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NURSING NCLEX Module 5 Exam Questions and Answers,100% CORRECT

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NURSING NCLEX Module 5 Exam Questions and Answers Module 5 Exam Questions 1. 1.ID: 327498249 A client with leukemia is being considered for a bone marrow transplant. The healthcare team is discu... ssing the risks and benefits of this treatment and other possible treatments with the goal of inflicting the least possible harm on the client. Which principle of healthcare ethics is the team practicing? A. Justice B. Fidelity C. Autonomy D. Nonmaleficence Correct Rationale: Nonmaleficence is the avoidance of hurt or harm. Remember that in healthcare ethics, ethical practice involves not only the will to do good but also the equal commitment to do no harm. Healthcare professionals try to balance the risks and benefits of a plan of care while striving to do the least possible harm. Justice refers to fairness and equity and ensuring fair allocation of resources, such as nursing care for all clients. Fidelity is the keeping of promises made to clients, families, and other healthcare professionals. Autonomy refers to a person’s independence and represents an agreement to respect another’s right to determine his or her course of action. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and think about the definition of each item in the options. Note the relationship of the words “least possible harm” in the question and the definition of nonmaleficence. Review the principles of healthcare ethics if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 314). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 2. 2.ID: 327496879 Which action by the nurse represents the ethical principle of beneficence? A. The nurse upholds a client’s decision to refuse chemotherapy for lung cancer. B. The nurse follows a plan of care designed to relieve pain in a client with cancer. C. The nurse administers an immunization to a child even though it may cause discomfort. Correct D. The nurse provides equal amounts of care to all assigned clients on the basis of illness acuity. Rationale: Beneficence is taking action to help others. Although administration of a child’s immunization might cause discomfort, the benefits of protection from disease outweigh the temporary discomfort. Fidelity is keeping promises made to clients, families, and other healthcare professionals. Autonomy is a person’s independence. Respecting another’s autonomy means that you are agreeing to respect that person’s right to determine his or her course of action. Justice refers to fairness and equity, including fair allocation of resources, such as nursing care for all clients. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, beneficence. Recalling that beneficence refers to taking action to help others will direct you to the correct option. Review the principles of healthcare ethics if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 314). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 3. 3.ID: 327498211 The nursing instructor asks a student to name an example of false imprisonment. Which of the following situations reflects a violation of this client right? A. Performing a procedure without consent B. Telling the client that he or she may not leave the hospital Correct C. Threatening to give a client a medication against his or her will D. Observing the provision of care to the client without the client’s permission Rationale: Telling a client that he or she may not leave the hospital constitutes false imprisonment. Performing a procedure without consent is an example of battery. Threatening to give a client a medication against his or her will is assault. Invasion of privacy takes place with unreasonable intrusion into an individual’s private affairs. Observing the provision of care to a client without the client’s permission is an example of invasion of privacy. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, an example of false imprisonment. Note the relationship of the subject and the words in the correct option. If you had difficulty with this question, review the concept of false imprisonment. References: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., pp. 175, 176). St. Louis: Mosby. Zerwekh, J., & Claborn, J. (2009). Nursing today: Transition and trends (6th ed., p. 424). Cognitive Ability: Evaluating Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 4. 4.ID: 327497519 A nurse and a nursing assistant enter a client’s room to provide care and find the client lying on the floor. The nurse should first: A. Ask the nursing assistant to complete an incident report B. Check the client’s level of consciousness and vital signs Correct C. Ask the nursing assistant to assist in getting the client back to bed D. Contact the unit secretary on the intercom and ask that the client’s physician be called Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 5. 5.ID: 327496885 Which of the following actions exemplifies the use of evidence­based practice in the delivery of client care? A. Donning sterile gloves to change an abdominal wound dressing Correct B. Encouraging a client to take an herbal substance to treat his insomnia C. Advising a client to agree to the treatment recommended by her physician D. Taking a rectal temperature from a client for whom bleeding precautions have been instituted Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 6. 6.ID: 327497573 The registered nurse has accepted a new position as case manager in a hospital. Which of the following responsibilities are part of the nurse’s new role? Select all that apply. A. Evaluating and updating the plan of care as needed Correct B. Prescribing treatments specific to the client’s needs C. Assessing the client’s needs for home supplies and equipment Correct D. Coordinating consultations and referrals to facilitate discharge Correct E. Establishing a safe and cost­effective plan of care with the client Correct Rationale: A case manager is a nurse who assumes responsibility for coordinating the client's care from the point of admission through, and after, discharge. Specific responsibilities of the case manager include establishing a safe and cost­effective plan of care with the client, coordinating consultations and referrals, and facilitating discharge; initiating a plan of nursing care, care map, or clinical pathway as appropriate to guide care and evaluating and updating the plan of care as needed; ensuring that the plan of care is tailored to the client’s needs, taking into account the client’s diagnosis, self­care ability, and prescribed treatments; assessing the client’s need for equipment such as oxygen or wound care supplies and exploring available resources to provide the client with these supplies; providing resources that will assist the client in maintaining independence as much as possible; and providing the client with information on discharge procedures and the plan of care. The nurse does not prescribe treatments. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, the responsibilities of the case manager. Note the word “prescribing” in the incorrect option. It is not within the role of the nurse to prescribe. Review the responsibilities of the case manager if you have difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 21). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Understanding Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 7. 7.ID: 327497511 The nurse manager of a quality improvement program asks a nurse in the neurological unit to conduct a retrospective audit. Which of the following actions should the auditing nurse plan to perform in this type of audit? A. Checking the documentation written by a new nursing graduate on her assigned clients at the end of the shift B. Checking the crash cart to ensure that all needed supplies are readily available should an emergency arise C. Reviewing neurological assessment checklists for all clients on the unit to ensure that these assessments are being conducted as prescribed D. Obtaining the assigned medical record from the hospital’s medical record room to review documentation made during a client’s hospital stay Correct Rationale: Quality improvement, also known as performance improvement, is focused on processes or systems that significantly contribute to client safety and effective client care outcomes. Criteria are used to assess outcomes of care and determine the need for changes improve the quality of care. In a retrospective, or “looking back,” audit, the medical record is inspected after the client’s discharge for documentation of compliance with standards. In a concurrent, or “at the same time,” audit, the nursing staff’s compliance with predetermined standards and criteria is assessed as the nurses are providing care during the client’s stay. In this type of audit, a peer review approach in which members of the nursing staff are involved in data collection may be implemented. Obtaining the a client’s medical record from the medical record room for the purpose of reviewing documentation made during the client’s hospital stay is an example of a retrospective audit. The incorrect options are examples of concurrent audits. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, a retrospective audit. Note the relationship of the word “retrospective” in the question and the description in the correct option. Review the procedures for quality improvement and retrospective and concurrent audits if you have difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., pp. 64, 65). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 8. 8.ID: 327497529 A nurse preparing a client for a bronchoscopy notes that the client is wearing a gold necklace. What should the nurse do to safeguard the client’s necklace? A. Ask the client whether the necklace is gold B. Ask the client for permission to lock the necklace in the hospital safe Correct C. Ask the client to remove the necklace and place it in the top drawer of the bedside table D. Ask the client to sign a release to free the hospital of responsibility if the necklace is damaged or lost during the procedure Rationale: When a client has valuables, the nurse should give them to a family member or secure them for safekeeping. Most healthcare institutions require that a client sign a release form that frees the institution of responsibility if a valuable item (e.g., jewelry, money) is lost, but this does not safeguard the client’s necklace. Valuables may be locked in a designated location such as the hospital’s safe. Removing the necklace and putting it in a drawer does not safeguard it. Asking the client whether the necklace is gold is inappropriate and unrelated to the subject. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and focus on the subject, safeguarding the client’s necklace. Focusing on the subject and noting the word “lock” in the correct option will help you answer correctly. Review the procedures for safeguarding a client’s valuables if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 1387). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 9. 9.ID: 327497555 A nurse providing preoperative care to a client who is scheduled for a left mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection notes that the client is wearing a wedding band on her left ring finger. The nurse should: A. Tape the wedding band in place B. Explain to the client why the wedding band must be removed Correct C. Ask the client whether she would like to remove the wedding band or wear it to surgery D. Ask the client to sign a release to free the hospital of responsibility if the wedding band is lost during surgery Rationale: In most situations a wedding band may be taped in place and worn during a surgical procedure. However, if the possibility exists that the client will experience swelling of the hand or fingers, the wedding band should be removed. On admission to a healthcare facility, the client is asked to sign a form that frees the agency from responsibility if a client’s valuable is lost. After mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection, the client is at risk for lymphedema, which results in swelling of the arm and hand on the affected side. Therefore the appropriate nursing action is to ask the client to remove the wedding band and explain why. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and focus on the data in the question. Eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they indicate that the client may wear the wedding band during the surgical procedure. Next, recall the complications associated with mastectomy, which will direct you to the correct option. Review preoperative procedures for a client’s valuables if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 1387). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Perioperative Care Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 10. 10.ID: 327497559 A nurse preparing a client to go to the radiology department for a chest x­ray notes that the client is wearing a religious medal on a chain around the neck. The client, a Catholic, expresses a concern about removing the medal. What is the most appropriate action for the nurse to take? A. Asking the client to remove the medal until the x­ray has been completed B. Assisting the client in pinning the medal and chain to the waistband of the client’s pajama bottoms Correct C. Asking the client to place the medal in the top drawer of the bedside stand just before leaving for the radiology department D. Telling the client that the medal and chain will be kept at the nurses’ station for safekeeping while the client is undergoing the x­ray Rationale: A client undergoing a chest x­ray must remove all metal objects to help prevent artifacts on the x­ray. If the client expresses concern about removing the medal, the nurse should help the client pin the medal and chain to the hospital gown or in another area where it will not appear on the x­ray image. The nurse should also alert staff in the radiology department that this has been done. If the client is expressing concern about removing the medal, asking the client to remove it or leave it with the nurse or in the bedside stand is inappropriate. Each of these actions also increases the likelihood that the medal and chain will be lost. