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SOPHIA UNIT 1 Philosophy_Milestone 1 Exam Spring 2020 - 100% CORRECT ANSWERS | SOPHIA UNIT 1 Philosophy_Milestone 1 Exam Spring 2020 - DeVry University

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5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 1/16 UNIT 1 — MILESTONE 1 Score 20/25 You passed this Milestone 20 questi... ons were answered correctly. 5 questions were answered incorrectly. 1 Karen believes that she has a responsibility to protect the environment. Choose the statement that is consistent with Karen's belief. “I have eliminated all plastic from my day-to-day life.” “I go to the farmer’s market if I have time to do so on the weekends.” “I serve meat to my family only on holidays and special occasions.” "I only drive my car to work when it is raining or too cold outside.” RATIONALE To live philosophically, a person must examine his or her beliefs to ground them in knowledge, and then act according to those beliefs. By eliminating plastic from her life, Karen displays a consistent philosophical worldview. Driving to work when it's inconvenient to walk, serving meat on special occasions, and shopping locally for groceries only sporadically are examples of inconsistency in her worldview. CONCEPT Philosophical Analysis as a Way of Life 25/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 2/16 In the passage below, Socrates imagines a dialogue between himself and Athens, personified as the laws: “Then the laws will say: ‘Consider, Socrates, if we are speaking truly that in your present attempt you are going to do us an injury. For, having brought you into the world, and nurtured and educated you, and given you and every other citizen a share in every good which we had to give, we further proclaim to any Athenian by the liberty which we allow him, that if he does not like us when he has become of age and has seen the ways of the city, and made our acquaintance, he may go where he pleases and take his goods with him. None of us laws will forbid him or interfere with him. Anyone who does not like us and the city, and who wants to emigrate to a colony or to any other city, may go where he likes, retaining his property. But he who has experience of the manner in which we order justice and administer the state, and still remains, has entered into an implied contract that he will do as we command him.’” Reconstruct the argument from this text and choose the sentence that accurately states the main premise of Socrates’ argument. Our senses do not provide us with truth, so the soul must attain truth without the distraction and deception caused by bodily experiences. By neither leaving Athens nor attempting to change its laws, Socrates consented to the terms of a Social Contract with Athens. An unjust act is obvious, just as a just act is obvious, but unless we know the true essence of justice, we cannot judge others. Socrates believes that taking advantage of opportunities to save his life would be giving in to his enemies, and approving his own destruction. RATIONALE In this selection from the Crito, "the laws" remind Socrates that Athens has provided him many benefits, including sustenance, education, and liberty, including the freedom to leave Athens with all of his worldly property if chose to do so. However, anyone (including Socrates) who "still remains . . . has entered into an implied contract . . .” to obey the laws and judgements of the state. The main premise of Socrates' argument, therefore, is that since he neither left Athens nor attempted to change its laws, he has consented to the terms of a Social Contract with the state. CONCEPT The Apology — Socrates' Arguments 3 In the Phaedo, Socrates makes all of the following claims, EXCEPT:5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 3/16 Sensory distractions hinder the soul's pursuit of truth and knowledge. Valuing what is right more than life is illogical and meaningless. Without a body to impede his or her progress, the philosopher may see things as they truly are. The philosopher is concerned with the soul and not with the body. RATIONALE The Phaedo is a conversation between Socrates and his students about death. It takes place just before his execution. During this conversation, Socrates demonstrates why philosophers should not fear death, which he defines as the end of the life of the body, but not of the soul. He believes that there is no value in preserving the life of the body if preservation comes at the expense of the soul's pursuit of wisdom (i.e., what is right). CONCEPT The Phaedo: The Death of Socrates 4 Recall the similarities and differences between Plato and Aristotle's philosophical approaches. Select the statement that would most likely have been made by Plato, rather than by Aristotle. “My ideas have served as a starting point for both philosophy and the physical sciences.” “My approach is scientific and empirical; we learn about truth from observation and discovery.” “I teach by example and I live by what I teach, no matter the consequences.” “In order to find truth, we