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The Changing U.S. Health and Public Health Care Systems Stanhope: Foundations for Population Health in Community/Public Health Nursing, 5th Edition,100% CORRECT

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The Changing U.S. Health and Public Health Care Systems Stanhope: Foundations for Population Health in Community/Public Health Nursing, 5th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A public health agency is... planning to implement the electronic health record. Which of the following is a benefit of this choice? a. Facilitation of interprofessional care b. Improved client compliance with medical regimens c. Cost savings to the agency d. Compliance with JCAHO standards ANS: A The electronic medical record facilitates interprofessional care in chronic disease management and coordination of referrals; 24-hour availability of records with downloaded laboratory results and up-to-date assessments; incorporation of protocol reminders for prevention, screening, and management of chronic disease; improvement of quality measurement and monitoring; increased client safety; and decline in medication errors. There is not evidence that an electronic health record improves client compliance with medical regimens. Electronic health records can increase costs to an agency. JCAHO does not accredit public health agencies. 2. Which of the following best describes the cost of health care in the United States? a. Health care costs are kept low, and the indicators of health are among the best worldwide. NURSINGTB.COM b. Health care costs are low which has resulted in poor health outcomes. c. Health care costs are the highest in the world, but the indicators of health are not the best worldwide. d. Health care costs and indicators of health are the highest in the world. ANS: C Health care costs in the United States are the highest in the world and comprise the greatest percentage of the gross domestic product, the indicators of what constitutes good health do not document that Americans are really getting their money’s worth. Health care costs are not low in comparison to the rest of the world. The health outcomes in the United States are poor in comparison to other countries who spend less money on health care. 3. A nurse is explaining the health care system in the United States to a group of physicians visiting from South America. How would the nurse best describe the current health care system? a. “It is a logical, rational approach to meeting expressed needs while still trying to control costs.” b. “It is a centralized system that provides care in hospitals.” c. “It is divided primarily into two components: private health care and public health care.” d. “It is the best in the world with outstanding research and high-technology care available to all.” ANS: C Health care in the United States consists of a private or personal care system and a public health system, with overlap between the two. The United States health care system is one of the most expensive systems in the world that does not do a good job at controlling costs. Care is provided through an enormous range of facilies and providers, including hosptials, physicians’ and dentists’ offices, nursing homes, mental health facilities, ambulatory care centers, and freestanding clincis. Although there is great research and high-technology care in the United States, the health care outcomes of the country do not reflect this. Health care disparities exist among multiple populations making this system not available to all. 4. Which of the following best describes ideal primary health care? a. Based on a multidisciplinary group of health care providers that work as a team b. Essential care available to all community members, which encourages self-management c. Focused on health promotion and disease prevention for everyone enrolled in the health center d. Local efforts to meet the Declaration of Alma Ata principles ANS: B Primary health care is generally defined as essential care made universally accessible to individuals, families, and the community. Health care is made available to them with their full participation and is provided at a cost that the community and country can afford. Public health is described as organized and multidisciplinary efforts aimed at preventing disease and promoting health, not primary care. Primary care provides for the integration of health promotion, disease prevention, with curative and rehabilitative services. The Declaration of Alma Ata was aimed at a world-wide, not local goal, to attain a level of health that permitted all citizens of the world to live socially and economically productive lives. N R I G B.C M 5. How does managed care attempt to control costs of care? a. By encouraging families to use the point of service list of individual practice associates b. By requiring families to choose a care provider from the MC network and not allowing access to other services without their provider’s permission c. By moving Medicaid-eligible families onto state Medicare enrollment d. By refusing permission for families to use urgent care or emergency department services ANS: B Managed care is a system in which care is delivered by a specific network of providers. Each provider serves as a gatekeeper who controls access to other providers and services. Cost is reduced because members cannot use specialists or seek hospital or other care without permission from their primary-care providers. Thus, those enrolled in Medicaid managed care have restrictions that help keep costs down for government (and for taxpayers). Managed care provides care through a specific network of providers who agree to comply with the care approaches established through a case management approcah, not through a point of service list of individual practice associates. Medicaid and Medicare programs are not interchangeable, these programs serve different populations. Managed care does not refuse permission for certain services such as urgent care or emergency department, rather a case management approach is used to control costs. 