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and note that the client is expressing concern about removing the religious medal. Eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they indicate that the client should remove the medal. Also note that the correct option is the only option that addresses the client’s concern. Review care of clients’ valuables if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 1387). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Safety Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 11. 11.ID: 327497583 A physician writes a medication prescription in a client’s record. While transcribing the prescription, the nurse notes that the prescribed dose is three times higher than the recommended dose. The nurse calls the physician, who states that this is the dose that the client takes at home and that it is acceptable for this client’s condition. What is the appropriate action for the nurse to take? A. Contacting the nursing supervisor Correct B. Continuing to transcribe the prescription C. Asking the nurse assigned to care for the client to administer the medication D. Verifying the prescribed dose with the client before administering the medication Rationale: A nurse must follow a physician’s prescription unless he or she believes that the prescription is in error or that it would harm the client. If a prescription is found to be incorrect or harmful, further clarification from the physician is necessary. If the physician confirms the prescription and the nurse still believes that it is inappropriate, the nurse should contact the nursing supervisor. The nurse should not continue transcribing the prescription or ask another nurse to implement the prescription. The nurse might ask the client about the medication and the dose taken at home but would not administer the medication. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination. Eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they indicate that the medication would be administered. Review the nurse’s responsibilities in regard to a physician’s prescriptions if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 709). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 12. 12.ID: 327497549 A nurse monitoring a client with a chest tube notes that there is no tidaling of fluid in the water seal chamber. After further assessment, the nurse suspects that the client’s lung has reexpanded and notifies the physician. The physician verifies with the use of a chest x­ray that the lung has reexpanded, then calls the nurse to asks that the chest tube be removed. The nurse should first: A. Call the nursing supervisor B. Explain the procedure to the client, then remove the chest tube C. Inform the physician that removal of a chest tube is not a nursing procedure Correct D. Obtain petrolatum­impregnated gauze and ask another nurse to assist in removing the chest tube Rationale: Actual removal of a chest tube is the duty of a physician. Therefore the nurse would first inform the physician that this is not a nursing procedure. If the physician insists that the nurse remove the tube, the nurse must contact the nursing supervisor. Some agency’s policies and procedures may permit an advanced practice nurse (a nurse with a master’s degree in a specialized area of nursing) to remove a chest tube. However, there is no information in the question to indicate that the nurse is an advanced practice nurse. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination. Eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they indicate that the nurse would remove the chest tube. To select from the remaining options, note the strategic word “first.” The nurse should discuss the prescription with the physician. Review nursing responsibilities with regard to removal of a chest tube if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Black, J., & Hawks, J. (2009). Medical­surgical nursing: Clinical management for positive outcomes (8th ed., p. 1624). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 13. 13.ID: 327497577 A nurse calls a physician to report that a client with congestive heart failure (CHF) is exhibiting dyspnea and worsening of wheezing. The physician, who is in a hurry because of a situation in the emergency department, gives the nurse a telephone prescription for furosemide (Lasix) but does not specify the route of administration. What is the appropriate action on the part of the nurse? A. Calling the physician who gave the telephone prescription to clarify the prescription Correct B. Calling the nursing supervisor for assistance in determining the route of administration C. Administering the medication intravenously, because this route is generally used for clients with CHF D. Administering the medication orally and clarifying the prescription once the physician has finished caring for the client in the emergency department Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 14. 14.ID: 327498233 A nurse is assisting a physician in assessing a hospitalized client. During the assessment, the physician is paged to report to the recovery room. The physician leaves the client’s bedside after giving the nurse a verbal prescription to change the solution and rate of the intravenous (IV) fluid being administered. What is the appropriate nursing action in this situation? A. Calling the nursing supervisor to obtain permission to accept the verbal prescription B. Changing the solution and rate of the IV fluid per the physician’s verbal prescription C. Asking the physician to write the prescription in the client’s record before leaving the nursing unit Correct D. Telling the physician that the prescription will not be implemented until it is documented in the client’s record record before leaving the nursing unit. Changing the solution in keeping with the verbal prescription and contacting the supervisor to obtain permission to accept the verbal prescription each imply that the nurse accepts the verbal prescription. Telling the physician that the prescription will not be implemented until it is documented in the client’s record delays necessary treatment. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and note the strategic word “appropriate.” Eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they imply acceptance of the verbal prescription by the nurse. To select from the remaining options, recall the guidelines and principles for implementing physician prescriptions. This will direct you to the correct option. Review nursing responsibilities related to verbal prescriptions if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., pp. 699, 700). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 15. 15.ID: 327497557 A client scheduled for surgery tells the nurse that he signed an informed consent for the surgical procedure but was never told about the risks of the surgery. The nurse serves as the client’s advocate by: A. Reassuring the client that the risks are minimal B. Calling the surgeon and asking that the risks be explained to the client Correct C. Noting in the client’s record that the client was not told about the risks of the surgery D. Writing a note on the front of the client’s record so that the surgeon will see it when the client arrives in the operating room Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 16. 16.ID: 327496861 A nurse is planning to administer an oral antibiotic to a client with a communicable disease. The client refuses the medication and tells the nurse that the medication causes abdominal cramping. The nurse responds, “The medication is needed to prevent the spread of infection, and if you don’t take it orally I will have to give it to you in an intramuscular injection.” Which of the following statements accurately describes the nurse’s response to the client? A. The nurse could be charged with battery. B. The nurse could be charged with assault. Correct C. The nurse is justified in administering the medication by way of the intramuscular route, because the client has a communicable disease. D. The nurse will be justified in administering the medication by the intramuscular route once a prescription has been obtained from the physician. Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 17. 17.ID: 327497597 A nurse discovers that another nurse has administered an enema to a client even though the client told the nurse that he did not want one. The most appropriate action for the nurse is to: A. Contact the client’s physician B. Report the incident to the nursing supervisor Correct C. Tell the client that the nurse did the right thing in giving the enema D. Confront the nurse who gave the enema and tell the nurse that she is going to be charged with battery Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 18. 18.ID: 327497599 A nurse calls a physician to question a prescription written for a higher­than­normal dosage of morphine sulfate. The physician changes the prescription to a dosage within the normal range, and the nurse documents the new telephone prescription in accordance with the agency’s guidelines in the client’s record. Which other statement does the nurse document in the nursing notes? A. The physician was called to clarify the prescription for morphine sulfate. Correct B. The physician made an error in the written prescription for morphine sulfate. C. The physician was called to correct an error in the dosage of morphine sulfate. D. An incorrect dosage of morphine sulfate was prescribed and the physician was notified. Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 19. 19.ID: 327497505 A charge nurse on the 11 pm–to–7 am shift is gathering the nursing staff together to listen to the 3­ to­11 pm intershift report. The charge nurse notes that a staff member has an odor of alcohol on her breath, slurred speech, and an unsteady gait and suspects alcohol intoxication. The charge nurse would most appropriately: A. Send the staff member home Correct B. Ask the staff member how much alcohol she has consumed C. Tell the staff member that she is not allowed to administer medications D. Ask the staff member to rest in the nurses’ lounge until the effects of the alcohol wear off Rationale: When a staff member reports to work in a state of alcohol intoxication, the nurse notes the signs objectively and asks a second person to validate these observations. The nurse also contacts the nursing supervisor. An odor of alcohol, slurred speech, unsteady gait, and errors in judgment are symptoms of intoxication. Client safety is the primary concern. The intoxicated nurse is removed from the situation, confronted briefly and firmly about the behavior, and sent home to rest and recuperate. The incident is recorded and the nurse describes the observations, states the action taken, indicates future plans, and has the staff member sign and date the memo of the recorded incident after returning to work. Refusal to sign and date the memo should be noted by the charge nurse and a witness. Neither asking the staff member to rest in the nurses’ lounge until the effects of the alcohol wear off nor telling the staff member that he or she will not be allowed to administer medications removes the staff member from the client care area, jeopardizing the client’s safety. Asking the staff member how much alcohol she has consumed is confrontational and irrelevant. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, keeping in mind that client safety is the priority. Asking the staff member how much alcohol she has consumed is irrelevant, so eliminate this option. Next eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they do not involve removal of the staff member from the client care area. Review nursing responsibilities when substance abuse is suspected in a staff member if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Marriner­Tomey, A. (2009). Guide to nursing management and leadership (8th ed., pp. 445, 446). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 20. 20.ID: 327496847 A client asks a nurse about the procedure for becoming an organ donor. The nurse tells the client: A. That anatomical gifts must be made in writing and signed by the client Correct B. To speak with the chaplain about the psychosocial aspects of becoming a donor C. That this decision must be made by the next of kin at the time of the client’s death D. To let the physician know about the request so that it may be documented in the client’s record Rationale: An individual who is at least 18 years old may make an anatomical gift of all or part of the human body. The gift must be made in writing and signed by the donor. If the client cannot sign, the document must be signed by another individual and two witnesses. The physician is informed of the client’s wishes and the client may wish to speak to a chaplain, but the specific procedure requires a written document signed by the client. The family of a deceased client may be asked about organ donation, but this is not the procedure when a living person wishes to become a donor. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and focus on the subject, a client requesting information about organ donation. Eliminate the option using the closed­ended word “must.” To select from the remaining options, remember that an anatomical gift must be made in writing and signed by the client. Review the procedure for organ donation if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Marriner­Tomey, A. (2009). Guide to nursing management and leadership (8th ed., pp. 498, 499). