALLSTON (1779-1843) Rising of Thunderstorm at Sea, 1804 Moonlit Landscape, 1819 • Weeks 7 and 8 • Thomas Cole and The Course of Empire Views and Visions – Rise of Landscape Painting Ralph Waldo Emerson, The American Scholar, 1837 Jacksonian Era (1828 until Civil War) Thomas COLE (1801-1848) Erie Canal, completed 1825, Hudson River Valley John TRUMBULL, Niagara Falls, c. 1800 Niagara Falls, 1830 Kaaterskill Falls, 1826 Scenes from the Last of the Mohicans, 1827 James Fenimore Cooper Expulsion From the Garden of Eden, 1828 John Martin illustrations of Milton’s Paradise Lost Edmund Burke, Philosophical Inquiry into the Origins of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful, 18thC The Course of Empire, 1834-36 Luman Reed, patron Savage State, Pastoral State, Consummation of Empire, Destruction of Empire, Desolation The Oxbow, 1836 Schroon Mountain, 1838 The Voyage of Life, 1839-40 Hunter’s Return, 1845 • Landscape Painting at Mid-Century Second Generation Hudson River School Asher B. DURAND (1796-1886) The Beeches, 1845 Kindred Spirits, 1849 Plein-air painting Interior of Wood, 1850 Robert DUNCANSON (1821-72) Blue Hole, Little Miami River, 1851 Garden of Eden, 1852 Salon-style/Epic style of landscape painting Frederic CHURCH (1826-1900) To the Memory of Cole, 1848 New England Scenery, 1851 Niagara Falls, 1857 Heart of the Andes, 1859 Twilight in the Wilderness, 1860 Alexander Von Humboldt Luminism John F. KENSETT (1816-1872) Cliffs at Newport, 1867 Eaton’s Neck, Long Island, 1872 Fitz Hugh LANE (1804-1865) Ships Before Approaching Storm, 1860 Norman’s Woe, 1862 Martin Johnson HEADE (1819-1904) Thunderstorm, Naragansett Bay, 1868 • • Images of Everyday Life: Genre Painting and the American Art Union American Art Union, New York, founded in 1838, published monthly bulletin, ended in 1851 Apollo Gallery and Association William Sidney MOUNT (1807-1868) Sportsman’s Last Visit, 1835 Bargaining for a Horse, 1835 Farmer’s Nooning, 1836 Painter’s Triumph, 1838 George Caleb BINGHAM (1811-1879) Fur Traders Descending the Missouri, 1845 Concealed Enemy, 1845 Jolly Flatboatmen, 1847 Election Series, begun in 1847: County Election, 1851; Verdict of the People, 1854-55** Francis EDMONDS (1806-1863) Image Peddler, 1844 Lilly Martin SPENCER (1822-1902) Young Husband’s First Marketing, 1855 Shake Hands? 1854 Kiss me and You’ll Kiss the Lasses, 1856 • Week 9 • Westward the Course of Empire: Art and Manifest Destiny Louisiana Purchase ,1803, orchestrated by President Thomas Jefferson Louis and Clark Expedition, 1804, set off from St. Louis Manifest Destiny, term coined in mid-1840s America as the New Eden Frontier, officially declared closed in1893 by historian Frederick Jackson Turner Noble savage Machine in the garden George CATLIN (1796-1872) The Last Race, 1832 Mandan Chief, 1832-34 Letters and Noteson the Manners, Customs and Conditions of the Native American Indians, 1841 Indian Gallery toured US 1837-40, 1840s to London and Paris Karl BODMER (1809-1893) Mandan Chief, 1833-34 Prussian naturalist Prince Maximilian, Travels in the Interior of North America in the Years 1832 to 1834, published 1839 George Caleb BINGHAM (1811-1879) Emigration of Daniel Boone, 1852 Asher B. DURAND Progress, 1853 Magisterial gaze Thomas CRAWFORD (1811-1857) Progress of Civilization, 1853, US Capitol Capt. Montgomery C. Meigs, officer in charge of US Capitol extension DeWitt Clinton BOUTELLE The Indian Hunter, 1843 William JEWETT Promised Land, 1850 Emanuel LEUTZE (1816-1868) Washington Crossing the Delaware, 1851 Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way, 1861-62, US Capitol Bishop George Berkeley, “Verses on Prospects of Planting Arts and Learning in America,” 1752 Westward Expansion and Exploration Albert BIERSTADT (1830-1902) Rocky