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Disaster Management Stanhope: Foundations for Population Health in Community/Public Health Nursing, 5th Edition,100% CORRECT

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Disaster Management Stanhope: Foundations for Population Health in Community/Public Health Nursing, 5th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following best defines a disaster? a. Any event... that results in multiple deaths b. Devastation that cannot be relieved without assistance c. Devastation that covers a broad geographic area d. When the event results in multiple injuries and deaths as well as property damage ANS: B A disaster is any human-made or natural event that causes disruption, destruction, or devastation that cannot be relieved without external assistance. A disaster does not need to involve injuries or deaths. The devastation may not cover a broad area, rather the main concept of the definition of a disaster is that it can not be relieved without assistance. 2. Which of the following best describes countries that bear the greatest burden of disasters? a. Arid regions that are prone to drought b. Developing countries with limited resources c. Industrialized countries with much to lose d. Water-boundary regions that are prone to floods and hurricanes ANS: B Disasters create the most devastation in developing countries. The people of low socioeconomic status suffer tNheUmRoSsIt bNeGcaTusBe.thCeiOr Mhouses are less sturdy and they have fewer resources and less means of social security. The climate and location of the country does not relate to its risk of bearing the burden of disasters. Industrialized countries have a higher socioeconomic status and can better address disasters if they occur. 3. What is the purpose of the National Response Framework? a. Create a new branch of government that deals with bioterrorism b. Establish a way for the Red Cross to carry out its mission c. Define roles, responsibilities, and relationships critical to effective emergency preparedness d. Extend presidential power to act quickly upon weapons of mass destruction ANS: C The National Response Framework, a successor to the National Response Plan, “helps define the roles, responsibilities, and relationships critical to effective emergency planning, preparedness, and response to any emergency or disaster.” The NRF serves as a guide for conducting a nationwide all-hazards response that is flexible and adaptable and that links all levels of the government with nongovernmental organizations and the private sector. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security was developed in 2002 to develop and coordinate the implementing of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from terrorist threats or attacks. Eventually, the NRF was developed within this department. The National Response Framework helps to provide a linkage for the Red Cross to other organizations, but does not assist with it carrying out its mission. The NRF does not change presidential power. 4. When does disaster management begin? a. Before the disaster occurs b. During the disaster c. Immediately following the disaster d. During the recovery period ANS: A Disaster management includes the four stages of a disaster: prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. The first stage of prevention (or mitigation) occurs before the disaster occurs. Disaster management that occurs during the disaster is called response. Recovery occurs following the disaster. 5. A nurse is focused on mitigation of disasters at the international level. Which of the following activities would the nurse most likely complete? a. Provide community educational programs and training on how to prepare for disasters. b. Request donations be sent to the affected area. c. Develop a notification procedure to be used by the international disaster relief office. d. Recruit volunteers to be a part of the disaster team that will travel to the afflicted area. ANS: A Mitigation refers to actions to prevent specific disasters from occurring or to reduce the severity of a disaster’s effects if it cannot be avoided. Providing community educational programs on disaster preparedness is the only intervention that addresses mitigation. Requesting donations be sent to the affected area occurs during the disaster and is known as the response. Developing a nNotUifRicaStiIonNpGrTocBed.uCreOwMould occur as part of the preparedness stage. Depending on the timing of the recruitment, this would be part of either the preparedness or response stage. 6. A nurse is employed by the American Red Cross and is frequently assigned to fly to a disaster zone. Which of the following should the nurse’s family members have readily available? a. Gloves, mask, and other personal protective equipment b. A copy of the nurse’s professional license c. A 5-day supply of water d. A disaster/emergency plan ANS: D The nurse and the nurse’s family are best protected by having the skills and knowledge to cope with a disaster, including details such as where families will reunite in the event of an emergency. The nurse should have his/her own copy of the professional license. It is recommended that a 3-day supply of water (1 gallon per person per day) be part of an emergency planning kit. Gloves, mask, and other personal protective equipment are recommended for the professional nurse to have available as an emergency supply. 