must first identify what makes a thing what it is, its essence. RATIONALE Plato proposed the existence of essences in his doctrine of the Forms. As a result, it is more likely that he would have made this statement. As a rationalist philosopher, Plato believed that knowledge does not rely on human senses alone, and can be accessed through the existence of essences. The statements which involve science and empiricism are reflective of Aristotle's views. The statement about teaching and living by example is reflective of Socrates' philosophy.5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 4/16 CONCEPT Aristotle: The Dissection of Reality 5 Choose the statement that describes a central theme of Parmenidean metaphysics. The opinions of mortals are universally reliable. Mortal and divine knowledge can be joined. The universe consists of one, unchanging entity. The world is composed of linked opposites. RATIONALE Parmenidean metaphysics includes the concept of "substance monism" — the belief that all reality is one object. This object is called the “what-is.” The "what-is" is eternal and unchanging. None of the other statements represent Parmenidean metaphysics. CONCEPT Parmenides and the Doctrine of Permanence 6 For Plato, the Forms are the __________ foundation of reality, which means that knowledge of reality is grounded in knowledge of the Forms. natural metaphysical logical ethical5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 5/16 RATIONALE Plato was interested in abstract concepts (e.g., being and substance). These concepts are the subjects of the field of philosophy known as metaphysics. Plato wanted to know how these concepts exist in reality (i.e., their essences). Therefore, Plato's Forms were his metaphysical notion of the essences that ground the knowledge of reality. CONCEPT Plato's Forms: The Objects of Knowledge 7 Which of the following statements about Aristotle’s metaphysics is FALSE? Humans have the natural capacity to know many things without divine revelation or empirical evidence. In order for a statement to be true, one must state that an object exists, what the object is, and the state in which it exists. Examining the nature of being, and knowing what kinds of things exist, is a sensible beginning point for philosophical inquiry. The distinction between form and matter is purely conceptual— one does not, and cannot, exist without the other. RATIONALE Aristotle would agree with all of these statements except the suggestion that we can have knowledge without empirical evidence. To Aristotle, all knowledge is grounded in human experience and flows from empirical evidence. CONCEPT Aristotle on What There Is 8 Choose the question that distinguishes the focus of Socrates’ philosophical inquiry from that of the philosophers who preceded him. What is the role of the gods?5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 6/16 What is real? What is the nature of the universe? What is knowledge? RATIONALE Socrates redirected philosophical inquiry from the topics that interested the Pre-Socratic philosophers (e.g., natural philosophy and cosmology) to ethics and epistemology. He sought to answer epistemological questions including "What is knowledge?" and "How do I know what I know?" CONCEPT Socrates: The Father of Western Philosophy 9 Kenny is a chef who is trying to determine how carefully he should focus on details while doing his job. He wants to avoid being too detail-oriented because it would be inefficient for him to do so. However, if he doesn't pay enough attention to details, the quality of the food he prepares will be inconsistent. According to Aristotle’s ethics, this is an example of the __________. Ethics of Virtue Doctrine of the Forms Function Argument Doctrine of the Mean RATIONALE Aristotle's Doctrine of the Mean states that virtue must be cultivated as a rational mean between extremes. Kenny's efforts to find the correct level of detail-focus to succeed in his job illustrates this doctrine. CONCEPT Aristotle's Highest Good 105/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 7/16 When Crito tries to convince Socrates that he must not betray his own life, how does Socrates respond? He says that life would not be worth living if the principle of justice was violated. He says that he is not afraid of dying and knows that his followers will restore his good name. He says that all life has value, but society determines the fate of man. He says that what is right is often misunderstood by mortals and must be left to the gods. RATIONALE In the Crito, Socrates' friend (Crito) tried to convince him to escape and avoid execution. Socrates refused to do so, and explained why escape would be wrong. Socrates asserted that not all life has intrinsic value; only the good life does. Since he believed that he would violate the principle of justice (established by the Social Contract) by avoiding death, Socrates refused to avoid it. CONCEPT The Crito: The Duties of the Social Contract 11 According to Plato’s doctrine of the Forms, is Leonardo da Vinci's painting, the Mona Lisa, beauty? No, because