Mountains, Lander’s Peak, 1863 Lander’s Expedition, 1859 Fanny PALMER Across the Continent: Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way, 1868, Currier and Ives print William Sidney MOUNT, News from California, 1850 California gold rush, began in 1848 John GAST American Progress, 1878 George INNESS (1825-1894) Lackawana Valley, 1855 Jasper CROPSEY (1823-1900) Starucca Viaduct, 1865 Washita River Massacre, Gen. George Armstrong Custer, Nov. 27, 1868 Battle of Little Bighorn, S.E. Montana, June 25-26, 1876 Dawes Act passed by Congress 1887 Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dakota, Dec. 29, 1890 John Gutzon BORGLUM (1871-1941) Mount Rushmore, completed in 1941, Keystone, So. Dakota • Week 10 • Civil War and Reconstruction: Death of Idealism 1845 Annexation of Texas 1846-48 War with Mexico Gadsden Purchase, 1853 Richard Caton WOODVILLE (1825-1856) War News From Mexico, 1848 Old ’76 and Young ’48, 1849 Emanuel LEUTZE, Storming of Teocalli by Cortes and Troops, 1848 William Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico, 1843 American Anti-Slavery Society established 1833 Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, or Life among the Lowly, 1852 1857 Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision Eastman JOHNSON, Life in the South, Old Kentucky Home, 1859 Abraham Lincoln elected President Fall 1860 Civil War: April 1861 begins with battle at Fort Sumter, S. Carolina; Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863; April 1864 Senate adopts 13th Amendment declaring end of slavery; January 1865 House of Representatives approves amendment; April 9, 1865, General Lee surrenders to General Grant at Appomattox; April 14, 1865, Lincoln assassinated Winslow HOMER (1836-1910) Bufford’s Lithography Shop Harper’s Weekly Sharpshooter, 1862 The Last Goose at Yorktown, 1863 The Sutler’s Tent, 1863 Initials, 1864 Defiance: Inviting a Shot, 1864 The Bright Side, 1865 Veteran in a New Field, 1865 Prisoners from the Front, 1866 Visit from Old Mistress, 1876 Snap the Whip, 1872 Timothy O’SULLIVAN (1840-1882) Alexander GARDNER (1821-1882), Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the War, 1866 Harvest of Death, 1863 Mathew BRADY (1823-1896), Brady’s Photographic Views of the War, 1862 Photographs of Civil War, 1860s George BARNARD (1819-1902), Ruins of Charleston, S.C., 1866 George INNESS (1825-1894) Peace and Plenty, 1865 Eastman JOHNSON (1824-1906) Old Stage Coach, 1871 1876 Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia Colonial revival Thomas BALL (1819-1911) Freedom’s Memorial to Abraham Lincoln or Emancipation Monument, 1876 Augustus SAINT-GAUDENS (1848-1907) Monument to Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Regiment, 1897 Frame designed by Charles Follen MCKIM (1847-1909) • Week 11 • Redefining the Nation: Homer and Eakins Winslow HOMER Croquet Scene, 1866 Universal Exposition in Paris, 1867 Long Branch, New Jersey, 1869 The Morning Bell, Old Mill, 1871 Basket of Clams, 1873 Bumble Bee, 1875-6 The Life Line, 1884 The Fog Warning, 1885 Huntsman and Dog, 1891 The Fallen Deer, 1892 Hound and Hunter, 1892 The Fox Hunt, 1893 The Gulf Stream, 1899 Right and Left, 1909 John NEAGLE (1796-1865), Pat Lyon at the Forge, 1826-27 Robert KOEHLER (1850-1917), The Strike, 1886 Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia 1876, Centennial Stock Certificate Thomas ANSHUTZ (1851-1912), Iron Worker’s Noontime, 1880-81 Thomas EAKINS (1844-1916) Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris Realism Influence of photography: Eadweard MUYBRIDGE (1830-1904) Animal Locomotion, 1887 Etienne-Jules MAREY Max Schmidt in a Single Skull, 1871 Biglin Brothers Turning the Stake, 1873 Gross Clinic, 1875 1876 Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia Rembrandt, Anatomy Lesson, 1632 Swimming Hole, 1880 Agnew Clinic, 1889 William Rush Carving his Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill River, 1877 Portrait of a Lady with Setter Dog, 1885 • Week 12 • Aestheticism and the Academy: Lure of Europe Gilded Age, 1873 by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner Seneca Fall Convention, New York, 1848 Elizabeth Cady STANTON and Lucretia MOTT, “Declaration of Sentiments” 19th Amendment granting women right to vote, 1920 Jackson Jarvis, cultural critic Parisian academic training École des Beaux-Arts, Paris Académie Julian Paris Salon Shift in patronage Aestheticism/Cosmopolitanism Art for Art’s Sake Japanese prints Art Students League, founded 1875 in New York Society of American Artists, founded 1878 in New York Sketch vs. finish The Ten, founded 1898 in New York American Impressionism James Abbott McNeill WHISTLER (1839-1903) At the Piano, 1859 Symphony in White No. I :The White Girl, 1862 Salon des Refuses, Paris, 1863 The Golden Screen: Caprice in Purple and Gold No. 2, 1864 Arrangement in Grey and Black No .l : The Artist’s Mother, 1871 Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 1875 John Ruskin The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 1890 Abbot THAYER (1849-1921), Angel, 1889 Thomas Wilmer DEWING (1851-1938), Summer, 1890 Tonalism John Singer SARGENT (1856-1925) Rehearsal of the Orchestra, 1878 In the Luxembourg Gardens, 1879 Madame Gautreau (Madame X), 1884 Isabella Stewart Gardner, 1888 Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose, 1886 Influence of Impressionism Repose, 1911 William Merritt CHASE (1849-1916) In the Studio, 1888 Dora Wheeler, 1883 Open Air Breakfast, 1888 Alice Barber STEVENS (1858-1932), A Spring Morning in the Park, 1892 Ellen Day HALE (1855-1940), Self Portrait, 1885 Cecilia BEAUX (1855-1942), Sita and Sarita, 1893-94 Henry Sturgis Drinker (Man with a Cat), 1898 • 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition: American Renaissance Frederick Law OLMSTED and Calvert VAUX, Central Park, begun 1857 William Merritt CHASE, Brooklyn’s Prospect Park, 1888 City Beautiful Movement Albert BIERSTADT, Looking Down Yosemite Valley, CA, 1865 Carlton WATKINS, Yosemite Valley, 1860s photographs Josiah Dwight Whitney, The Yosemite Book, 1868 George FISKE, Yosemite Valley, 1890s photographs Jacob A. RIIS (1849-1914), 5 Cents a Spot, c. 1889 How the Other Half Lives, 1890 Richard Morris HUNT, Metropolitan Museum façade, 1902 (built in 1870s) American Renaissance vs. Modernist Architecture in Chicago William Le Baron JENNEY (1832-1907), Home Insurance Bldg., Chicago, 1884-85 William HOLABIRD (1854-1923) and Martin ROCHE (1855-1927) Tacoma Bldg., Chicago, 1887-89 Daniel BURNHAM and John ROOT (1850-91) Monandnock Bldg., Chicago, 1889-92 Dankmar ADLER (1849-1900) and Louis SULLIVAN (1856-1924) Wainwright Bldg., St. Louis, MO, 1890-91 Court of Honor, World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893 “An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Civilization” Certificate of Commission, 1893 Daniel Chester FRENCH (1850-1931) Republic, 1892 BARTHOLDI, Statue of Liberty: Liberty Enlightening the World, 1875-84; 1886 New York Harbor; pedestal designed by Richard Morris HUNT William MACMONNIES (1863-1937) Barge of the State or Triumph of Columbia Fountain, 1892 Richard Morris HUNT Administration Building, 1893 Louis SULLIVAN Transportation Building, 1893 Sophia HAYDEN (1868 - ?) Women’s Building, 1893 Mary CASSATT (1844-1926) Modern Women, mural in Women’s Building, 1893 Young Women Picking Fruit, 1891 Mary Fairchild MACMONNIES (1858-1946), Primitive Women, mural in Women’s Bldg., 1893 Impressionist Exhibitions in Paris, 1874-86 (8 total) At the Opera, 1880 Renoir, Le Loge, 1874 