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Health Defined: Objectives for Promotion and PreventionEdelman: Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span, 8th Edition

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Health Defined: Objectives for Promotion and PreventionEdelman: Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span, 8th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which model of health is most likely used by a person who ... does not believe in preventive health care? a. Clinical model b. Role performance model c. Adaptive model d. Eudaimonistic model ANS: A The clinical model of health views the absence of signs and symptoms of disease as indicative of health. People who use this model wait until they are very sick to seek care. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: p. 3 2. A person with chronic back pain is cared for by her primary care provider as well as receives acupuncture. Which model of health does this person likely favor? a. Clinical model b. Role performance model c. Adaptive model d. Eudaimonistic model ANS: D The eudaimonistic model embodies the interaction and interrelationships among physical, social, psychological, and spiritual aspects of life and the environment in goal attainment and creating meaning in life. Practitioners who practice the clinical model may not be enough for someone who believes in the eudaimonistic model. Those who believe in the eudaimonistic model often look for alternative providers of care. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 3 3. A state of physical, mental, spiritual, and social functioning that realizes a person’s potential and is experienced within a developmental context is known as: a. growth and development. b. health. c. functioning. d. high-level wellness. ANS: B Health is defined as a state of physical, mental, spiritual, and social functioning that realizes a person’s potential and is experienced within a developmental context. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: p. 5 4. Which of the following best describes a client who has an illness? a. Someone who has well-controlled diabetes b. Someone with hypercholesterolemia c. Someone with a headache d. Someone with coronary artery disease without angina ANS: C Someone with a headache represents a person with an illness. An illness is made up of the subjective experience of the individual and the physical manifestation of disease. It can be described as a response characterized by a mismatch between a person’s needs and the resources available to meet those needs. A person can have a disease without feeling ill. The other choices represent disease. DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 6 5. Which US report is considered a landmark document in creating a global approach to health? a. The 1990 Health Objectives for the Nation: A Midcourse Review b. Healthy People 2020 c. Healthy People 2000 d. The U.S. Surgeon General Report ANS: C Healthy People 2000 and its Midcourse Review and 1995 Revisions were landmark documents in which a consortium of people representing national organizations worked with US Public Health Service officials to create a more global approach to health. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: p. 6 6. Which of the following represents a method of primary prevention? a. Informational session about healthy lifestyles b. Blood pressure screening c. Interventional cardiac catheterization d. Diagnostic cardiac catheterization ANS: A Primary prevention precedes disease or dysfunction. It includes health promotion and specific protection and encourages increased awareness; thus, education about healthy lifestyles fits this definition. Blood pressure screening does not prevent disease, but instead identifies it. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 11 7. Which of the following represents a method of secondary prevention? a. Self–breast examination education b. Yearly mammograms c. Chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer d. Complete mastectomy for breast cancer ANS: B Screening is secondary prevention because the principal goal of screenings is to identify individuals in an early, detectable stage of the disease process. A mammogram is a screening tool for breast cancer and thus is considered a method of secondary prevention. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 15 8. Which of the following represents a method of tertiary prevention? a. Drunk driving campaign b. Road blocks for drunk driving c. Emergency surgery for head trauma after a motor vehicle accident d. Physical and occupational therapy after a motor vehicle accident with head trauma ANS: D Physical therapy and occupational therapy are considered tertiary prevention. Tertiary prevention occurs when a defect or disability is permanent and irreversible. It involves minimizing the effect of disease and disability. The objective of tertiary prevention is to maximize remaining capacities. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 15 9. In reviewing a person’s medical claims, a nurse realizes that the individual with moderate persistent asthma has had several emergency department visits and is not on inhaled steroids as recommended by the NHLBI asthma management guidelines. The nurse discusses this with the person’s primary care provider. In this scenario, the nurse is acting as a(n): a. advocate. b. care manager. c. consultant. d. educator. ANS: B Care managers act to prevent duplication of service and reduce cost. Care managers base recommendation on reliable data sources such as evidence-based practices and protocols. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 15 10. During a home visit, a nurse assists an individual to complete an application for disability services. The nurse is acting as a(n): a. advocate. b. care manager. c. consultant. d. educator. ANS: A The advocacy role of the nurse helps individuals obtain what they are entitled to receive from the health care system, tries to make the system more responsive to individuals’ community needs, and assists individuals in developing skills to advocate for themselves. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 15 11. During a home visit, a nurse discusses the dangers of smoking with an individual. In this scenario the nurse is acting as a(n): a. advocate. b. care manager. c. consultant. d. educator. ANS: D Health education is a primary prevention technique available to avoid major causes of disease. Teaching can range from a chance remark to a planned lesson. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 16 12. A nurse is asked to provide an expert opinion about the development of an education program for newly diagnosed diabetics. In this scenario, the nurse is acting as a(n): a. advocate. b. care manager. c. consultant. d. educator. ANS: C Nurses with a specialized area of expertise provide education about health promotion and disease prevention to individuals and groups as consultants. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 16 13. A nurse is planning to deliver an educational program to individuals with diabetes. Which of the following should be the initial action taken by the nurse to ensure the success of the program? a. Assess the motivation level of the individuals b. Assess the knowledge level of the individuals c. Establish teacher-learner goals with the individuals d. Establish multiple teaching sessions with the individuals ANS: B Selection of the methods most likely to succeed involves the establishment of teacher-learner goals. Thus, the first step by the nurse should be establishment of goals. DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 16 14. The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individuals is known as: a. health-related quality of life. b. evidence-based practice. c. a Healthy People 2010 goal. d. the ecological model of health. ANS: B Evidence-based practice is defined as the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individuals. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: p. 16 15. Which research methodology should be used to address the question, “What is the difference in the infection rates between individuals who receive twice-a-day dressing changes versus once-a-day dressing changes?” a. Evidence-based practice research b. Qualitative research c. Quantitative research d. Clinical judgment research ANS: C Quantitative research studies describe situations, correlate different variables related to care, or test causal relationships among variables related to care. Evidence-based practice research and clinical judgment research are not research methodologies; they are used to answer clinical questions. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 16 16. The question, “What is the experience of teenagers who lose a sibling to cancer?” can best be answered by using which research methodology? a. Evidence-based practice research b. Qualitative research c. Quantitative research d. Clinical judgment research ANS: B Qualitative research studies describe phenomena or define the historical nature, cultural relevance, or philosophical basis of aspects of nursing care. Evidence-based practice research and clinical judgment research are not research methodologies; they are used to answer clinical questions. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 16 17. A nurse who uses findings from a randomized, controlled trial on the care of Foley catheters to change practice at an institution is practicing: a. evidence-based medicine. b. qualitative research. c. quantitative research. d. clinical judgment. ANS: A The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 16 18. Which of the following is most influenced by the social and economic environment of a community? a. Social health policies b. Quality of care c. Evidence-based practice d. Practice guidelines ANS: A Social policies concerning health are influenced by the social and economic environment of a population. Analysis of population trends and projections is necessary to help health professionals determine changing needs. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: p. 17 19. A major cause of death in the early twentieth century was: a. cancer. b. cerebrovascular disease. c. heart disease. d. infections. ANS: D Infections and acute disease were the major causes of death in the early part of the twentieth century. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: p. 17 20. A mainstay of therapy for the management of chronic diseases is: a. lifestyle changes. b. occupational and physical therapy. c. medications. d. surgery. ANS: A The application of complex technology is not only costly but contributes minimally to improvement of health. One needs to focus on the cause of disease. The needs of a person with chronic disease are related to and affected by the individual’s biochemical functioning, genetics, environment, and personal choices. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 17 [Show More]

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