not everyone agrees that it represents that which is beautiful. Yes, if each individual applies his or her concept of beauty to the painting. Yes, if beauty represents all that is good in Platonic Heaven. No, because it only participates in the Form of Beauty. RATIONALE Plato's doctrine of the Forms states that the essences of all things, including beauty, exist in Platonic Heaven. Worldly objects are what they are because they participate in their corresponding Form. The Mona Lisa is a beautiful painting because it participates, or imitates, the Form of Beauty. It is not, in itself, beauty.5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 8/16 CONCEPT Applying Plato's Metaphysics 12 The value of the Socratic Method lies in showing students how to __________ on their own, rather than having it dictated to them. evaluate an opinion create an argument explain rhetoric gain knowledge RATIONALE The Socratic Method is a pedagogical method in which a teacher asks questions to which the student knows the answers, thereby leading him or her to the truth. The Method's value lies in showing students how to use what they know to gain additional knowledge. CONCEPT The Socratic Approach 13 Choose the example that best demonstrates a central tenet of Stoicism. Bob is such a rabid Cubs fan that it isn’t fun to watch a baseball game with him. Mr. Donovan insists that he begin each morning with pastry and a cup of sweet tea. Stephanie is a good nurse because she is skillful and always remains composed. Carlene is devastated when her outdoor party is interrupted by a thunderstorm.5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 9/16 RATIONALE Stoicism is a philosophy that encourages people to focus only on what they can control (e.g., their desires, emotions, and reactions). Because Stoicism focuses on eliminating desires, and emphasizes control of emotions, it leads people to perform their assigned jobs (or roles) skillfully and dispassionately. CONCEPT Stoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion 14 Lisa is considering whether it is morally permissible to eat meat. Which branch of philosophy can help her answer this question? Metaphysics Ethics Epistemology Cosmology RATIONALE Ethics is the branch of philosophy in which concepts of value (e.g., right and wrong are considered). In epistemology, concepts of knowledge are analyzed and defended. Metaphysics is concerned with discovering and describing the ultimate nature of reality, and cosmology is the study of the universe in its totality. CONCEPT What is Philosophy? 15 Water is a __________ condition for staying alive. Apply conceptual analysis to this statement and choose the answer that correctly describes the relationship. both necessary and sufficient5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 10/16 neither necessary nor sufficient sufficient, not necessary necessary, not sufficient RATIONALE Water is a logical requirement for staying alive, therefore it is a necessary condition. However, water is not a logical guarantee for staying alive, so it is not a sufficient condition. CONCEPT Plato: An academic approach to concepts 16 Which of the following statements about the atomistic worldview is FALSE? Philosophical atoms of different shapes and consistencies are the fundamental components of reality. The philosophical worldview of the early Greek atomists had great influence on philosophical, scientific, and religious thinking, but only for a brief period of time. Everything in the universe exists as a single atom, or a collection of atoms. The worldview of philosophical atomists, with some revisions, has been adopted by contemporary science. RATIONALE The philosophical worldview of the early Greek atomists has continued to have an impact throughout history. Atomism has been adopted and modified by contemporary science, and has had a lasting influence on religion and theology. CONCEPT The Atomistic Worldview 175/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 11/16 All teachers are robots. Cynthia is a teacher. Therefore, Cynthia is a robot. Evaluate the argument and select the option that describes it. Deductive, invalid, sound Inductive, weak, uncogent Inductive, strong, cogent Deductive, valid, unsound RATIONALE Because the inferential claim in this example is one of logical certainty, and is about definition and form rather than cause and effect, this is a deductive argument. Since a case in which the premises are true and the conclusion is false cannot exist, this argument is valid. However, this argument is unsound because the first premise is false: Not all teachers are robots. CONCEPT Evaluating an Argument in Action 18 “I view the world as a mathematical entity of perfect harmony.” Which ancient philosopher would most likely have made this statement? Protagoras Xenophanes Pythagoras5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 12/16 Anaxagoras RATIONALE Pythagoras was the Pre-Socratic philosopher who incorporated mathematics into his philosophical worldview. He saw the world as a mathematical entity of perfect harmony, and