The Boating Party, 1893-94 Mother and Child, 1905 • Week 13 • Skirmishes Against the Academy: Ashcan Realists Académie Julian, Paris Melting Pot 1898 Spanish American War 1902 Panama Canal construction began Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president, 2 terms, 1901-1909 Progressive Era – Spirit of reform, Upton Sinclair, The Jungle, 1906 Realism – art for life’s sake Exhibition of The Eight, 1908, New York, MacBeth Gallery Exhibition of Independent Artists, 1910 (The Eight plus Rockwell Kent, Glenn Coleman, and George Bellows) “Apostles of Ugliness” Robert HENRI (1865-1929) The Charcoal Club, 1890s, Philadelphia Artist-Reporters, The Philadelphia Press Girl by the Sea, 1893 New York in Winter, 1902 Young Woman in White, 1904 Laughing Child, 1907 William GLACKENS (1870-1938) Hammerstein’s Roof Garden, 1901 Degas, Cirque Fernando, 1879 Chez Mouquin, 1905 Edouard MANET, Bar at the Folies-Bérgère, 1884 The Shoppers, 1907 Far From the Fresh Air Farm, 1911 Everett SHINN (1876-1923) Sixth Street Elevated, 1899 Footlight Flirtation, 1912 George LUKS (1866-1933) The Spielers, , 1905 Hester Street, 1905 Roundhouses at Highbridge, 1909-10 John SLOAN (1871-1951) Hairdresser’s Window, 1907 The Wake of the Ferry, 1907 A Woman’s Work, 1912 The Masses Ludlow Massacre, June 1914 Maurice PRENDERGAST (1858-1924) Influence of post-impressionism The Promenade, 1913 Ernest LAWSON (1879-1933) Brooklyn Bridge, 1917-20 Arthur B. DAVIES (1862-1928) Unicorns, 1906 George BELLOWS (1882-1925) Stag at Sharkey’s, 1907 Penn Station Excavation, 1907 MCKIM, MEAD, and WHITE, Pennsylvania Station, New York, 1907-10 Both Members of the Club, 1909 New York, 1911 Cliff Dwellers, 1913 • Week 14 Camera Notes, 1897-1902 Camera Work, 1903-17 Photo-Secession Exhibition, National Arts Club, New York, 1902 Little Gallery of the Photo-Secession, known as 291 Gallery, New York, opened 1905 (-1917) Modernism Gertrude KASEBIER (1852-1937), Portrait of Alfred Stieglitz, 1902 Alfred STIEGLITZ (1864-1946) The Hand of Man, 1902 Flat Iron Building, 1903 The Steerage, 1907 Edouard STEICHEN (1879-1973) Pictorialism Self Portrait with Palette and Brush, 1901 Rodin with Sculpture, 1902 Younger American Painters Exhibition, 1910, 291 Gallery Max WEBER (1881-1961) Rush Hour, New York, 1915 Marsden HARTLEY (1887-1943) Indian Composition, 1914 Portrait of a German Officer, 1914 Arthur DOVE (1880-1946) Nature Symbolized, No. 2, 1911-12 John MARIN (1870-1953) New York Woolworth Building, 1912 Cass GILBERT, Woolworth Building, New York, 1911-13 Lower Manhattan from top of Woolworth Building, 1922 Joseph STELLA (1880-1946) Battle of Lights, Coney Island, 1913-14 New York Intrpreted, 1920-22 (five panels) Georgia O’KEEFFE (1887-1986) Blue II, 1916 Light Coming on the Plains, 1917 • Shock of the New: 1913 Armory Show & Aftermath World War I Armory Show, 1913 Association of American Painters and Sculptors Grafton Gallery Postimpressionist Exhibition, London, Roger Fry organizer, 1911 Sunderbund Exhibition, Cologne, 1912 Forum Exhibition of Modern Painters, New York, 1916 Society of Independent Artists, 1917 Arensberg Circle Marcel DUCHAMP (1887-1968) Dada Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, 1912 Bicycle Wheel, 1913 Ready-Mades Conceptual Art The Fountain, 1917 L.H.O.O. Q., 1919 MAN RAY (1890-1976) Marcel Duchamp as Rrose Sélavy, 1920-22 Rayographs, 1920-22 The Gift, 1921 Object to be Destroyed/Indestructible Object, 1923/58 Charles DEMUTH (1883-1935), Turkish Bath with Self Portrait, 1916 My Egypt, 1927 Romaine BROOKS (1874-1970), The Crossing, 1911 Self Portrait, 1923 Georgie O’KEEFFE, Red Canna, 1925-28 Shelton Hotel, 1926 Anne Brigman (1869-1950), Cleft in the Rock, 1905 Imagen CUNNINGHAM (1883-84), Magnolia Blossom Ansel ADAMS (1902-84), Monolith, Yosemite, 