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 21. 21.ID: 327497595 A nurse enters a client’s room to administer a medication that has been prescribed by the physician. The client asks the nurse about the medication. Which response by the nurse is appropriate? A. “It’s to help get rid of the swelling in your feet.” Incorrect B. “You need to discuss this medication with your physician.” C. “I know that it’s for fluid buildup, and I think you’ve taken it before.” D. “It’s called furosemide (Lasix), and it will promote urination and rid your body of the excess fluid. It can cause an alteration in electrolyte levels, so we’ll need to increase the potassium in your diet.” Correct Rationale: A client has the right to be informed of the medication name, purpose, action, and potential undesirable effects of a prescribed medication. The nurse should provide adequate information to the client. Therefore, the appropriate response is the one that is thorough and complete. Referring the client to the physician places the client’s question on hold. The remaining options are incomplete. Test­Taking Strategy: Note the strategic word “appropriate.” Eliminate the option that refers the client to the physician, because it places the client’s question on hold. To select from the remaining choices, find the option that is most complete and thorough. Review client rights in regard to the provision of information about medication if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 709). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 22. 22.ID: 327497539 A nursing student is assigned to care for a client who requires a total bed bath. When the student explains to the client that she is going to gather supplies to administer the bath, the client states, “I don’t want a bath. I’ve been up all night, and I’m clean enough.” The student reports the client’s refusal to the nurse in charge. Which action by the nurse in charge is appropriate? A. Telling the nursing student to allow the client to rest Correct B. Telling the nursing student to give the client the bath anyway C. Telling the client that the physician will be informed of the refusal of care D. Telling the nursing student to persuade the client to have a bath so that the evening shift staff will not have to do it Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 23. 23.ID: 327497565 A client with cancer is transported to the radiology department for a bone scan to determine whether the cancer has metastasized to bone. While the client is in the radiology department, the client’s wife arrives for a visit and asks what test is being performed on the client. What should the nurse tell the wife? A. A bone scan is being performed. B. She will have to discuss the prescribed test with the client. Correct C. The radiology department is not clear as to which test has been prescribed. D. She can read the client’s medical record to determine what the physician prescribed. Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 24. 24.ID: 327496899 A married couple is attending a hospital program about in vitro fertilization. During the program, a crew from a local television station arrives to film the proceedings because the station is publicizing a series on hospital services. The nurse conducting the program should: A. Allow the television crew to videotape the program B. Explain to the television crew that videotaping is not allowed Correct C. Ask the television crew to interview the individuals attending the program individually D. Allow the television crew to videotape the program as long as they do not publicize that the program is about in vitro fertilization Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 25. 25.ID: 327497591 A nurse is taking a morning break with the unit secretary in the nurses’ lounge. The unit secretary says to the nurse, “I read in Mr. Gage’s medical record that he has gonorrhea.” How should the nurse respond to the secretary? A. “Oh, really? I didn’t see that!” B. “We can’t discuss a client’s medical condition.” Correct C. “Yes, that’s why we’ve imposed contact precautions.” D. “Yes, he does, but be sure not to discuss this with anyone else.” Rationale: A client’s medical condition is confidential and should never be discussed with anyone other than the client and the client’s healthcare provider. Therefore the nurse must tell the unit secretary that the client’s condition is not to be discussed. The statements “Yes, he does, but be sure not to discuss this with anyone else” and “Yes, that’s why we’ve imposed contact precautions” both confirm the client’s disease and are therefore inappropriate. Responding, “Oh, really? I didn’t see that!” promotes further discussion of the client’s condition and is inappropriate. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and recall the issues surrounding confidentiality. This will help you eliminate the option that promotes further discussion of the client’s condition. Next, eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they confirm the client’s illness. Review the issues surrounding confidentiality if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., pp. 156, 157). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 26. 26.ID: 327497527 A nurse on the night shift is making client rounds. When the nurse checks a client who is 97 years old and has successfully been treated for heart failure, he notes that the client is not breathing. If the client does not have a do­not­resuscitate (DNR) order, the nurse should: A. Call the client’s physician B. Contact the nursing supervisor for directions C. Administer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Correct D. Administer oxygen to the client and call the physician Incorrect Rationale: CPR is an emergency treatment that is provided without client consent unless a DNR order is part of the client’s record. Calling the nursing supervisor for directions, administering oxygen to the client, and calling the physician are all inappropriate actions that would delay necessary treatment. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination. Eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they delay necessary treatment. Review procedures related to CPR and DNR orders if you had difficulty with this question. References: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., p. 177). St. Louis: Mosby. Marriner­Tomey, A. (2009). Guide to nursing management and leadership (8th ed., pp. 497­498). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 27. 27.ID: 327496887 A physician informs a nurse that the husband of an unconscious client with terminal cancer will not grant permission for a do­not­resuscitate (DNR) order. The physician tells the nurse to perform a “slow code” and let the client “rest in peace” if she stops breathing. How should the nurse respond? A. Telling the physician that “slow codes” are not acceptable Correct B. Telling the physician that the client would probably want to die in peace C. Telling the physician that all of the nurses on the unit agree with this plan D. Telling the physician that if the client stops breathing, the physician will be called before any other actions are taken Rationale: The nurse may not violate a family’s request regarding the client’s treatment plan. A “slow code” is not acceptable, and the nurse should state this to the physician. The definition of a “slow code” varies among healthcare facilities and personnel and could be interpreted as not performing resuscitative procedures as quickly as a competent person would. Resuscitative procedures that are performed more slowly than recommended by the American Heart Association are below the standard of care and could therefore serve as the basis for a lawsuit. The other options are therefore inappropriate. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the information in the question — specifically, that the spouse will not grant permission for a DNR order. Recalling the procedures for CPR and the ethical/legal guidelines for a DNR order will direct you to the correct option. Review the nurse’s responsibility regarding DNR orders if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Ignatavicius, D., & Workman, M. (2010). Medical­surgical nursing: Patient­centered collaborative care (6th ed., p. 113). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 28. 28.ID: 327498207 A 51­year­old client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease) is admitted to the hospital because his condition is deteriorating. The client tells the nurse that he wants a do­not­ resuscitate (DNR) order. The nurse should tell the client that: A. Consent must be obtained from the family B. The physician makes the final decision about a DNR request C. The DNR request should be discussed with the physician, who will write the order Correct D. Oral consent is sufficient and that his request will be honored by all healthcare providers Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 29. 29.ID: 327498243 A man who is visiting his wife in a long­term care facility for people with Alzheimer’s disease collapses and is transported to a hospital. The client remains unconscious, and testing reveals that he has cancer that has metastasized to bone, brain, and liver. The nursing staff at the wife’s care facility report to the hospital physician that the client has no other family members and that his wife is mentally incompetent. What information regarding do­not­resuscitate (DNR) orders does the nurse remember? A. That a DNR order may be written by a client’s physician Correct B. That everything possible must be done if the client stops breathing Incorrect C. That medications only may be given to the client if the client stops breathing D. That life support measures will have to be implemented if the client stops breathing Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 30. 30.ID: 327496865 A client admitted to the hospital has a do­not­resuscitate (DNR) order in his medical record. The nurse understands that: A. The DNR order may not be changed once it is in effect B. The DNR order requires frequent review as specified by state or agency policy Correct C. The only people who may change the DNR order are members of the client’s immediate family D. The DNR order, as written on admission, must remain in effect for the duration of the client’s hospitalization Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 31. 31.ID: 327496889 A registered nurse (RN) is planning client assignments for the day. Which of the following clients should the RN assign to the nursing assistant? A. A client who requires periodic suctioning B. A client who needs a colostomy irrigation C. A client who needs frequent ambulation with a walker Correct D. A client who has undergone an arteriogram and requires close monitoring Rationale: When a nurse delegates aspects of a client’s care to another staff member, he or she is responsible for appropriately assigning tasks on the basis of the educational level and competency of the staff member. Noninvasive interventions such as ambulating a client with a walker may be assigned to a nursing assistant. A client who requires suctioning or one who needs a colostomy irrigation should be assigned to a licensed practical nurse (LPN) because these staff members can perform certain invasive procedures. The client who has undergone an arteriogram should be assigned to either an LPN or an RN because these personnel have the knowledge and education to detect changes in the client’s status that require attention. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, focusing on the subject of the question, assignment to a nursing assistant. Eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they involve invasive procedures. To select from the remaining options, think about the education that a nursing assistant receives. The nursing assistant is trained to ambulate a client with an assistive device but does not have the knowledge and education to detect changes in a client’s status. Review the guidelines for delegation of tasks if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., pp. 406, 407). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 32. 32.ID: 327497541 A registered nurse (RN) who has a licensed practical nurse (LPN) and a nursing assistant on the nursing team is planning client assignments for the day. Which of the following clients should the RN assign to the LPN? A. A client on bedrest who needs assistance with feeding B. A client who must be turned and repositioned every 2 hours C. A client receiving oxygen who requires frequent pulse oximetry monitoring and respiratory treatments Correct D. A client with retinal detachment who is wearing eye patches and requires assistance with hygiene measures Rationale: When a nurse delegates aspects of a client’s care to another staff member, he or she is responsible for appropriately assigning tasks on the basis of the educational level and competency of the staff member. A client receiving oxygen who requires pulse oximetry monitoring and respiratory treatments should be assigned to the LPN, because this staff member can perform these tasks and is competent to note changes in the client’s condition. Feeding a client, turning and repositioning a client, and assisting with hygiene measures, all noninvasive interventions, may be assigned to a nursing assistant. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, focusing on the subject of the question, assignment of tasks to an LPN. Think about the activities that the LPN is able to perform. Next, eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they are noninvasive procedures. Review the principles of delegating tasks if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., pp. 406, 407). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 33. 