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Brock Biology of Microorganisms (test bank): International Edition, 11th Edition/ Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11e (Madigan/Martinko)

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Brock Biology of Microorganisms (test bank): International Edition, 11th Edition/ Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11e (Madigan/Martinko) Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11e (Madigan/Martinko) Cha... pter 1: Microorganisms and Microbiology 1) Which statement is not true as a general rule? A) Microbial cells exist as single cells or in cell clusters. B) Microbial cells carry out their life processes independently. C) Microbial cells include both bacteria and viruses. D) Microbial cells exclude the cells of plants and animals. Answer: C 2) Basic microbiology can be used to A) probe the nature of life processes. B) study biochemical properties common to all cells. C) model our understanding of cell function in higher organisms. D) all of the above. Answer: D 3) Applied microbiology deals with problems in A) medicine. B) agriculture. C) industry. D) all of the above. Answer: D 4) The greatest source of biomass on Earth comes from A) prokaryotic cells. B) plants. C) animals. D) plants and animals together. Answer: A 5) The cell's genetic information is found in the A) cell membrane. B) nucleus or nucleoid. C) cytoplasm. D) none of the above. Answer: B 6) Because the cell communicates, exchanges materials with its environment, and undergoes change, it is called a(n) A) ancestral system. B) dynamic entity. C) closed system. D) nucleoid system. Answer: B 7) Changes in cellular characteristics are transmitted to offspring through the process of A) chemical signaling. B) reproductive initiative. C) evolution. D) none of the above. Answer: C 8) Catalysts involved in the acceleration of the rate of chemical reactions are called A) catalytic converters. B) growth agents. C) evolutionary molecules. D) enzymes. Answer: D 9) Regarding early life on Earth: A) Microbial life existed on Earth for billions of years before plant and animal life. B) Microbial life existed on Earth long before animals but has been around for about the same amount of time as plants. C) Microbial life, plant life, and animal life all appeared at about the same time. D) It is impossible to determine which type of life first appeared on Earth. Answer: A 10) Most prokaryotic cells reside A) on the Earth's surface. B) in the Earth's lakes, rivers, and oceans. C) in and on non-prokaryotic organisms (including humans and other animals). D) in the oceanic and terrestrial subsurfaces. Answer: D 11) The person who described the "wee animalcules" was A) Hooke. B) van Leeuwenhoek. C) Pasteur. D) Cohn. Answer: B 12) Fannie Hesse is credited with giving __________ the ideas for using agar as a solidifying agent. A) Pasteur B) Cohn C) Koch D) Winogradsky Answer: C 13) Which of the following is/are characteristic of cellular organisms? A) Metabolism B) Reproduction C) Communication D) All of the above Answer: D 14) Which of the following is not a major ecosystem? A) Aquatic B) Terrestrial C) Atmospheric D) Higher organisms, both plant and animal Answer: C 15) Which statement is true? A) Populations are assemblages of microbial communities. B) Microbial communities are assemblages of populations. C) Habitats are assemblages of microbial communities. D) Populations are assemblages of habitats. Answer: B 16) The export of U.S. beef to foreign markets was shut down in 2003 due to A) AIDS. B) smallpox. C) tuberculosis. D) mad cow disease. Answer: D 17) During a very scientifically productive period in his life, Pasteur developed vaccines for A) anthrax. B) fowl cholera. C) rabies. D) all of the above. Answer: D 18) The discovery of antibiotics and other important chemicals led to the field of A) industrial microbiology. B) agricultural microbiology. C) marine microbiology. D) aquatic microbiology. Answer: A 19) Microbial sterilization is used to A) decrease the possibility of contaminants growing in a culture. B) kill bacteria but not necessarily viruses or other microbes. C) kill all microbes in or on objects. D) clean a work area. Answer: C 20) Flat covered dishes used for growing microbes are most commonly called A) Petri dishes. B) baker dishes. C) sterilization plates. D) culture medium plates. Answer: A 21) Microbes playing a role in nitrogen fixation in plants live in __________ while those playing a role in the digestive tract of certain herbivores live in __________. A) rumens / nodules B) nodules / rumens C) nodules / fortrans D) fortrans / rumens Answer: B 22) Genetic engineering could best be described as A) the creating of life from non-life. B) the artificial manipulation of genes and their products. C) the treating of diseases with synthetic drugs. D) the expansion of the biomass to meet specific needs. Answer: B 23) The ultimate downfall of the theory of spontaneous generation was the result of work by A) Pasteur. B) Koch. C) Hooke. D) Leeuwenhoek. Answer: A 24) A Pasteur flask has a(n) A) swan neck to prevent air particles from getting into the main body of the flask. B) double neck so two substances may be added at the same time. C) secondary opening at the base to allow for drainage. D) inverted upper edge to prevent spillage while swirling. Answer: A 25) Koch's greatest accomplishment in the field of medical bacteriology was with A) Escherichia coli. B) Bacillus subtilis. C) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. D) Bacillus cereus. Answer: C 26) A pure culture A) is sterile. B) has only one type of organism