6. An 80-year-old woman comes to the community health care facility with a large bag of medications. She tells the nurse she can no longer afford these medications because her only income is Social Security. Which statement is the best response by the nurse? a. “Let’s go through these medications and see which ones we can delete.” b. “You can get these medicines at this clinic for free.” c. “Let’s see if we can get some help from Medicare to help you pay for these medications.” d. “These medications are important. Do your best to pay for them.” ANS: C This elderly patient probably is eligible for benefits through Medicare Part D. Medicare Part D has been added to Medicare to help cover the cost of prescriptions. The role of the nurse would not be to delete medications for the patient or to tell the patient to figure it out on her own. Because of the age of the patient, the nurse should see if options exist under the Medicare system before looking into receiving the medications for free as there may be other barriers which limit the abilities to get these medications at a discounted cost. 7. A nurse is determining which health care services must be offered at a local public health clinic. Which of the following factors is most important for the nurse to consider? a. Data available from the most recent community assessment b. Suggestions from community members about what is needed c. Recommendations from Healthy People 2020 d. Services mandated by the state government ANS: D At the local level, health departments provide care that is mandated by state and federal regulations. Data available from the most recent community assessment, suggestions from community members about nNeeUdR, aSnId NreGcoTmBm.eCndOatMions from Healthy People 2020 could all be used. However, funding for these types of programs may not be available. The services that are mandated by the state government will be funded and allow the clinic to be able to provide these services. 8. A public health nurse is working with a low-income population in Massachusetts. Which of the following assumptions can the nurse make about this population? a. They have difficulty accessing health care due to a shortage of primary-care providers. b. They most likely receive health insurance through Medicare. c. They are unable to access health care due to the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. d. They have access to affordable health care insurance. ANS: D Massachusetts began an experiment in health reform in 2006. Two years after health reform legislation became effective, only 2.6% were uninsured, the lowest percentage ever recorded in any state. The shortage of primary care providers is not significantly different in Massachusetts than in other areas of the country. Low income populations are eligible for Medicaid services, not Medicare. The program in Massachusetts became a model for the Affordable Care Act. 9. A public health nurse is working with a client who does not have health insurance. Where will the nurse most likely direct the client to in order to receive care? a. Managed care b. Community health center c. Emergency department d. Physician office ANS: B There is a safety net for the uninsured or underinsured. These are the federally funded community health centers which provide a broad range of health and social services, using nurse practitioners and RNs, physician assistants, physicians, social workers, and dentists. Community health centers serve primarily in medically underserved areas which can be rural or urban as well as people of all ages, races, and ethnicities, with or without health insurance. Managed care is a system in which care is delivered by a specific network of providers who agree to comply with the care approach, not a place to refer a client without health insurance. Emergency departments and physician offices are not the best place for an individual without health insurance to receive care. Both are expensive and do not provide the necessary resources for the individual to possibly receive health insurance. 10. Which of the following best describes why local, state, and federal governmental agencies have started to cooperate and collaborate more closely in the last few years? a. Increased administrative pressures to demonstrate outcomes b. Increased focus on emergency preparedness and response c. Increased taxpayers’ complaints and general unhappiness d. Increased pressure to decrease overlap in services ANS: B Since the tragedy of September 11, 2001, health departments have increasingly focused on emergency preparedness and response. In case of an emergency event, state and local health departments in the affected aNreUa RwSillIbNe GexTpBec.teCd OtoMcollect data and accurately report the situation, to respond appropriately to any type of emergency, and to ensure the safety of the residents of the immediate area, while protecting those just outside the danger zone. This goal—to enable public health agencies to anticipate, prepare for, recognize, and respond to terrorist threats or natural disasters—has required an unprecedented level of interstate and federal-local planning and cooperation among these agencies. Demonstrating outcomes and decreasing overlap of services are both important factors to consider, however, this is not the reason why increased collaboration has occurred. There has not been an increase in taxpayer complaints or unhappiness that has caused these changes to occur. 