33.ID: 327497533 A registered nurse (RN) in charge of a long­term care facility who is working with a nursing assistant on the night shift prepares to take her break. To ensure client safety during her break, which of the following actions should the nurse take? Select all that apply. A. Conducting client rounds before taking the break Correct B. Taking the break in the staff lounge located on the nursing unit Correct C. Asking the nursing assistant to administer a medication placed at the client’s bedside if the client awakens D. Asking the nursing assistant to monitor a client’s tube feeding and to contact the nurse when the feeding bag is empty E. Asking the nursing assistant to contact the physician during the nurse’s break if a client’s pain medication is not effective F. Informing the nursing assistant that she is leaving the nursing unit to get a cup of coffee from a vending machine in the lobbyIncorrect Rationale: The RN is responsible for ensuring client safety at all times and must not leave the nursing unit for any reason during the shift. The nurse’s break should be taken in a designated area located on the nursing unit. Before taking the break, the nurse should check all clients to ensure that they are safe and comfortable and that their needs have been met. A nursing assistant should never be asked to perform any activity that he or she is not trained for. This includes such activities as administering medications; assessing, monitoring, or evaluating the client; and making decisions about contacting a physician. Test­Taking Strategy: Think about the roles and responsibilities of the RN and the tasks or activities that the nursing assistant may legally perform and focus on the subject, safety. Remember that the registered nurse is responsible for administering medications; assessing, monitoring, and evaluating the client; and making decisions about contacting a physician. Review the role of the RN and the tasks and activities that may be delegated to a nursing assistant if you had difficulty with this question. References: Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., pp. 242, 243). St. Louis: Saunders. Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., pp. 400­402). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 34. 34.ID: 327496883 A nurse is providing a change­of­shift report on his assigned clients, using an audiotape. Which of the following pieces of information should the nurse include in the report about each assigned client? Select all that apply. A. Family history B. Client needs and priorities of care Correct C. Current diagnosis and any secondary diagnoses Correct D. Results of laboratory studies conducted that day Correct E. Client response to treatments implemented that day Correct F. The steps used to perform the procedure for changing the client’s sterile dressing at the gastrostomy tube site Rationale: A change­of­shift report ensures continuity of care among nurses caring for a client and informs the nurse on the next shift about the client's needs and priorities for care. It may be given written, orally, by audiotape, or while the nurses are walking rounds at a client's bedside. The report should describe the client's health status, current and secondary diagnoses, results of laboratory or diagnostic studies done that day, and the client’s response to treatments implemented that day. The client’s family history does not need to be described in a change­of shift report, and doing so would take time. If such information is needed by the oncoming nurse, it may be obtained from the client’s medical record. There is no useful reason for describing a routine procedure; this would also take time, and the information is available in the agency procedure manual. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, what to include in the change­of­shift report. Read each option carefully and eliminate family history, because it is not directly related to the client’s current status. Next eliminate the option that involves describing the steps in performing a procedure, because this is routine information. Also note that the correct options are client focused. Review the components of a change­of­shift report if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., pp. 400­402). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 35. 35.ID: 327497531 A nurse working the 7 am–to–3 pm shift is reviewing the records of her assigned clients. Which client should the nurse assess first? A. A client scheduled for hemodialysis at 10 am Correct B. A client scheduled for a nuclear scanning procedure at 10 am C. A client scheduled for contrast computed tomography (CT) at noon D. A client scheduled for hydrotherapy for treatment of a burn injury at 10:30 am Rationale: A client scheduled for hemodialysis has needs that must be met before the procedure. The nurse must ensure that the client is physically and emotionally ready for the treatment, which may take as long as 5 hours. Before the treatment, the nurse must assess the client, including looking for fluid overload by checking the client’s weight and lung sounds. The nurse must also assess the client’s predialysis vital signs and the results of laboratory tests for comparison in the postdialysis period. Although the clients described in the other options have needs, they are not immediate. A client scheduled for a nuclear scanning procedure at 10 am may require reinforcement of information about the procedure and will need to increase fluid intake before the procedure. A client scheduled for hydrotherapy for treatment of a burn injury at 10:30 am may require pain medication, but the medication should be administered approximately 30 minutes before the hydrotherapy. A client scheduled for contrast CT at noon may require reinforcement of information about the procedure and may need to drink a special contrast preparation just before the procedure. Test­Taking Strategy: Use Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory and think about the needs of each client and what pretesting or preprocedure preparation involves. Although all of the clients have physiological needs, the client scheduled for hemodialysis has the priority need, that being the risk of fluid overload. Review the principles of prioritizing if you had difficulty with this question. References: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., pp. 374, 375). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 36. 36.ID: 327497503 A nurse has delegated several nursing tasks to staff members. The nurse’s primary responsibility after delegation of the tasks is: A. Documenting completion of each task B. Assigning any tasks that were not completed to the next nursing shift C. Allowing each staff member to make judgments when performing the tasks D. Following up with each staff member regarding the performance of the task and the outcomes related to implementation of the task. Correct Rationale: The ultimate responsibility for a task lies with the person who delegated it. Therefore it is the nurse’s primary responsibility to follow up with each staff member regarding the performance of the task and the outcomes related to implementation of the task. Not all staff members have the education, knowledge, and ability to make judgments about the tasks being performed. The nurse would document that the task was completed, but this would not be done until follow­up had been conducted and outcomes identified. It is not appropriate to assign the tasks that have not been completed to the next nursing shift; this action does not ensure that client needs will be met and also increases the workload for the next shift. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, noting the strategic words “primary responsibility.” Recalling that the ultimate responsibility for a task lies with the person who delegated it will direct you to the correct option. Review the guidelines for delegation if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., pp. 309­311). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 37. 37.ID: 327497509 A case manager is reviewing progress notes in a client’s medical record. Which notation indicates the need for follow­up? S. No Client Condition Notation 1. Client 1 Status post–mastectomy:18 hours Five milliliters of bloody drainage was emptied from the Jackson-Pratt drain. 2. Client 2 Heart Failure Crackles were heard in the lower lung lobes bilaterally on auscultation. 3. Client 3 Status post–appendectomy: 24 hours The surgical dressing is clean and dry. 4. Client 4 Diabetes mellitus Blood glucose level is124 mg/dL. A. 1 B. 2 Correct C. 3 D. 4 Rationale: A case manager is a nurse who assumes responsibility for coordinating a client's care from the point of admission through, and after, discharge. This nurse initiates a nursing plan of care, care map, or clinical pathway as appropriate to guide care, evaluating and updating the plan of care as needed. The case manager monitors the client for expected and unexpected outcomes and provides follow­up and revises the plan of care if an unexpected outcome is noted. Crackles heard in the lower lobes of the lungs in a client with heart failure are an unexpected and unwanted outcome requiring follow­up because they could indicate the development of pulmonary edema. The notations made for the other clients listed represent expected outcomes. Test­Taking Strategy: Think about the role of the case manager and read each notation carefully. Next, focus on the subject, the need for follow­up. This will direct you to the notation that represents an unexpected or unwanted outcome. Crackles heard in the lower lobes of the lungs on auscultation are a matter of concern. Review the role of the nurse manager and the expected and unexpected findings for the client conditions noted in the options if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., pp. 468­469). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Evaluating Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Evaluation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 38. 38.ID: 327497563 The nurse reviewing a client’s record sees that the following medications are prescribed. Which medication should the nurse plan to administer first? A. 1 Incorrect B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 Correct Rationale: For adequate absorption, levothyroxine must be administered with water on an empty stomach as soon as the client awakens and at least 1 hour apart from other fluids (e.g., coffee or tea), food, and other medications. Therefore this medication should be administered first. Atorvastatin (Lipitor), an HMG–CoA reductase inhibitor used to lower cholesterol, is administered at bedtime because cholesterol synthesis is increased during the night. Zolpidem, a benzodiazepine­ like medication used to enhance sleep, is administered at bedtime. Ferrous sulfate is an iron supplement that is administered with water between meals. Test­Taking Strategy: Note the strategic word “first.” Think about the classification of each medication to determine its action. This will help you answer correctly. Also note that atorvastatin and zolpidem are comparable or alike in that they are administered at bedtime. Next, recalling the action of levothyroxine will direct you to this option. Review the medications in the options and their method of administration if you had difficulty with this question. References: Lehne, R. (2010). Pharmacology for nursing care (7th ed., pp. 380, 570, 694). St. Louis: Saunders. Hodgson, B., & Kizior, R. (2009). Saunders nursing drug handbook 2009 (p. 476). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 39. 39.ID: 327496863 A nurse manager has announced a change to computerized documentation of nursing care. A licensed practical nurse (LPN) on the team, resistant to the change, is not taking an active part in facilitating implementation of the new procedure. Which of the following strategies would be the best approach to dealing with the conflict? A. Ignoring the resistance B. Telling the LPN that his noncompliance will be documented in his personnel record C. Confronting the LPN and encouraging him to express his feelings regarding the change Correct D. Telling the LPN that a registered nurse will perform all of the computer documentation if he will document all intake and output and vital signs Rationale: Confrontation is an important strategy in dealing with resistance. Face­to­face meetings to confront the issue at hand allow verbalization of feelings, identification of problems and issues, and development of strategies to solve the problem. Ignoring the resistance does not address the problem. Providing a temporary solution to the resistance by having the registered nurse do all of the computer work and having the LPN perform only specific documentation will not specifically address the concern. Telling the LPN that the noncompliance will be documented in his personnel record may produce additional resistance. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, the best approach to dealing with a conflict. Use the process of elimination and eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they represent direct avoidance of the conflict. If you had difficulty with this question, review the best approaches to with dealing with conflict. References: Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., p. 287). St. Louis: Saunders. Marriner­Tomey, A. (2009). Guide to nursing management and leadership (8th ed., pp. 326, 327). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 40. 