7. A nurse is working with a community during the preparedness stage of disaster management. Which of the following events would the nurse anticipate occurring? a. Heightened inspection and increased security in the community b. Incorporation of provision of pets into local disaster plans c. Purchase of personal protective equipment for all citizens d. Assembly of disaster kits for the home, workplace, and car ANS: D Disaster kit assembly for the home, workplace, and car, especially by nurses, occurs during the preparedness phase. Heightened inspection and increased security is part of the mitigation phase. Individuals should make plans for the provision of their pets through their own personal disaster planning; this would not be part of the community disaster planning. It would not be appropriate or feasible for the nurse to purchase personal protective equipment for all citizens. 8. A community health nurse has invited several agencies in the community to a meeting to discuss the disaster plan for the community. Which of the following best describes the purpose of this meeting? a. To increase stability in the community b. To improve overall community functioning c. To manage response to disasters in the community d. To enhance communication among agencies in the community ANS: C The level of community preparedness for a disaster is only as good as the people and organizations in the community make it. Although natural disasters cannot be prevented, much can be done to minimize further increases in accidents, death, and destruction after impact. A concise, realistic, and well-rehearsed disaster plan is essential for managing the response to disaster. Open, clear, and ongoing communication among involved workers and organizations is critical. A disaster planning meeting among community agencies would not impact the stability or functioning of the community. The communication among the agencies that are present may be improved; however, the group is meeting for a specific purpose so the overall communication may NnoUt RchSanIgNe,GaTndBt.heCreOmMay be agencies that are not represented at the meeting. 9. The local hospital, health department, and university together planned and implemented a mock casualty drill, with the university’s theater and nursing students playing the injured victims. After the drill, which of the following would the nursing students most likely complete? a. Volunteer as leaders in the next casualty drill b. Evaluate the drill and offer recommendations for more effectiveness in the future c. Recognize how to respond to a real disaster in the future d. Write a report on their actions and how they felt during the drill ANS: B The nursing students should be prepared to offer a critique of the drill performance and suggest improvements for the next drill—or for an actual disaster. It would be unlikley that the students would be volunteers at the next drill as typically the agencies involved with disaster management are the ones who are coordinating and leading these activities. It is unknown if the student will ever be in the same type of disaster as what they completed the drill for, so their involvement may not change their response in the future. Writing a report and talking about feelings would not be helpful for the agencies to learn what they can do differently if an actual disaster was to occur. 10. Which of the following organizations would direct nurses’ response to a countywide disaster? a. American Red Cross b. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention c. Emergency Management Agency d. The local public health department ANS: C The first level of disaster response occurs at the local level with the mobilization of responders such as the fire department, law enforcement, public health, and emergency services. If the disaster stretches local resources, the county or city emergency management agency (EMA) will coordinate activities through an emergency operations center (EOC). Generally, local responders within a county sign a regional or statewide mutual aid agreement to allow the sharing of needed personnel, equipment, services, and supplies. The American Red Cross may assist with disaster relief efforts, but this would not be the agency that would direct the response by nurses. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a national agency and would most likely not be involved with a county-wide disaster. The local public health department may be involved in responding to the disaster, but this would not be the organization that is responsible for leading the response. 11. A nurse is attempting to minimize damage following a bioterrorism attack in the community. Which of the following would be the most crucial aspect for the nurse to consider? a. Detecting an increase in people with similar signs and symptoms b. Identifying typical chemical or biological agents c. Identifying factors that put people at risk d. Recognizing areas of vulnerability within an area ANS: A An unannounced dissemination of a biological agent may easily go unnoticed, and the victims may have left the area of exposure long before the act of terrorism is recognized. Therefore, the first and most important aNspUeRctSisIrNecGoTgnBiz.inCgOthMat an outbreak has occurred by noting the increase in people presenting with similar signs and symptoms. After the similar signs and symptoms have been detected, the next step is striving to identify the biological or chemical agent. Then the nurse will identify factors that place people at risk, implement measures to control the outbreak, and finally, inform the medical and public communities about treatments, health consequences and preventive measures. 