11. African American females have a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than white females. This is an example of: a. projection. b. disparity. c. racism. d. a sentinel event. ANS: B Disparities are racial or ethnic differences in the quality of health care, not based on access or clinical needs, preferences, or appropriateness of an intervention. Projection is an estimate or forecast of a future situation based on current trends. Racism is a prejudice that exists against someone of a different race based on the belief that ones own race is superior. A sentinel event is an unanticipated event in health care that results in death or serious injury to the patient. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. A public health agency is in the process of obtaining accreditation. Which of the following best describes why the agency would want to achieve accreditation? (Select all that apply.) a. To improve health programming and services b. To improve community relationships c. To improve performance and quality d. To improve management ANS: B, C, D The purpose of accreditation for public health departments is to assist and identify quality health department performance and quality, and it develops leadership, improve management, and improve community relationships. The improvement of health care programming and services is not a reason why a public health agency would want to achieve accreditation. 2. What do demographic figures suggest about the ways in which the population of the United States is changing? (Select all that apply.) a. Foreign-born immigrant population is increasing. b. Hispanics are the largest minority group population. c. Leading causes of death are from infectious diseases. d. Mortality for both genders in all age groups declined. ANS: A, B, D The nation’s foreign-born population is growing, and it is projected that from now until 2050 the largest population growth will be due to immigrants and their children. Although African Americans used to be the largest minority group, Hispanics now have that distinction. The population of the United StatesUconStinuNes Tto increOase, and mortality for both genders from all age groups has declined. The leading causes of death have changed from infectious diseases to chronic and degenerative diseases. 3. Which of the following statements are accurate descriptions of current social and economic trends in the United States? (Select all that apply.) a. Citizens are appreciating the quality of life enjoyed in the United States. b. Enjoying life is not as important as the need to take care of oneself. c. People often spend a considerable amount of their own money on complementary therapies. d. The gap between the richest and poorest is widening. ANS: A, C, D Several social trends that influence health care include changing lifestyles, a growing appreciation of the quality of life, the changing composition of families and living patterns, changing household incomes, and a revised definition of quality health care. People often spend a considerable amount of their own money for these types of therapies because few are covered by insurance. It is obvious that the gap between the richest and poorest is widening because of the percent wage increase in the higher income levels. Americans spend considerable money on health care, nutrition, and fitness, because health is seen as an irreplaceable commodity. To be healthy, people must take care of themselves. 4. Which of the following provides evidence that the US health care system is in crisis? (Select all that apply.) a. Health insurance is an expensive benefit for employers to provide. b. Incompetent or negligent nurses are an ongoing source of medical errors. c. Long work hours and provider fatigue are a major factor in medical errors. d. More punitive measures must be taken to decrease provider errors. ANS: A, C Employers are typically the purchasers of health care; they want to be able to obtain basic health care plans at reasonable costs for their employees. Many employers have seen their profits diminish as they put more money into providing adequate health care coverage for employees. Nurses working long hours pose a serious threat to patient safety because fatigue slows reaction time, saps energy, and diminishes attention to detail. The Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) report To Err Is Human recommends that we stop blaming and punishing individuals for errors and instead begin identifying and correcting system failures by designing safety into the process of care. The report makes it clear that the majority of medical errors today were not produced by provider negligence, lack of education, or lack of training. 5. A nurse is working at a state health department. Which of the following duties would most likely be completed in this setting? (Select all that apply.) a. Administering the Medicaid program b. Assessing the health needs of the state’s citizens c. Employing and supervising school health nurses d. Establishing and maintaining child immunization clinics ANS: A, B N R I G B.C M State health departments try toUpreSventNandTresponOd to infectious disease outbreaks. They also are responsible for health care financing and administering Medicaid, providing mental health and professional education, establishing health codes, licensing facilities and personnel, and regulating the insurance industry. State health departments also give direct assistance to local health departments in areas such as ongoing assessment of health needs. Employing and supervising school health nurses occurs at the local level, and many times within a specific school. Provision of child immunization clinics occurs at the local level. [Show More]

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