PHI445 Sophia: Final Milestone_ Fall 2021 possible consequences MILESTONE moral law reason 2 Select the statement that reveals upbringing as a source of bias in ethical evaluatio... n. I scold a student for allowing his parents to help with an assignment, but I help my own child when I believe the work is too hard for her. I never talk back to the teacher because, as a child, my parents taught me to respect educators. I call myself a conservative, but I vote for liberal candidates when their policies benefit me financially. I ride the packed subway in New York City all the time, but it seems rude to me when I see people in Japan crowd onto full trains. 3 Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy? Philosophy more easily explains social problems. Philosophy harnesses passion to reveal truths. Philosophy makes everyone's opinion equal. Philosophy improves critical thinking skills. 4 "Abortion is acceptable if the woman doesn't want to be a mother." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? Utilitarianism Kantian deontology Egoism Conventionalism 5 The ethical position that evaluates the morality of an action solely on the results of that action is . character ethics consequentialism deontology divine command theory 6 Which of the following represents act utilitarianism? Patty looks out for her family because she believes it's her duty. Percy rescues a stranger from a burning car because he would do that for anyone. Penelope works because she needs money for rent and food. Pierre bikes to work because he believes in not wasting gas. 7 Which of the following statements supports egoism? The rule of law motivates actions for individuals. Ethical standards are easily upheld when they benefit others. A flourishing society requires flourishing individuals. A society is more just if it enforces laws for the benefit of everyone. 8 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? God says to love him above all else, a fact of which my mother often reminds me. God forbids wearing mixed fibers, but most people aren't concerned with what their clothes are made of. God commands people to be generous, so I give 10% of my paycheck to an organization that helps at- risk youth in my community. God says to support the poor, so there are a lot of religious charities. 9 "Giving away excess wealth is obligatory because it brings about a greater good for all of society." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? Utilitarianism Divine command theory Virtue-based ethics Conventionalism 10 Which of the following considerations is ethically relevant to a person who's buying a new car? Will this car keep my family and me safe on the road? Will driving this car make people think I'm having a midlife crisis? Can I afford a new car, or do I have to buy used? Does a convertible make sense in my city's climate zone? 11 Which of the following statements displays the speaker's unfair bias? "We're accepting Kim to our college because her extracurricular involvements are impressive." "We're accepting Kim to our college because she has a 4.0 GPA." "We're accepting Kim to our college because her goals align with our school's values." "We're accepting Kim to our college because her parents are big donors." 12 On which of the following statements would a hedonic utilitarian and an idealist utilitarian disagree? Consequences are the only important consideration. Some goods are preferable to others. Some goods can be compared. Some goods can't be directly compared. 13 Consider the following argument: (1) I should get a raise (2) because I complete all my projects prior to the deadline, (3) I arrive at work early and stay late, (4) and I always receive positive comments on my work. Which of the four numbered statements is the conclusion? 2 3 1 4 14 Which of the following is an advantage of divine command theory? Divine command theory is often associated with motivations for being moral. Divine command theory is about personal development. Divine command theory prioritizes intent over outcome. Divine command theory aims to satisfy personal needs. 15 Which of the following is a philosophical question? On average, how many babies are born a day? What is the average top speed of a cheetah? How do we define what counts as art? Would you rather see a movie or a play? 16 Which of the following actions represents the step, "Identify positions on the question"? A medical student asks a professor whether a certain drug is effective against the flu. An undergraduate argues that funding for school-sponsored clubs should be based on the number of active members. A law student weighs arguments on the interpretation of a particular law against decisions from the Supreme Court. A graduate student spends several hours in the library reading books on a particular ethical issue. 17 According to Kantian deontology, which of the following would make an act permissible? It is approved by a majority of people. It is legal in this place. It is done with good intent. It brings about the greatest good for the most people. 18 Why is utilitarianism an objectivist or relativist theory? Utilitarianism is relative because the good is proportionate to the individual’s intention. Utilitarianism is objectivist because all people should consider their own happiness first. Utilitarianism is relative because what is best for the individual may differ from societal norms. Utilitarianism is objectivist because although people might act in different ways, they all have one goal: to maximize utility. 19 Choose the true statement about virtue-based ethics. According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, actions are less important than the agent's moral character. According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, only the actor’s intent is considered when assigning moral value. According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, people can be judged by the consequences of their actions. According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, actions are judged against the greater good. 20 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? A lot of cultures agree that murder, stealing, and lying are wrong. Each culture thinks its own moral framework is universal. Some cultures are utilitarian, while others are egoist. Many cultures disagree on the ultimate purpose of morality. 21 An argument is valid, and its premises are true. Which of the following terms best describes the argument? Sound Cogent Unsound Uncogent 22 Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist? "Conventionalists profess belief in objective morality." "Conventionalism is a loose term that applies to many individual theories." "Conventionalism is rooted in the idea that all cultures strive toward the same good." "Conventionalism provides a framework for comparing diverse cultures." 23 I can change the lives of three foster children by adopting them and giving them a safe and stable home. If I adopt them, I must ask my 18-year-old son to move out because there isn't enough room in the house for everyone. What is a problem with applying utilitarianism to this scenario? Utilitarianism says I should adopt the foster children because that will make me the happiest. Utilitarianism says I should adopt the three foster children, even though my son still relies on me for food and shelter. Utilitarianism says I cannot adopt the foster children because my son's happiness is equal to theirs. Utilitarianism says I have to make my decision based on finding another home for my son. 24 Which of the following scenarios would be neutral for an egoist? Larry refuses to participate in his neighborhood watch because it takes too much of his time and energy. Leah has a hard time deciding between the University of Minnesota and Notre Dame, but she picks Notre Dame in the end. Lamar lies about having done his homework so that he won't get in trouble with his parents. Luna joins the armed forces so she can give something back to her nation and guarantee a future for her society. 25 Which of the following is a weak inductive argument? Most nurses are good people. Andrew is a nurse. Andrew is probably a good person. Krista's favorite composer is Tchaikovsky. Jason also likes Tchaikovsky. Jason and Krista probably have a lot in common. People who like wine think they're a big deal. Aaron thinks he's a big deal, so he must like wine. Things that are blue are sad. The sky is blue, so it must be sad. [Show More]
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