12. Which of the following older adults is most in need of psychological support? a. The older adult who keeps asking if loans will be available for him to rebuild b. The older adult who keeps asking if he can go back home yet c. The older adult who keeps lamenting the loss of his family photos d. The older adult who keeps talking about how expensive his home theater was and how he will never be able to afford to replace it ANS: C Older adults react deeply to the loss of personal possessions because of the high sentimental value attached to the items. Family photos are a part of family history and are not replaceable. This type of a loss warrants psychological support. Homes and electronic equipment can be replaced, so the older adult may be able to eventally access loans to rebuild his home and replace his equipment. Because these things are replaceable, it is likely that that the older adult will be able to better cope with these losses than with something that is irreplaceable. Depending on the loss of the older adult, he/she may have a need for relocation rather than returning home. 13. A community is experiencing the Honeymoon phase following a disaster. Which of the following is most likely to occur in the community? a. First responders work tirelessly to save others b. Survivors share their stories c. Medical personnel experience exhaustion d. Community organizations rebuild the community ANS: B During the Honeymoon phase, survivors rejoice for their survival and may share their experiences and stories. First responders work tirelessly to save others during the Heroic Phase. Medical personnel experience exhaustion during the Disillusionment Phase. The community begins to rebuild during the Reconstruction Phase. 14. A nurse was the first on the scene of a disaster and saw people with injuries ranging from minor to serious. Some of those with minor injuries were helping others. Which of the following injured persons would the nurse assist first? a. Those with life-threatening head and chest injuries b. Those who have life-threatening abdominal injuries c. Those who have serious injuries of limbs d. Those who are hurt but still mobile and functioning ANS: B Triage is the process of separating casualties and allocating treatment on the basis of the victims’ potentials for survival. The nurse will determine how seriously hurt individuals are and who should get care first, with the first priority being those who have life-threatening injuries but will probably survive if treated quickly. Although the textbook does not address the issue, because of the limited resources in a disaster situation and the fact that only the nurse is currently available toNgUivReScIarNe,GseTriBou.sClyOhMurt individuals with head or chest injuries that have only a small chance of surviving are not treated. Those who do not have life-threatening injuries and are mobile and functioning are not given priority during the triage process. 15. A nurse is assessing persons arriving at a shelter following a disaster. Which of the following would be the first action the nurse should take? a. Limit the amount of equipment and medications brought into the shelter. b. Determine if the person has a psychological condition requiring special attention. c. Assess if this type of facility is appropriate for the person. d. Provide medical care for persons as if they were in a hospital. ANS: C Any person who comes to a special needs shelter must be assessed by a nurse to determine whether this type of facility is appropriate. After it has been determined if the facility is appropriate for these people, the nurse can work with them as needed to limit equipment if there is limited space. Assessment of the physical concerns of the people, not the psychological conditions, should be the priamry concern of the nurse. The nurse would not be providing medical care at the shelter, rather, the nurse would provide assessments, referrals, assist the client to meet health care needs, keep client records, ensure emergency communications, and provide a safe environment. 16. A nurse learns about a huge disaster a few states away. Which of the following actions by the nurse would be most helpful in this situation? a. Donating to any charity that is assisting the victims b. Driving over to the area and volunteering to assist c. Sending clothes and food to the area for distribution d. Training to become a Red Cross disaster volunteer ANS: D Disaster workers must know what kinds of populations they are attempting to assist. Thus, formal training related to disaster management and response would be important for the nurse to complete. Without having formal training and having official sponsorship, volunteers may not be able to be used. Lack of information or inaccurate information regarding the scope of the disaster and its initial effects can contribute to the misuse of resources. Often too many volunteers who lack official sponsorship convene at the site of disaster and are disappointed when their help cannot be used. Similarly, well-meaning people may send clothes and food to disaster sites. The unneeded contributions of food and clothing add to the stress of coping with the disaster, particularly if refrigeration and storage are not available. Although contributing to an organization like the American Red Cross is to be encouraged and commended, many fraudulent scam charities may pop up claiming to collect funds for the victims. 