*NURSING > STUDY GUIDE > NR 341 Week 5 Exam Two Study Guide (Chapters 7, 12, 8, 11, 15) | (Cardiology, Cardiac electrophysiol (All)

NR 341 Week 5 Exam Two Study Guide (Chapters 7, 12, 8, 11, 15) | (Cardiology, Cardiac electrophysiology, junctional rhythm, Nursing Care, Rhythm analysis) | Download To Score An A

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NR 341 COMPLEX ADULT HEALTH Exam Two Chapters 7, 12, 8, 11, 15 This blueprint is not inclusive of all content which may be on the exam. Chapter 7 Dysrhythmia Interpretation and Management • Int... roduction • Overview of electrocardiogram monitoring • Cardiac physiology review o Cardiac electrophysiology o Autonomic nervous system • The 12-Lead electrocardiogram o Standard limb leads o Augmented limb leads o Precordial leads o Grouping of leads o Continuous cardiac monitoring o Skin preparation and lead placement • Basics of dysrhythmia analysis o Measurements o Waveforms and intervals ▪ P wave ▪ PR interval ▪ QRS complex ▪ QRS interval ▪ T wave ▪ ST segment ▪ QT interval ▪ U wave • Causes of dysrhythmias • Dysrhythmia analysis o Rate o Regularity o Measurement of PR, QRS, QT/QTc intervals o Shape or morphology of waveforms o Identification of underlying rhythm and any noted dysrhythmia o Patient tolerance of the rhythm and clinical implication of the rhythm • Basic dysrhythmias o Normal sinus rhythm ▪ Rhythm analysis o Dysrhythmias of the sinoatrial node ▪ Sinus tachycardia • Rhythm analysis ▪ Sinus bradycardia • Rhythm analysis ▪ Sinus arrhythmia • Rhythm analysis ▪ Sinus pauses • Sinus arrest • Sinus exit block • Rhythm analysis o Dysrhythmias of the atria ▪ Premature atrial contractions • Rhythm analysis ▪ Atrial tachycardia • Rhythm analysis ▪ Wandering atrial pacemaker • Rhythm analysis ▪ Multifocal atrial tachycardia • Rhythm analysis ▪ Atrial flutter • Rhythm analysis ▪ Atrial fibrillation • Rhythm analysis o Dysrhythmias of the atrioventricular node ▪ P-Wave changes ▪ Junctional escape rhythm • Rhythm analysis ▪ Accelerated junctional rhythm and junctional tachycardia • Rhythm analysis ▪ Premature junctional contractions • Rhythm analysis ▪ Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia • Rhythm analysis o Dysrhythmias of the ventricle ▪ Premature ventricular contractions • Rhythm analysis ▪ Ventricular tachycardia • Rhythm analysis ▪ Ventricular fibrillation • Rhythm analysis ▪ Idioventricular rhythm or ventricular escape rhythm • Rhythm analysis ▪ Asystole • Rhythm analysis o Atrioventricular blocks ▪ First-degree AV block • Rhythm analysis ▪ Second-Degree heart block • Second-degree AV block type I o Rhythm analysis • Second-degree AV block type II o Rhythm analysis ▪ Third-degree Block • Rhythm analysis • Cardiac pacemakers o Temporary pacemakers o Permanent pacemakers ▪ Terms for pacemaker function • Mode • Rate • Electrical output • Sensitivity • AV interval indicator ▪ Pacemaker rhythms ▪ Pacemaker malfunction • Failure to pace • Failure to capture • Failure to sense • Other devices with pacemaker capabilities Chapter 12 Cardiovascular Alterations • Introduction • Normal Structure and Function of the Heart o Autonomic Control o Coronary Circulation o Other Cardiac Functions o Heart Sounds o Heart Murmur • Coronary Artery Disease o Pathophysiology o Assessment ▪ Patient Assessment ▪ Diagnostic Studies • 12-lead ECG • Chest X-Ray • Holter Monitor • Exercise Tolerance Test • Pharmacological Stress Testing • Nuclear Stress Testing • Echocardiography • Transesophageal Echocardiography • Multigated Blood Pool Study • Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Cardiac Catheterization and Angiography • Electrophysiology Study ▪ Laboratory Diagnostics • Serum Electrolytes • Serum Enzymes o Nursing Diagnoses o Interventions ▪ Nursing Interventions ▪ Medical Management • Medications to Reduce Serum Lipid Levels • Medications to Prevent Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation ▪ Patient Outcomes • Angina o Pathophysiology o Types of Angina o Assessment ▪ Diagnostic Studies o Nursing Diagnoses o Interventions ▪ Nursing Interventions ▪ Medical Interventions o Outcomes • Acute Coronary Syndrome o Pathophysiology o Assessment ▪ Patient Assessment o Diagnosis ▪ Nursing Diagnoses o Complications o Medical Interventions ▪ Pain Relief • Nitrates ▪ Oxygen ▪ Antidysrhythmics ▪ Prevention of Platelet Aggregation ▪ Thrombolytic Therapy ▪ Percutaneous Coronary Intervention ▪ Facilitated Percutaneous Coronary Intervention ▪ Medications • Nitrates • Beta-Blockers • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors ▪ Novel Stem Cell Treatment o Outcomes • Interventional Cardiology o Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty ▪ Complications o Intracoronary Stent o Surgical Revascularization ▪ Coronary Artery Bypass Graft ▪ Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Surgery ▪ Management after Cardiac Surgery ▪ Complications of Cardiac Surgery • Mechanical