1927 Tina MODOTTI (1896-1942), Mexico City Stadium, 1920s Sickle, Cartridge, Belt, and Guitar, late 1920s Edward WESTON (1886-1958), Pajaro Blanco, 1926 Hand of Amado Galvan, 1926 • Week 15 • • New Sponsors and New Realisms: Art Between the Wars Henry STERNBERG, The Family – Industry and Agriculture, 1939 Norman ROCKWELL, Freedom from Want, 1943 Mexican Revolution, 1910 Alvaro Obregon, inaugurated president 1920 José Vasconcelos, appointed Minister of Education by Obregon National Preparatory School, Mexico City Los Tres Grandes: Diego RIVERA (1886-1957), José Clemente OROZCO (1883-1949), David SIQUEIROS (1896-1974) Ministry of Education, Mexico City RIVERA, Allegory of California, California School of Fine Art and Stock Exchange Club, 1931 Age of Steel, Detroit Industry, Detroit Institute of Art, 1932-33 Man at the Crossroads, Rockefeller Center, New York, 1933 William VAN ALLEN, Chrysler Bldg., New York, 1928-30 HOOD et al., Rockefeller Center, New York, 1927-39 Public Works of Art Project (PWAP), 1933-34 Treasury Section of Painting and Sculpture, 1933-43 Works Progress Administration/Federal Art Project (WPA/FAP), 1935-43 Coit Tower murals, San Francisco, 1933-4 Victor ARNAUTOFF (1896-1979), City Life, 1934 Bernard ZAKHEIM (1898-1985), Library, 1934 Ben SHAHN (1898-1969), Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti, 1932 Carpenters, 1942 Precisionism “Cubists-Realists” Machine Age Exhibition, 1927 Post-war isolationism and growing nationalism American Wing, Metropolitan Museum, New York, opened 1924 Museum of Modern Art, New York, opened 1930 Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, opened 1931 Charles SHEELER (1883-1965) Barn Abstraction, 1918 Church Street Elevated, 1922 New York, 1920 River Rouge, 1927 Photographic commission from Ford Motor Company Classic Landscape, 1931 Thomas Hart BENTON (1889-1975) Boomtown, 1928 City Activities with Dance Hall and Coal, from America Today, New School for Social Research, New York, 1931 Farm Security Administration, organized in 1935 by Roy Stryker Rexford Tugwell, Men at Work: Photographic Studies of Modern Men and Machines, 1932 Lewis HINE (1874-1940), Young Girls Knitting Stockings in Hoisery Mill, 1910 Riveting on the Dome, ¼ mile up, during construction of Empire State Building, 1931 Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, 1936 Walker EVANS (1903-75), Washroom and Dining Area, 1936 Bud Fields and his Family, Alabama, 1936 Margaret BOURKE-WHITE, Fort Peck Dam, cover of 1st issue Life Magazine, Nov. 23, 1936 Harlem Renaissance W. E. B. Dubois Henry Ossawa TANNER (1859-1937), Banjo Lesson, 1893 Daniel in the Lions’ Den, 1914-17 Aaron DOUGLAS (1899-1979), Ma Bad Luck Card, 1926 Harriet Tubman, 1931 Urban Realism Reginald MARSH (1898-1954), 10 Cents a Dance, 1933 Hat Display, 1939 Edward HOPPER (1882-1967) Early Sunday Morning, 1930 Hotel Room, 1931 Office at Night, 1940 Regionalism Thomas Hart BENTON, Cradling Wheat, 1938 Persephone, 1938-39 Grant WOOD (1892-1942) American Gothic, 1929 Fall Plowing, 1931 Daughters of the American Revolution, 1932 Parson Weem’s Tale, 1939 • Week 16 • Abstract Expressionism as New American Art December 7, 1941, bombing of Pearl Harbor D-Day, June 1944, US troops land on Normandy Coast April 1945, FDR dies, Truman becomes next president May 1945 German troops surrender August 6, 1945, bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki August 14, 1945, Japan surrenders Red Scare, 1950s, Joseph McCarthy, 1953 Jules and Ethel Rosenberg executed for treason, HUAC = House Un-American Activities Committee June 1950, N. Korean troops invade S. Korea July 1950 US troops sent to S. Korea without congressional approval January 1958, first U.S. man-made satellite successfully launched, Explorer I (3 months