growing in or on it. C) is made of a clearly defined chemical medium. D) was cultured for a certified stock culture. Answer: B 27) Beijerinck was the first to isolate A) many soil and aquatic microorganisms. B) certain aerobic nitrogen fixing bacteria. C) certain sulfate reducing bacteria. D) all of the above. Answer: D 28) Chemolithotrophy involves the A) oxidation of organic compounds. B) oxidation of inorganic compounds. C) reduction of organic compounds. D) metabolic autotrophy. Answer: B 29) Advances in immunology and medical microbiology are, most specifically, practical extensions of the work of A) Winogradsky. B) Leeuwenhoek. C) Lister. D) Koch. Answer: D 30) Microbial control in wastewater treatment plants would most logically be a part of A) microbial genetics. B) microbial ecology. C) microbial technology. D) bacterial energetics. Answer: B 31) Viruses that attack bacteria are known as A) bacterial consumers. B) bacteriophages. C) microphages. D) viroids. Answer: B 32) Without microorganisms, all higher life forms on Earth would cease to exist. Answer: TRUE 33) Most microorganisms are pathogenic. Answer: FALSE 34) All microorganisms require molecular oxygen to carry on life functions. Answer: FALSE 35) Metabolism is common to all living organisms. Answer: TRUE 36) According to our present understanding, each of the major domains has what is known as its own universal ancestor. Answer: FALSE 37) Microbiology as a distinct science did not develop until the eighteenth century. Answer: FALSE 38) The location in an environment where a population lives is the habitat. Answer: TRUE 39) Differentiation occurs only in multi-cellular organisms. Answer: FALSE 40) The study of nutrients that microorganisms require is known as microbial systematics. Answer: FALSE 41) Smallpox is a major killer in parts of the developing world. Answer: FALSE 42) Winogradsky worked with soil bacteria involved in cycling nitrogen and sulfur. Answer: TRUE 43) The four macromolecules common to all cells are: __________, __________, __________, and __________. Answer: protein / lipid / carbohydrate / nucleic acid (any order) 44) Our concept of what is alive is constrained by __________. Answer: what we can observe on Earth or deduce from the fossil record 45) The study of the physical and chemical structure of microorganisms would be a part of microbial __________. Answer: cytology 46) List three contributions of Ferdinand Cohn to the development of microbiology. Answer: Answers could possibly include: founding bacteriology as a separate science, studying Beggiatoa, discovering the genus Bacillus (along with its endospore formation and its life cycle), devising methods to prevent contamination, and founding a major scientific journal. 47) The process whereby microorganisms are used to help clean up pollution created by human activities is known as __________. Answer: bioremediation 48) An ecosystem could be defined as __________ along with their __________. Answer: living organisms / chemical and physical environments 49) The first and foremost instrument of the microbiologist is the __________. Answer: microscope 50) Robert Koch received the 1905 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for __________. Answer: his work with the tuberculosis bacterium 51) The disease anthrax is caused by the organism __________ which produces heatresistant structures known as __________. Answer: Bacillus anthracis / endospores 52) Microbial biochemistry involves the discovery of __________ and the __________. Answer: microbial enzymes / chemical reactions they carry out 53) Nucleic acid sequencing has allowed for the development of the field of __________ and the subdiscipline of __________. Answer: genomics / proteomics 54) Explain the nature and function of an enrichment culture. Answer: Answers will vary, but an enrichment culture uses media, chemicals or culture conditions to select for or enhance specific characteristics of an organism 55) Why is it incorrect to say an object is partially sterile? Answer: Answers will vary, but sterile means the absence of living organisms. Something is either sterile or it is not. 56) The microbes were first formally observed in the mid-1600s, but the cell theory wasn't enunciated until 1839. Write a brief essay explaining why microbiology did not become a formally recognized science until Pasteur's and Koch's time. 57) Compare and contrast the works of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch in terms of both applied and basic science. 58) Explain why microbial cells are excellent models for understanding cell function in higher organisms. Answer: Answers will vary but should include commonality of function, biochemical and genetic similarities, and ease and speed with which they can be grown in large quantities. 59) Compare and contrast the leading causes of death in 1900 with the leading causes of death today. What roles have microbiologists played in the dramatic changes which are evident? 60) Consider hypothetical disease X. How would Koch's postulates be used to demonstrate whether or not organism Y is the causative agent of disease X? 61) Explain how bacteria can be both beneficial and detrimental to the food industry. 62) Describe some of the essential functions which must be encoded by a "minimalist genome." Answer: Answers will vary, but should minimally include metabolism, reproduction, communication, and ability to evolve. Some answers may include differentiation and movement. Chapter 2: An Overview of Microbial Life 1) The presence of membrane-enclosed organelles is a characteristic of [Show More]

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