Therapies o Transmyocardial Revascularization o Enhanced External Counterpulsation • Cardiac Dysrhythmias o Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation o Pacemakes o Defibrillators • Heart Failure o Pathophysiology o Assessment o Diagnosis ▪ Nursing Diagnoses o Interventions o Complications ▪ Pulmonary Edema ▪ Cardiogenic Shock • Pericarditis • Endocarditis • Vascular Alterations o Aortic Aneurysms ▪ Aortic Dissection o Nursing Assessment ▪ Diagnostic studies o Treatment Chapter 8 Hemodynamic Monitoring • Introduction • Review of anatomy and physiology o Cardiovascular system structure ▪ Heart ▪ Arteries ▪ Capillaries ▪ Veins ▪ Blood o Principles of physics o Components of cardiac output o Regulation of cardiovascular function o Effects of aging • Hemodynamic monitoring modalities o Noninvasive monitoring ▪ Noninvasive blood pressure ▪ Jugular venous pressure ▪ Lactate o Invasive hemodynamic monitoring ▪ Indications ▪ Equipment common to all intravascular monitoring ▪ nursing implications ▪ patient position ▪ zero referencing ▪ leveling the air-fluid interface ▪ dynamic response testing ▪ infection control o arterial pressure monitoring ▪ complications ▪ clinical considerations ▪ nursing implications o right atrial pressure/central venous pressure monitoring ▪ complications ▪ clinical consideration ▪ nursing implications o pulmonary artery pressure monitoring ▪ hemodynamic parameters monitored via the PA catheter ▪ clinical considerations ▪ nursing implications ▪ controversy surrounding the PA catheter o cardiac output monitoring ▪ thermodilution cardiac output ▪ continuous cardiac output o oxygen delivery and consumption • additional techniques and technologies o esophageal Doppler monitoring o pulse contour cardiac output monitoring o assessing effect of respiratory variation on hemodynamic parameters ▪ right atrial pressure variation ▪ systolic pressure variation ▪ arterial pulse pressure variation ▪ stroke volume variation Chapter 11 Shock, Sepsis, and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome • Introduction • Review of anatomy and physiology o Pathophysiology o Stages of shock ▪ Stage I: initiation ▪ State II: compensatory stage • Neural compensation • Endocrine compensation • Chemical compensation ▪ Stage III: progressive stage ▪ Stage IV: refractory stage o Systemic inflammatory response syndrome o Effects of aging • Assessment o Clinical presentation ▪ Central nervous system ▪ Cardiovascular system ▪ Respiratory system ▪ Renal system ▪ Gastrointestinal system ▪ Hematological system ▪ Integumentary system o Laboratory studies • Management o Maintenance of circulating blood volume and adequate hemoglobin level ▪ Intravenous access ▪ Fluid challenge ▪ Types of fluids o Maintenance of arterial oxygen saturation and ventilation o Pharmacological support ▪ Cardiac output ▪ Preload ▪ Afterload ▪ Contractility ▪ Other medications o Maintenance of body temperature o Nutritional support o Maintenance of skin integrity o Psychological support • Nursing diagnosis • Specific classifications of shock o Hypovolemic shock o Cardiogenic shock o Obstructive shock o Distributive shock ▪ Neurogenic shock ▪ Anaphylactic shock ▪ Septic shock • Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome • Patient outcomes Chapter 15: Acute Kidney Injury • Introduction • Review of Anatomy and Physiology o Regulation of Fluid and Electrolytes and Excretion of Waste Products o Regulation of Acid-Base Balance o Regulation of Blood Pressure o Effects of Aging • Pathophysiology of Acute Kidney Injury o Definition o Etiology ▪ Prerenal Causes of Acute Kidney Injury ▪ Postrenal Causes of Acute Kidney Injury ▪ Intrarenal causes of Acute Kidney Injury • Contrast-Induced Nephropathy o Course of Acute Kidney Injury o Initiation Phase o Maintenance Phase o Recovery Phase • Assessment o Patient History o Vital Signs o Physical Assessment o Evaluation of Laboratory Values • Diagnostic Procedures • Nursing Diagnoses nursing Interventions • Medical Management of Acute Kidney Injury o Prerenal Causes o Postrenal Causes o Intrarenal Causes: Acute Tubular Necrosis ▪ Pharmacological Management • Diuretics • Dopamine • N-Acetylcysteine • Fenoldopam • Miscellaneous Agents • Pharmacological Management Considerations ▪ Dietary Management ▪ Management of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalances • Fluid Imbalance • Electrolyte Imbalance • Acid-Base Imbalance ▪ Renal Replacement Therapy • Definition • Indications for Dialysis • Principles and Mechanisms • Vascular Access o Nursing Care of Arteriovenous Fistula or Graft o Nursing Care of Percutaneous Catheters • Hemodialysis o Complications o Nursing Care of the Patient • Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy o Indications o Principles • Anticoagulation o Nursing Care • Peritoneal Dialysis o Indications o Complications • Outcomes [Show More]

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