after Russia’s first successful launching of Sputnik) 1958, then-president Eisenhower honored request of South Vietnamese government for military aid; sent American military personnel as advisors Abstractionists Abstract Painting in America, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1936 Cubism and Abstract Art, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1936 American Abstract Artists, founded in New York 1937 Stuart DAVIS (1894-1964), Sweet Caporal, 1922 Clement Greenberg, “Avant-Garde and Kitsch,” Partisan Review, 1939 Hans HOFFMAN (1880-1966), Effervescence, 1944 Arshile GORKY Peggy Guggenheim, Art of This Century Gallery, New York, Surrealism Max Ernst American Painting Today, organized at Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1950 18 Irascibles/Ninth Street Exhibition, Downtown Gallery, New York, May – June 1951 Abstract Expressionism/New York School Abstract Painting and Sculpture in America, 1951, Museum of Modern Art Gestural Abstraction/ “Action Painting” = Pollock and De Kooning Reductive Abstraction/ “Colorfield Painting” = Rothko, Newman Bridge Figure between gestural and reductive abstraction = Motherwell Jackson POLLOCK 1912-1956), Going West, 1934-35, under tutelage of Thomas Hart Benton Man, Bull, Bird, 1938-4 She-Wolf, 1943 “All over”/ “drip” paintings begun in late 1940s “Jackson Pollock: Is he the greatest living painter in the United States?” in Life Magazine, August 8, 1948, photograph of Pollock by Arnold Newman Autumn Rhythm, No. 30, 1950 Epithet “action painting” coined by critic Harold Rosenberg in ArtNews, December 1952 “The Irascibles, 1950,” in Life Magazine, January 15, 1951 Willem DEKOONING (1904-1997) Woman and Bicycle, 1952-3 Franz KLINE (1910-1962) Chief, 1950 Reductive Abstraction Mark ROTHKO (1903-1970) Gethsemane, 1945 Green and Maroon, 1953 Rothko Chapel murals, 1967, Houston Barnett NEWMAN (1905-1970) Onement, 1948 Day One, 1950 Bridge Between Gestural and Reductive Abstraction Robert MOTHERWELL ((1915-1991) Elegy to the Spanish Republic, 1948-60 Lee KRASNER (1908-84), Composition, 1949 Helen FRANKENTHALER (b. 1928), Mountains and Sea, 1952 • Art and Life: New Boundaries and Players Marcel DUCHAMP, Dada Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, 1912 Armory Show, New York, 1913 Readymades The Fountain, exhibited at the Society of Independents Exhibition, New York, 1917 Beat Generation, 1950s: Alan Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, On the Road, 1957, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, City Lights Bookstore, San Francisco Civil Rights Movement: December 1955, Rosa Parks, Montgomery, Alabama John Cage, studied with composer Arnold Schonberg, atonal music Music of Changes, 1951, theory of total soundspace 4 minutes 33 seconds, 1952 Merce Cunningham, dancer/choreographer Black Mountain College: Cage and Cunningham taught there in 1948; school established in 1933 Robert RAUSCHENBERG (born 1925) The Bed, 1955 Retroactive, 1964 Jasper JOHNS (born 1930) Target with Plaster Casts, 1955 Flag, 1954-55 Marisol ESCOBAR (b. 1930), Women and Dog, 1964 Ed KIENHOLZ (1927-94), The Illegal Operation, 1962 Andy WARHOL (1928-1987) Green Coca Cola Bottles, 1962 Marilyn Monroe Diptych, 1962 Silver Disaster; Electric Chair, 1963 Claus OLDENBURG (born 1929) Soft Toilet, 1966 The Store, Ray Gun Mfg. Co., 1961 James ROSENQUIST (born 1933) F-111, 1964-65 Roy LICHTENSTEIN (born 1933) Drowning Girl, 1963 Okay, Hot Shot, 1963 Brushstroke with Splatter, 1966 Romare BEARDEN (1914-88), Prevalence of Ritual: Baptism I, 1964 Faith RINGOLD (b. 1930), Die, 1967, from American People series Betye SAAR (b. 1929), The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, 1972 Miriam SHAPIRO (b. 1923), Anatomy of a Kimono, 1976 Audrey FLACK (b. 