17. On the second day after a disaster, a male colleague tells the nurse he has a splitting headache. The nurse notes the colleague is feeling irritable and having difficulty focusing. Which of the following actions should the nurse take in response to the complaint of headache? a. Explain that the headache and problems focusing are probably the result of worry, so he should concentrate on the work at hand and deal with emotions later. b. Explain that he is experiencing signs and symptoms of psychological stress and recommend that he take some time off for a break. c. Explain to the worker thaNt thRis isIa coGmmBo.nCproMblem when multitasking under pressure and suggest that he focus on one task at a time. d. Suspect dehydration and encourage the worker to drink more fluids. ANS: B Symptoms of early stress and burnout include minor tremors, nausea, inability to concentrate, difficulty thinking, and problems with memory. Suppressing feelings of guilt, powerlessness, anger, and other signs of stress eventually will lead to symptoms such as irritability, fatigue, headaches, and distortions of bodily functions. It is normal to experience stress, but it must be addressed. The worst thing anyone can do is to deny that it exists. The American Red Cross recommends that the worker get enough sleep and take time away from the disaster (i.e., take breaks). The colleague should deal with his emotions now and not put them off to deal with later. The symptoms that are described relate to early stress and burnout, thus, not multi-tasking or drinking more water are probably not going to help relieve his symptoms. 18. A nurse, after working 2 weeks at the site of the largest natural disaster to hit the United States, returns home. Which of the following behaviors would suggest the nurse needs professional assistance? a. The nurse becomes angry when family members quit listening to her ongoing stories about the disaster and the problems there. b. The nurse gives a presentation at the local college about the disaster and describes how health professionals were able to assist the victims who were injured. c. The nurse is moody and feels family demands are not really as important as the other members of her family think they are. d. The nurse is very exhausted and asks to have 3 personal days off from employment responsibilities. ANS: A The fact that the nurse needs to continue to ventilate about the disaster, even after the family has quit listening, would suggest a delayed stress reaction that is not resolving and therefore warrants professional intervention. The nurse presenting at a college about the disaster demonstrates that the nurse is able to engage in conversations about the disaster after it has occurred. It is understandable that the nurse would return exhausted and moody. Indeed, concerns of major importance to family members may seem trivial when compared with problems the disaster victims were confronting. 19. After a house fire, a 4-year-old child begins sucking his thumb and wetting his bed. Which of the following would be the most appropriate action for the nurse to take? a. Explain to the child that it is important to be strong and not act like a baby. b. Explain to the family that this behavior is a normal reaction to disaster. c. Recommend admission for inpatient psychological counseling. d. Recommend behavior therapy as a means to overcome regression. ANS: B The effects on young children can be especially disruptive. They can resort to regressive behaviors such as sucking their thumbs, wetting their beds, crying, and clinging to parents. This regression is normal in response to the event. Regression is a normal response; thus, it is not necessary to recommend psychological counseling or behavior therapy. It would not be appropriate to explain to a 4-year old child that he/she should be “strong”. 20. Which of the following levels of prevention is being used by a nurse who is helping to develop a community-wide dNisUasRteSr ImNanGagTeBm.enCt OplMan? a. Primary prevention b. Secondary prevention c. Tertiary prevention d. All prevention levels ANS: A Primary prevention takes place before a condition occurs. Primary prevention occurs when one participates in developing a disaster management plan for the community. Secondary prevention occurs with at risk populations and is aimed at early diagnosis and treatment. Tertiary prevention occurs after a problem has already been detected or diagnoses. The development of a plan only addresses primary prevention, not the other levels described. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Which of the following disasters would implement disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs)? (Select all that apply.) a. Disaster that covers a broad geographic area b. Disaster that is beyond the coping capabilities of the affected state c. Disaster that may result in substantial health and medical problems d. Disaster that may cause a large number of deaths and/or injuries ANS: B, C, D A presidentially declared disaster is one that requires implementation of disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) because the disaster exceeds the capabilities of the involved state(s) to provide a timely and effective response. Such a disaster has the potential to cause a substantial number of deaths or injuries; substantial health and medical problems; or significant damage to the economic and physical infrastructure. The disaster may not cover a broad geographic area. The criteria for use of DMATs is that the disaster exceeds the capabilities of the involved state to provide a timely and effective response. This could occur in a small geographic area. NURSINGTB.COM [Show More]

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