assigned significance to numbers that occur in nature. CONCEPT Cosmology and the First Philosophers 19 Which of the following is the most important tenet of Stoicism? To understand that reality is either good or bad To resist playing a role To let go of what we cannot control To feed our desires RATIONALE Stoicism is a philosophy that encourages us to focus only on what we can control (e.g., our desires, emotions, judgments, and reactions). We should not be upset by things that are beyond our control. Stoicism encourages us to reduce desire and to view reality as neither good nor bad. CONCEPT Stoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion 20 In the Apology, what does Socrates do when he is found guilty and sentenced to death? He asks Plato to record his life. He is willing to face death rather than violate the principles of his moral philosophy.5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 13/16 He tries to convince the jury to accept his defense. He agrees that his actions were immoral and that the decision of the judges is just. RATIONALE The Apology is Plato's transcription of the defense Socrates presented at his trial on charges of "denying the gods" and "corrupting the youth of Athens." When found guilty and sentenced to death, Socrates accepts his sentence. He argues that it is more important to live rightly, which he believes he has done, than to avoid death by compromising one's moral philosophy. CONCEPT The Apology: A Defense of Philosophy 21 Which of the following is NOT an example of Aristotle’s notion of hylomorphism? Bodily organs and a human being The soul and a human being A statue and a human being An unborn child and a human being RATIONALE Aristotle's notion of hylomorphism states that being is a relationship, a union of form and matter. All of the examples that signify relationships are cases of hylomorphism: bodily organs (matter) and human beings (form); an unborn child (matter) and a human being (form); human beings (matter) and the soul (form). There is no ontological relationship between a statue and a human being, so this is not an example of hylomorphism. CONCEPT Aristotle on What There Is 22 All of the following are central tenets of Aristotle’s ethics, EXCEPT:5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 14/16 Any virtue can become a vice. Something is good when it excels at its function. An action is evaluated based on how it informs character. Knowing the essence of a thing can justify a belief. RATIONALE Aristotelian ethics are concerned with topics which include determining what makes actions good or bad, and how to define virtue. According to Aristotelian ethics, it is important to know the essence of a thing, not because it can justify a belief, but because it determines function which, in turn, determines virtue or excellence. CONCEPT Aristotle's Highest Good 23 Which of the following statements about the metaphysical tenets of Plato’s Doctrine of the Forms is FALSE? The intellectual realm in which the Forms exist is unchanging and eternal. Plato’s Doctrine of the Forms grounds knowledge and being. Worldly objects imitate the more real, genuine Forms of objects. There is no knowledge because everything is in a state of transition and nothing is true. RATIONALE The statement that "There is no knowledge because everything is in a state of transition and nothing is true" is the opposite of Plato's metaphysical beliefs. His Doctrine of the Forms argues that all worldly objects are related to their essences (i.e., Forms), which are real, unchanging, perfect entities that exist in an intellectual realm called Platonic Heaven. The Forms provide the basis for all knowledge.5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 15/16 CONCEPT Plato Forms: The Foundations of Being 24 Heraclitus developed __________, which stated that all things change over time. the Philosophical Atom the Paradoxes of Zeno the Doctrine of Flux Parmenidean Theory RATIONALE Heraclitus developed the Doctrine of Flux, and defined flux as "continuous change." The doctrine maintains that everything is impermanent and in a constant state of change. CONCEPT Heraclitus and the Doctrine of Impermanence 25 Select the statement upon which Plato and Aristotle would disagree. Essences exist and are genuine entities. Truth is important above all else. Reasoning and logic are key to finding truth. Essences exist independently of the world. RATIONALE5/17/2020 Sophia :: Welcome https://phoenix.sophia.org/spcc/ancient-greek-philosophers/milestone_take_feedbacks/3059353 16/16 Plato and Aristotle agree on all of these points except for the statement that essences exist independently of the world. This was Plato's belief, but Aristotle believed that essences exist only within worldly objects, and nowhere else. CONCEPT Plato vs. Aristotle: The Mathematician or the Biologist © 2020 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a registered trademark of SOPHIA Learning, LLC. About Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use [Show More]

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