1931), Marilyn, Vanitas, 1977 Judy CHICAGO (b. 1939), Dinner Party, 1974-79 Ana MENDIETA(1948-85), Untitled, from Silueta series, 1976 Donald JUDD (born 1928) Untitled, 1967 Carl ANDRE (born 1935) 144 Zinc Square, 1969 Robert SMITHSON (1938-1973) Spiral Jetty, 1970 VII: QUESTIONS FOR EXAMS AND CUMULATIVE ESSAY Exam 1, Part 2: Select one question and write a six-paragraph response. You must cite the textbook readings at least three times (failure to do so will result in 10% drop in the grade for that section) and refer to material covered in the lectures. • Question I: Benjamin West and John Singleton Copley are considered America’s first two great artists. The former articulated his career entirely in Great Britain; the latter produced two distinctly different bodies of work, one in America and the other in Great Britain. Discuss the work of these two artists in light of our concern with defining what is American about American art. • Question II: Charles Wilson Peale was one of the great polymaths of the Enlightenment whose museum summarized many of his accomplishments and ambitions as well as assumptions about America as a nation in the early years of the nineteenth century. Discuss his self-portrait within a broad cultural, historical, aesthetic, and political context. • Question III: We have argued that the United States Capitol Building is ideologically saturated with ideas and assumptions about America’s national identity. Discuss some of the key works in the capitol, addressing how their themes and subjects resonate with these ideas. You might think about the building itself as suggestive of ideas regarding national identity. Exam 2, Part 2: • Question I: Landscape painting flourished in the pre-Civil War years and was understood as being uniquely “American.” Discuss some of the key landscape paintings from the period and how they are visually expressive of nationally meaningful narratives. • Question II: A belief in progress and manifest destiny were among the most defining features of American national consciousness in the antebellum period. Not surprisingly, such ideas found their way into cultural production. Discuss some of the key images from the period that address this foundational belief. When significant, be sure to address the patron for and location of such works of art. • Question III: The direction of American art shifted in the post-Civil War period away from naturalistic landscape and native genre painting to a concern with aesthetics, decorative figure painting, and the predominance of formal concerns over those of narrative. Discuss some of the causes of this shift as well as the key players and works from this period of self-conscious aestheticism and cosmopolitanism. Exam 3, Part 2: • Question I: At the turn of the twentieth century, American art followed two trajectories: that of the so-called Ash Can Realists on the one hand, and the Modernists on the other. Discuss parallels and differences between the major artists from this period, being sure to address the institutional contexts of their respective activities and exhibitions. • Question II: The decade of the 1930s was enormously complex politically, socially, and economically. The art created during this decade was responsive to this complexity and followed many different trajectories. Trace some of the principle arenas in which art was produced in the 1930s and the issues it addressed. • Question III: Beginning with Abstract Expressionism, American artists began to challenge prevailing conceptions about not only the meaning of art but its materials, its presentation, even its location. Discuss the works of some of the key players in the period between the 1950 and 1980. Show Less [Show More]
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