40.ID: 327496857 A registered nurse (RN) is planning client assignments for the day. Which clients should the nurse assign to a nursing assistant (unlicensed assistive personnel)? Select all that apply. A. A client with a permanent tracheostomy B. A client requiring a gastrostomy tube dressing change C. A client who requires transport to the radiology department in a wheelchair Correct D. A client with a Foley catheter for whom a 24­hour urine collection is in progress Correct E. A client who underwent surgery an hour earlier and has a nasogastric tube and a Foley catheter Rationale: The nurse must base assignments on the basis of the skills of the staff member and the needs of the client. The nursing assistant is capable of caring for the client with a Foley catheter for whom a 24­hour urine collection is in progress and the client who requires transport to the radiology department in a wheelchair. The nursing assistant is skilled in such tasks. The client who has just undergone surgery will require specific monitoring in addition to recording of vital signs. Dressing changes and tracheostomy care are not performed by unlicensed personnel. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, assignments for the nursing assistant. Think about the skills that the nursing assistant can perform and remember that the nursing assistant may perform tasks that are noninvasive. Review the principles of delegation and assignment­making if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., pp. 244­246, 250). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 41. 41.ID: 327497521 A registered nurse (RN) is planning assignments for five clients on the nursing unit. The team includes a licensed practical nurse (LPN) and a nursing assistant. Which clients should the nurse assign to the LPN? Select all that apply. A. A client who is confused and requires assistance with a shower B. A client requiring a bed bath and frequent ambulation with a cane C. A client who must be accompanied to physical therapy twice during the shift D. A client with a colostomy who requires reinforcement regarding the procedure for irrigation Correct E. A client with diabetes mellitus who requires the administration of regular insulin in accordance with a sliding dosage scale every 4 hours Correct Rationale: When delegating nursing assignments, the nurse must consider the skills and educational level of the nursing staff. The nursing assistant may be assigned the tasks of caring for a confused client, assisting with a shower or a bed bath, ambulating a client with a cane, and accompanying a client to physical therapy. The LPN is educated to reinforce teaching regarding the colostomy irrigation (the RN is responsible for the initial teaching) and administering regular insulin in accordance with a sliding scale. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, the client assignment for the LPN. Use the process of elimination to eliminate the clients whose needs are noninvasive, because a nursing assistant may perform these tasks. This will help you identify the clients who may be assigned to the LPN. If you had difficulty with this question, review the principles of delegation and assignment­making. Reference: Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., pp. 244­246, 250). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 42. 42.ID: 327497575 A registered nurse (RN) has received the assignment for the day shift. Once the RN has made initial rounds and checked all of the assigned clients, which client will she plan to care for first? A. A client who is scheduled for surgery at 1 pm Correct B. A client scheduled for physical therapy at 11 am C. A client in skeletal traction who has just received pain medication D. A client who is able to perform activities of daily living independently Rationale: For the client assignment presented, the RN would plan to care for the client who is scheduled for surgery at 1 pm first. Several items need to be addressed before surgery, including client preparation (physical and emotional) and physician prescriptions, all of which will take time. Also, many times the operating room will make late changes in the schedule, depending on room and physician availability, and will request an earlier surgical time. Therefore it is best to ensure that this client is prepared. It is best to wait for pain medication to take effect before providing care to a client. The needs of the client who is independent and the client scheduled for physical therapy later in the morning are not high priorities. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and principles related to prioritization. Focus on the subject, the client for whom the RN will care first. Noting that an assigned client is scheduled for surgery and recalling the many needs of a client about to undergo surgery will direct you to the correct option. Review the principles of prioritizing if you had difficulty with this question. References: Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., p. 128). St. Louis: Saunders. Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., pp. 374, 375). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 43. 43.ID: 327496849 A nurse working the 7 am–to–3 pm shift is assigned to care for four clients. List the clients in order of priority for the nurse. Correct A. A client with pneumonia who is receiving oxygen B. A client with diabetes mellitus who requires the administration of NPH insulin before breakfast C. A client with a wound requiring dressing changes at 10 am and 2 pm D. A client preparing for discharge after surgery Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 2. 44.ID: 327496891 A case manager is reviewing the records of the clients in the nursing unit. Which note(s) in a client’s record indicate an unexpected outcome and the need for follow­up? Select all that apply. A. A client is performing his own colostomy irrigations. B. A client with a central venous catheter has a temperature of 100.6° F. Correct C. A client with a new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is self­administering insulin. D. A client who has just undergone surgery has a urine output of more than 30 mL/hr. E. A client who has just undergone surgery is getting relief from the prescribed pain medication. Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. B. 45.ID: 327498227 A nurse on the day shift is assigned to care for four clients. List the clients in order of priority for nurse. Correct A. A client with asthma who had shortness of breath during the night B. A client scheduled to have a chest x­ray at 9 am C. A client scheduled for an echocardiogram at 10 am D. A client with pneumonia who is scheduled for discharge home Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 2. 46.ID: 327497553 A case manager is serving on a community task force on violence in schools. The members of the task force are planning to develop interventions to help prevent violence. According to the nursing process, the first activity that the nurse would suggest to the task force is: A. Teaching schoolchildren about the dangers of school violence B. Looking at what other communities are doing about school violence C. Distributing fliers that identify the causes of school violence to families in the community D. Conducting a community survey to assess community perceptions regarding school violence Correct Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. B. 47.ID: 327497545 A nurse planning care for her assigned clients understands that the purpose of the hospital’s standards of care is to: A. Identify methods of treatment B. Provide direction for the practice of nursing Correct C. Provide direction for care on the basis of the client’s diagnosis D. Identify new care methods on the basis of current medical research Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. C. 48.ID: 327498237 A registered nurse (RN) is supervising a nursing assistant ambulating a client with right­sided weakness. The RN would conclude that the nursing assistant is performing the procedure incorrectly after observing that the nursing assistant: A. Stands behind the client Correct B. Stands on the right side of the client C. Positions the free hand on the client’s shoulder D. Grasps the security belt in the midspine area of the small of the client’s back Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. D. 49.ID: 327498253 A registered nurse (RN) is watching as a new licensed practical nurse (LPN) administer an intramuscular (IM) injection in a client’s deltoid muscle. The RN determines that the LPN is performing the procedure correctly if the LPN: A. Administers the injection in the thigh B. Places the client in the Sims position C. Positions the client in a prone toe­in position D. Administers the injection 2 inches below the acromion process Correct Rationale: The RN is responsible for supervising certain procedures performed by an LPN to ensure that client safety is maintained. The deltoid muscle is located in the upper arm area. Administration of an injection into this muscle is done 2 inches below the acromion process (the bony structure on top of the shoulder blade). Therefore the injection is not given in the thigh (vastus lateralis or rectus femoris muscle). The Sims position is not the correct position for an injection into the deltoid muscle. Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. E. 50.ID: 327497501 A graduate nurse hired to work in a medical unit of a hospital is attending an orientation session. The nurse educator, discussing care maps, asks the graduate nurse whether she understands how a care map is used. Which response indicates understanding? A. “The care map is developed by a nurse and identifies nursing diagnoses.” B. “The care map is a plan that is used only by the nurse to provide client care.” C. “The care map outlines the day­to­day expected outcomes of care and the outcomes anticipated at discharge.” Correct D. “The care map is a standard plan, rather than an individualized one, that is developed strictly by a nurse and used for a client with a particular diagnosis.” Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. F. 51.ID: 327498245 The nurse is preparing client assignments for the day. Which client should the nurse assign to a nursing assistant? A. A client scheduled for a liver biopsy B. An unconscious client who requires oral care Correct C. A client who has just undergone cardiac catheterization D. A client who is getting up to ambulate for the first time after surgery Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. G. 52.ID: 327498251 A nurse manager tells the nursing staff that they will need to comply with the mandatory overtime policy that the hospital has implemented. Later that day, the nurse manager overhears a nurse complaining about the policy and telling other nurses that she will not work the overtime if she has made other plans after her regular shift. What is the best approach for the nurse manager to use in dealing with the conflict? A. Ignoring the complaints B. Avoiding assigning the nurse mandatory overtime C. Confronting the nurse regarding her behavior regarding the overtime policy Correct D. Providing a positive reward system for the nurse so that the nurse will agree to work the mandatory overtime Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. H. 53.ID: 327497543 A nurse manager is planning client assignments for the day. Which of the following clients should the nurse assign to the nursing assistant (unlicensed assistive personnel)? A. A client scheduled for a cardiac stress test B. A client who had a mastectomy 2 days ago C. A client scheduled for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy D. A client with renal calculi whose urine must be strained Correct Rationale: The registered nurse is legally responsible for client assignments and must assign tasks on the basis of the guidelines of the state nursing practice act and the job descriptions set forth by the employing agency. The nursing assistant has been trained to collect and strain urine. The nurse manager would provide instructions to the nursing assistant regarding the task, but the task is within the role description of a nursing assistant. A client scheduled for a cardiac stress test requires preparation for the test, teaching, and postprocedure monitoring. A client scheduled for surgery will require preoperative preparation, including teaching. A client who underwent mastectomy 2 days earlier will need both physiological and psychosocial care, requiring the skills of a licensed nurse. Test­Taking Strategy: Note that the question asks for the assignment to be delegated to the nursing assistant. When asked questions related to delegation, think about the role description of the employee and the needs of the client. For the nursing assistant, select the client who has needs that are noninvasive and do not require a high level skill, meaning that assessment, teaching, and monitoring are inappropriate tasks. Review the guidelines related to delegation to a nursing assistant if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., pp. 405­407). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. I. 54.ID: 327497515 A registered nurse (RN) must determine how best to assign co­workers (another RN and one licensed practical nurse [LPN]) to provide care to a group of clients. Which of the following is the best assignment? A. The RN is assigned to care for a woman with newly diagnosed leukemia who has a newborn at home. Correct B. The LPN is assigned to provide discharge teaching about dressing changes and medications to a 35­year­old man. C. The LPN is assigned to care for a client with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus who will need to be taught how to self­administer insulin. D. The RN is assigned to care for a 75­year­old woman, hospitalized for dehydration, who is being discharged home today with no medications. Rationale: To determine what may and may not be delegated to the various co­workers, the RN making the assignment must take into account several factors: the level of care required by each client, both immediately and in the future; the competencies possessed by the co­workers; and the legal limitations on the practice of those co­workers. Self­administration of insulin and discharge instructions on dressing changes and medications require teaching, a professional responsibility that the RN may not delegate to anyone except another RN. Although the RN might care for a client being discharged, the question tells you that an LPN is available. The RN would be best used to care for the client with more critical or complicated needs. Assigning an RN to a client who is being discharged with no medications is, therefore, incorrect. The client with newly diagnosed leukemia who has a newborn at home is likely to be in need of the skills of an RN in terms of both physiological and psychosocial needs, making this an appropriate assignment. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, noting the strategic word “best.” Eliminate the options in which the LPN is assigned to a client requiring teaching. To select from the remaining options, focus on each client and think about his or her actual and potential needs. The RN is best assigned to the client with physiological and psychosocial needs. Review the guidelines for delegation and assignment­making if you had difficulty with this question. References: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., pp. 406­408, 418). St. Louis: Mosby. Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., p. 243). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. J. 55.ID: 327497561 A client who had a stroke has left­side weakness and is having difficulty holding utensils while eating. To which of these services does the nurse suggest a referral? A. Home care B. Social services C. Physical therapy D. Occupational therapy Correct Rationale: An occupational therapist assists a client who experiences impairment in performing activities of daily living such as feeding him­ or herself with the use of an adaptive device. Home care provides a variety of support services for the client and family, but the specific assistance needed for this client would be provided by the occupational therapist. A social worker is trained to counsel clients in a variety of areas and may assist with the financial aspects of care. A physical therapist assists in examining, testing, and treating the physically disabled or handicapped through the use of exercises and other techniques. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and focus on the subject, the need for assistance in eating. Recalling the functions and roles of the occupational therapist and the other healthcare workers in the options will help you answer correctly. Review the roles of the various healthcare team members if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Ignatavicius, D., & Workman, M. (2010). Medical­surgical nursing: Patient–centered collaborative care (6th ed., p. 96). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. K. 56.ID: 327496869 A case manager is reviewing notations made in clients’ records. Which note indicates an unexpected outcome and the need for immediate follow­up? A. A client who has sustained a stroke dresses herself. B. A client exhibits signs of increased intracranial pressure after a craniotomy. Correct C. Normal neurological findings are noted in a client with a cerebral aneurysm. D. A client with a spinal cord injury transfers himself from a bed to a wheelchair. Rationale: A case manager is a nurse who assumes responsibility for coordinating a client's care from the point of admission through, and after, discharge. This nurse initiates a plan of nursing care, care map, or clinical pathway as appropriate to guide care and evaluates and updates the plan of care as needed. The case manager monitors the client for expected and unexpected outcomes and provides follow­up and revises the plan of care if an unexpected outcome is noted. A client who exhibits signs of increased intracranial pressure after a craniotomy, indicating a deterioration of the client’s condition, requires immediate follow­up. The descriptions in the other options are expected outcomes. Test­Taking Strategy: Think about the role of the case manager and read each client description carefully. Next, focus on the subject, an unexpected outcome and the need for immediate follow­up. This will direct you to the description that is unexpected or unwanted. Signs of increased intracranial pressure are an immediate concern, indicating deterioration in the client’s condition. Review the role of the nurse manager and expected and unexpected outcomes if you had difficulty with this question. References: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., pp. 369­370). St. Louis: Mosby. Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., pp. 468, 469). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Evaluating Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Evaluation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. L. 57.ID: 327496895 A client with diabetes mellitus who takes a daily dose of NPH insulin has a hard time drawing the insulin into a syringe because he has difficulty seeing the markings on the syringe. To which of the following services does the nurse suggest a referral? A. Home care Correct B. Social services C. Physical therapy D. Occupational therapy Rationale: Home care provides a variety of support services for the client and family, including assistance with the administration of insulin. For the client who has difficulty drawing insulin into a syringe, the home care nurse would prefill a week’s supply of syringes containing the required dose. These syringes would be placed in the client’s refrigerator for self­administration by the client. A social worker is trained to counsel clients in a variety of areas and may assist with the financial aspects of care. A physical therapist assists in examining, testing, and treating the physically disabled or handicapped through the use of exercises and other techniques. An occupational therapist assists a client who experiences impairment in performing activities of daily living such as feeding him­ or herself with the use of an adaptive device. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and focus on the subject, the need for assistance with insulin administration. Recalling the functions and roles of the home care nurse and the healthcare workers in the other options will help you answer correctly. Review the roles of various healthcare team members if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Ignatavicius, D., & Workman, M. (2010). Medical­surgical nursing: Patient–centered collaborative care (6th ed., p. 96). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. M. 58.ID: 327498255 A nurse is planning client assignments for the day. Which of the following assignments is the least appropriate for the nursing assistant? A. Assisting a client with dysphagia in eating Correct B. Providing hygiene to a client with dementia C. Ambulating a client with Parkinson’s disease D. Assisting a client with an above­the­knee amputation in showering Rationale: The nurse must determine the most appropriate assignment on the basis of the skills of the staff member and the needs of the client. In this case, the least appropriate assignment for a nursing assistant would be assisting a client with dysphagia with eating because of the risk of complications such as choking and aspiration. The remaining three situations include no data to indicate that these tasks carry any unforeseen risk. Test­Taking Strategy: Note the strategic words “least appropriate.” Use the ABCs — airway, breathing, and circulation — and recall the principles of delegation and supervision of tasks in answering the question. Remember, delegation of work must be consistent with the individual’s level of expertise and licensure or lack of licensure. Review the principles of assignments and delegation if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., pp. 405­407). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. N. 59.ID: 327496893 A nurse is assigned to care for four clients. Which client should the nurse assess first? A. A client scheduled for a colonoscopy B. A client preparing for discharge after surgery C. A client requiring a tube feeding through a gastrostomy tube D. A client with a tracheostomy who is receiving humidified oxygen by way of a tracheostomy mask Correct Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. O. 60.ID: 327497587 A nurse is planning the client assignments for the shift. Which client should the nurse assign to the nursing assistant? A. A client who needs a blood transfusion B. A client with diarrhea on whom contact precautions have been imposed Correct C. A client with angina who needs to be ambulated for the first time since admission D. A client with a draining abdominal wound that requires frequent dressing changes Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. P. 61.ID: 327497517 A nurse is assisting a new nursing graduate with organizational skills in delivering client care. The nurse determines that the new nursing graduate needs assistance with time management if he: A. Allows time for unexpected tasks B. Prioritizes client needs and daily tasks C. Gathers supplies before beginning a task D. Documents task completion and client information at the end of the day Correct Rationale: The nurse should document task completion and client information throughout the day. Allowing time for unexpected tasks, prioritizing needs and tasks, and gathering supplies before beginning a task are all components of time management. Test­Taking Strategy: Note the strategic words “needs assistance.” These words indicate a negative event query and the need to select the incorrect action by the nursing graduate. Read each option carefully and recall the guidelines for time management to answer the question. If you had difficulty with this question, review the principles of time management and documentation. References: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., p. 529). St. Louis: Mosby. Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., pp. 128­130). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Evaluating Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. Q. 62.ID: 327497571 A new nurse employed at a community hospital is reading the organization’s mission statement. The new nurse understands that this statement: A. Describes the benefits available to employees B. Outlines what the organization plans to accomplish Correct C. Identifies the policies and procedures of the organization D. Defines the rules of the organization that the employees must follow Rationale: All organizations have a purpose or reason for existing. This purpose is often expressed in the form of a mission statement. The mission statement outlines what the organization plans to accomplish. Sometimes mission statements incorporate statements of philosophy (beliefs), purpose, and goals or objectives into a single statement; other times the philosophy, purposes, and goals are addressed in addition to the mission statement. These statements serve as a benchmark against which an organization’s performance may be evaluated. The mission statement does not describe the benefits available to the client; this is usually done by the human resources department. The rules of the organization are identified in policies and procedures, which are usually maintained in manuals kept in the nursing units or online. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, focusing on the subject, a mission statement. Note the relationship between the definition of a mission statement and the correct option. Review the description of an organization’s mission statement if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Marriner­Tomey, A. (2009). Guide to nursing management and leadership (8th ed., pp. 225, 226). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Understanding Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. R. 63.ID: 327498219 A nurse, newly employed by a home health agency, is told that the organization’s decision­making process is centralized. The nurse determines that this means that the authority to make decisions is vested in: A. Every employee B. A few individuals, such as the board of directors Correct C. All nursing employees, pharmacists, and hospital physicians D. Many individuals, with decisions filtering down to the individual employee Rationale: Organizations may be described as having a centralized or decentralized structure in regard to the decision­making process. An organization is depicted as centralized when the authority to make decisions is vested in a few individuals. Conversely, when the decision­making involves a number of individuals, with decisions filtering down to the individual employee, the organization is said to operate in a decentralized fashion. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination. Eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they indicate that several people associated with the organization make decisions. Review the differences between centralized and decentralized organizations if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Marriner­Tomey, A. (2009). Guide to nursing management and leadership (8th ed., pp. 278­280). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Understanding Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. S. 64.ID: 327496881 A nurse employed in a community hospital as a nurse manager understands that in this position, the term authority most appropriately refers to: A. Being responsible for what staff members do B. Accepting the responsibility for the actions of others C. Carrying the legal responsibility for others’ performance of tasks D. The official power to see that an organizational decision is enforced Correct Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. T. 65.ID: 327498257 A nursing instructor asks a nursing student to describe accountability. Which statement(s) by the student indicate(s) an accurate description of accountability? Select all that apply. A. “Accountability can be delegated.” B. “You are responsible for your own actions.” C. “It carries legal implications for task performance.” D. “You must answer for the care that you ask others to complete.” Correct E. “It refers to the process of answering or being responsible for what occurs.” Correct Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. U. 66.ID: 327497523 A registered nurse is in charge of the emergency department (ED) during the night shift. A client arrives at the ED for treatment after a sexual assault. The nurse has never cared for anyone who has been raped. To determine the necessary actions in regard to this client’s injury, the nurse should: A. Ask a licensed practical nurse B. Call the nurse in charge of the day shift C. Ask the police officers who brought the client to the ED D. Check the unit policy for the protocol for the care of clients who have been sexually assaulted Correct Rationale: A policy or procedure is a designated plan or course of action to be taken in a specific situation. Written copies of all policies are usually placed in a policy manual that is available in each department or may be available online. Specific unit policies are sometimes referred to as protocols. The policy or protocol for a client who has been raped will describe the physical, psychosocial, and legal responsibilities of the nurse. Calling the nurse in charge during the day shift or asking an LPN or the police officers who brought the client into the ED is inappropriate. If the nurse needs additional information after reviewing the policy or protocol, it would be most appropriate to contact the agency nursing supervisor of the night shift. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, recalling the legal implications related to providing care. Note that the incorrect options are comparable or alike in that they suggest obtaining information from other individuals. Review the purpose of organizational policies, procedures, or protocols if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., pp. 389, 394, 395). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. V. 67.ID: 327496877 A nurse educator describes the standards of care formulated by the American Nurses Association to a group of new nursing graduates hired by the hospital. Which of the following options are accurate descriptions of these standards of care? Select all that apply. A. Are specific guidelines B. Define professional practice Correct C. Have some similarity to policies and procedures Correct D. Are statements that relate only to the agency in which the nurse is employed E. Are authoritative statements that describe a common or acceptable level of client care or performance Correct Rationale: Standards of care are authoritative statements that describe a common or acceptable level of client care or performance. They bear some similarity to policies and procedures. Therefore standards of care define professional practice. The American Nurses Association has formulated general standards and guidelines for nursing practice. They are general in nature and apply across the nation. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, standards of care formulated by the American Nurses Association. Note that the incorrect options are comparable or alike in that they contain the words “specific” or “only.” Review the standards of care set forth by the American Nurses Association if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., pp. 627, 628). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Understanding Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. W. 68.ID: 327496871 In which situation is the nurse upholding the ethical principle of fidelity? A. Allowing a client to decide when to receive daily hygiene care B. Inserting a 19­gauge intravenous catheter into a client requiring a blood transfusion C. Providing complete information regarding treatment options to a client with newly diagnosed cancer D. Contacting the physician about the client’s request to incorporate complementary therapies for pain into the treatment planCorrect Rationale: Fidelity is the keeping of promises made to clients, families, and other healthcare professionals. Contacting the physician about the client’s request that complementary therapies be used to relieve pain is an example of fidelity. Respect for a person’s autonomy, or independence, involves respecting that person’s right to determine his or her own course of action. Allowing a client to decide when he or she would like to have daily hygiene care is an example of respecting a client’s autonomy. Beneficence is taking action to help others. Inserting a 19­gauge intravenous catheter into a client requiring a blood transfusion is an example of beneficence. Although insertion of an intravenous catheter might cause discomfort, the benefits of receiving the transfusion outweigh the temporary discomfort. Justice refers to fairness and equity; in the healthcare arena, this involves ensuring fair allocation of resources, such as nursing care, to all clients. Providing complete information regarding treatment options to each client with a cancer diagnosis is an example of justice. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and think about the definition of each item in the options. Note the relationship of the definition of fidelity and the correct option. Review the principles of healthcare ethics if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 314). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Understanding Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. X. 69.ID: 327498205 Which of the following situations is an example of the use of evidence­based practice in the delivery of client care? A. Encouraging a client who has had a stroke to consume thin liquids and foods B. Blowing on a fingerstick site to dry it after cleaning the site with an alcohol swab C. Immediately picking up a dislodged radiation implant with gloved hands and placing it in a lead container D. Pouring 1 to 2 mL of sterile solution that will be used for wound cleansing into a plastic­lined waste receptacle before pouring the solution into a sterile basin Correct Rationale: Evidence­based practice is an approach to client care in which the nurse integrates the client’s preferences, clinical expertise, and the best research evidence to deliver quality care. Pouring 1 to 2 mL of sterile solution that will be used for wound cleansing into a plastic­lined waste receptacle before pouring the solution into the sterile basin reflects evidence­based practice because this action cleans the lip of the bottle, thus preventing the entrance of harmful bacteria into the wound. The remaining options do not reflect evidence­based practice. Encouraging a client with a stroke to consume thin liquids and foods could cause harm because of the risk for choking; instead, such a client should receive thickened liquids. A dislodged radiation implant should be picked up with the use of long­handled forceps, not gloved hands, to be placed in a lead container to minimize radiation exposure. Blowing on a fingerstick site to dry it after cleaning the site with an alcohol swab recontaminates the stick site. Test­Taking Strategy: Read each option carefully, focusing on the subject, evidence­based practice. Recall the definition of evidence­based practice and note that the correct option prevents the entrance of harmful bacteria into the wound. Review the concept of evidence­based practice if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., pp. 54­60, 674). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Understanding Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. Y. 70.ID: 327497513 A nurse is preparing for the admission of a client with pulmonary tuberculosis. Which of the following actions reflects the use of evidence­based practice in the care of the client? A. Keeping the door to the client’s room closed Correct B. Using a surgical mask when entering the client’s room C. Placing the client in a semiprivate room with a cohort client D. Fitting the client for an N95 or HEPA (high­efficiency particulate air) mask to be worn at all times Rationale: Evidence­based practice is an approach to client care in which the nurse integrates the client’s preferences, clinical expertise, and the best research evidence to deliver quality care. Pulmonary tuberculosis is a respiratory infection that is transmitted to others by way of the airborne route. The door to the client’s room must be kept closed to prevent the transmission of the infection via the airborne route. The remaining options do not reflect evidence­based practice. An N95 or HEPA respirator (not a surgical mask) must be worn by the nurse on entering the room. It is not necessary for the client to wear a mask. Airborne precautions require the use of a private room. Test­Taking Strategy: Read each option carefully, focusing on the subject, evidence­based practice. Recall the definition of evidence­based practice and recall that tuberculosis is transmitted by way of the airborne route. This will direct you to the correct option. Review the concept of evidence­based practice if you had difficulty with this question. References: Ignatavicius, D., & Workman, M. (2010). Medical­surgical nursing: Patient­centered collaborative care (6th ed., p. 467 ). St. Louis: Saunders. Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., pp. 54­60, 662­663, 674). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. Z. 71.ID: 327496875 A nurse manager asks a nurse to work overtime because of a short­staffing problem. The nurse has made plans to do her Christmas shopping after work and does not want to work overtime. What is the most assertive response by the nurse to her nurse manager? A. “I’m not working overtime today.” B. “You know how I hate to work overtime.” C. “I will if you need me, but I am not happy about this.” D. “I have plans after work and will not be able to work overtime.” Correct Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. AA. 72.ID: 327498203 A nurse manager arrives at work and is immediately faced with several activities that require his attention. Which activity will the nurse manager attend to first? A. Stocking the medication closet B. Client assignments for the day Correct C. A phone message from a client’s wife D. A phone message from employee health services Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. AB. 73.ID: 327497525 A nurse who has been employed in a hospital for 8 weeks is consistently taking extended lunch breaks. The nurse’s behavior has caused problems with client care during lunch hours. What is the appropriate way for the nurse manager to deal with this situation? A. Ignoring the situation B. Asking other staff members to cover for the nurse C. Documenting the problem in the nurse’s personnel file D. Confronting the nurse to discuss the behavior and initiate problem­solving measures Correct Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. AC.74.ID: 327498209 A physician repeatedly asks a nurse to write his verbal prescriptions in his clients’ charts after he makes his rounds. The nurse is uncomfortable with writing the prescriptions and explains this to the physician, but the physician tells the nurse that she will be reported if she does not write the prescriptions. How should the nurse manage this conflict? A. Fulfilling the physician’s request B. Discussing the situation with the nurse manager Correct C. Reporting the physician to the chief of medicine at the hospital D. Stating to the physician, “I don’t really care whether you report me. I am not writing your prescriptions.” Rationale: When a conflict arises, it is most appropriate to try resolving the conflict directly. In this situation, the nurse has tried to explain why she is uncomfortable with the physician’s request but has been unable to resolve the conflict. The nurse would then most appropriately use organizational channels of communication and discuss the issue with the nurse manager, who would then proceed to resolve the conflict. The nurse manager may attempt to discuss the situation with the physician or seek assistance from the nursing supervisor. Fulfilling the physician’s request and writing the prescriptions in the clients’ charts ignores the issue. Reporting the physician to the chief of medicine is inappropriate, because the nurse should use the appropriate organizational channels of communication to resolve the conflict. Stating, “I don’t care whether you report me. I am not writing your prescriptions” is an inappropriate statement and will result in further conflict between the nurse and physician. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination. First eliminate the option that ignores the subject. Next eliminate the option that will result in further conflict between the nurse and physician. To select from the remaining options, think about the appropriate use of the organizational channels of communication; this will direct you to the correct option. Review the principles of managing conflict if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Marriner­Tomey, A. (2009). Guide to nursing management and leadership (8th ed., pp. 153­155). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. AD.75.ID: 327497593 A nurse manager notes that an employee is constantly calling in sick. Which action should the nurse manager take initially to handle this problem? A. Reporting the employee to administration B. Documenting the employee’s behavior in the personnel file C. Telling the employee that she will be fired if she calls in sick again D. Reminding the employee of the employment standards of the agency Correct Rationale: When an employee demonstrates an unacceptable level of absenteeism, the nurse must first remind the employee of the employment standards of the agency. Sometimes an employee does not know or has forgotten the existing standards, and a reminder with no threats or discipline is all that is needed. When the oral reminder does not result in a change in behavior, the reminder should be placed in writing. If the written reminder fails, the employee should be granted a day of decision to determine whether to accept the standards for work attendance. Pay may be given for this day (depending on the agency protocol) so that it is not interpreted as punishment, and the employee must return to work with a written decision. If the employee decides not to adhere to standards, her employment with the agency is terminated. Reporting the employee to administration, documenting the employee’s behavior in her personnel file, and telling the employee that she will be fired if she calls in sick again are not appropriate initial actions. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, noting the strategic word "initially." Focusing on the data in the question and noting that there is no information to indicate that this employee has been approached about his or her behavior in the past will direct you to the correct option. Review the procedure for handling unacceptable behavior related to employment standards if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Marriner­Tomey, A. (2009). Guide to nursing management and leadership (8th ed., pp. 447, 448). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. AE. 76.ID: 327497589 A nursing staff member approaches a nurse manager and announces that another nurse is not using alcohol swabs to clean the intravenous port when administering intravenous push medications. What is the appropriate way for the nurse manager to handle this situation? A. Telling the nurse that it is inappropriate to report other nurses B. Providing an in­service educational session on aseptic technique for everyone on the nursing unit C. Informing the nurse who reported the occurrence that intravenous ports do not need to be cleaned with alcohol before medication administration D. Reviewing the skills checklist of the nurse who is not using aseptic technique to determine whether the nurse has ever performed this skill and had her technique validated Correct Rationale: Intravenous ports must be cleaned with alcohol (or another antiseptic as designated by agency policy) before access. The nurse manager should handle this problem directly with the nurse who is using incorrect technique by first reviewing the nurse’s skills checklist to determine whether this skill has ever been performed by the nurse and validated. There is no information in the question to indicate that an in­service educational session is needed for everyone on the nursing unit. As a part of professional responsibility to maintain quality care, nurses are required to report instances of clinical incompetence. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and your knowledge of the principles of ensuring quality care for clients. Remember that it is best for the nurse manager to deal directly with the employee who is exhibiting unacceptable behavior. Review the principles of handling clinical incompetence if you had difficulty with this question. References: Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management (4th ed., pp. 531. 532). St. Louis: Saunders. Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., pp. 658, 660). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. AF. 77.ID: 327498221 A nurse on the day shift receives her client assignments for the day. List the clients in order of their priority for assessment. Incorrect A. A client with gastroenteritis and diarrhea B. A client with heart failure whose condition has been stable since the administration of furosemide (Lasix) C. A client with suspected gallbladder disease who is scheduled for an ultrasound of the abdomen D. A client with a herniated disc who is scheduled to be discharged today The correct order is: E. A client with heart failure whose condition has been stable since the administration of furosemide (Lasix) F. A client with gastroenteritis and diarrhea G. A client with suspected gallbladder disease who is scheduled for an ultrasound of the abdomen H. A client with a herniated disc who is scheduled to be discharged today Rationale: The nurse would first assess the client with a cardiac problem. Even though the client’s condition is stable, this client has received medication for stabilization and requires continued close monitoring. After this assessment, the nurse would assess the client with gastroenteritis for signs of fluid volume deficit (dehydration). The nurse would next assess the client scheduled for the ultrasound to ensure that this client understands the reason for the test. Finally the nurse would assess the client preparing for discharge to determine the need for reinforcement of home care instructions. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and the ABCs — airway, breathing, and circulation. This will direct you to the client with a cardiac problem (circulation) as the priority. Next use Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory to direct you to the client with gastroenteritis and diarrhea, who has the highest priority physiological need of the remaining clients. To determine the order of priority for the last two clients, the nurse would assess the client scheduled for the ultrasound to determine the presence of gallbladder pain, because this client could be experiencing pain. Review the guidelines for prioritization if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., pp. 220, 221). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 2. 78.ID: 327497507 A nurse is preparing the client assignments for the day. One of the registered nurses on the team has just learned that she is pregnant. Which client does the nurse refrain from assigning to the pregnant team member? A. A client with a solid sealed cervical radiation implant Correct B. A client with diarrhea for whom enteric precautions are in effect C. A client with metastatic cancer who is receiving a continuous infusion of intravenous morphine sulfate D. A client for whom contact precautions have been implemented and who requires frequent wound irrigations Rationale: Brachytherapy involves the implantation of a sealed radiation source within the targeted tumor tissue. A client who is wearing a solid implant emits radiation as long as the implant is in place; however, the client’s excreta is not radioactive. Pregnant nurses should not care for such clients. There are no contraindications to having a pregnant nurse care for a client under enteric precautions, a client with cancer who is receiving a continuous infusion of intravenous therapy, or a client who requires frequent wound irrigation. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, noting the strategic word “avoids.” This word indicates a negative event query and the need to select the client situation that could present a risk to a pregnant client. Thinking about the risks associated with each client listed in the options will direct you to the correct one. Review the guidelines associated with caring for a client with a sealed radiation implant if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Ignatavicius, D., & Workman, M. (2010). Medical­surgical nursing: Patient­centered collaborative care (6th ed., p. 420). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Planning Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. B. 79.ID: 327498235 A client has signed the informed consent for mastectomy of the left breast. On the morning of the surgical procedure, the client asks the nurse several questions about the procedure that make it obvious that she has does not have an adequate comprehension of the procedure. What is the most appropriate response by the nurse? A. Telling the client that it is her surgeon’s responsibility to explain the procedure B. Contacting the surgeon and requesting that she visit the client to answer her questions Correct C. Informing the client that she has the right to cancel the surgical procedure if she wishes D. Telling the client that she needed to ask these questions before signing the informed consent for surgery Rationale: Informed consent is the authorization by a client or a client’s legal representative to do something to the client. The surgeon is primarily responsible for explaining the surgical procedure and obtaining informed consent. If the client asks questions that alert the nurse to an inadequacy of comprehension on the client’s part, the nurse has the obligation to contact the surgeon. Telling the client that she needs to ask questions before signing the consent for surgery is incorrect. Although the client should be thoroughly informed before signing consent, the client has the right to ask questions thereafter. It is the surgeon’s responsibility to explain the procedure, and, if the client wishes, she has the right to cancel the surgical procedure. Although these are correct statements, they are not the most appropriate and do not address the client’s concerns. Additionally, they do not address the legal ramifications associated with informed consent. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination. Noting the strategic words “does not have an adequate comprehension of the procedure” and recalling that the physician is primarily responsible for explaining the surgical procedure to the client will direct you to the correct option. Review the issues surrounding informed consent if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Ignatavicius, D., & Workman, M. (2010). Medical­surgical nursing: Patient–centered collaborative care (6th ed., pp. 252, 254). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Ethical/Legal Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. C. 80.ID: 327497535 A nurse sees another nurse changing an intravenous (IV) solution because the wrong solution is infusing into the client. The nurse who changed the IV solution does not report the error. What should the nurse who observed the error do first? A. Call the client’s physician B. Document the error in the client’s chart C. Report the nurse who changed the IV solution D. Ask the nurse whether she intends to report the error Correct Rationale: The first thing the nurse who observed the error should do is ask the nurse whether she intends to report the error. As means of helping ensure client safety, all errors must be reported to the physician, but this is not the initial action. The client also needs to be assessed immediately. An incident report should be completed by the nurse who discovered the error (the nurse who changed the intravenous solution). The appropriate documentation also must be made in the client’s record by the nurse who discovered the error. If the nurse who discovered the error indicates that the error will not be reported, it may be necessary for the other nurse to contact the supervisor. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, noting the strategic words “do first.” Eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they involve reporting the error. To select from the remaining options, think about the principles of dealing with conflict. This will direct you to the direct option. Review nursing responsibilities when an error occurs if you had difficulty with this question. References: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., pp. 405, 406). St. Louis: Mosby. Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 820). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. D. 81.ID: 327496897 A nurse leader in a medical­surgical unit overhears the nursing staff openly discussing a client and stating that the client is “uncooperative and a real pain to care for.” The nurse leader would most appropriately manage this issue by: A. Discouraging the judgmental comments Correct B. Ignoring the comments made about the client C. Reporting the nurses’ comments to administration D. Leaving articles about judgmental opinions in the nurses’ report room Rationale: Nurses must discuss clients in a professional manner and avoid using judgmental language such as “uncooperative” or “difficult.” When such comments and language are discouraged, fewer comments will be made. Ignoring the comments is an inappropriate option because the concern will not addressed. Leaving articles about judgmental opinions in the nurse’s report room indirectly addresses the issue. Additionally, the nurse manager cannot ensure that the nursing staff will read the articles. Likewise, reporting the nurses’ comments to administration does not directly address the issue. The best approach that the nurse manager can take is to directly discuss the issue with the staff members. This action is not identified in the options. Therefore, of the options presented, discouraging judgmental comments is the most appropriate way to manage this concern. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination. Eliminate the options that are comparable or alike in that they do not directly address the staff’s unprofessional behavior. Review methods of discouraging judgmental comments if you had difficulty with this question. References: Marriner­Tomey, A. (2009). Guide to nursing management and leadership (8th ed., pp 306, 307). St. Louis: Mosby. Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 242). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. E. 82.ID: 327497581 A client receives cefazolin sodium (Ancef) by way of the intravenous route. During the infusion, the client begins exhibiting signs of an allergic reaction. The client states that his skin is itchy, and the nurse notes that the skin is warm and flushed, with a red rash on the arms, chest, and back. The nurse immediately discontinues the medication, further assesses the client, contacts the physician, and begins to document the reaction in an incident report. The nurse most accurately documents which of the following? A. The client had an allergy to cefazolin sodium. B. The physician was notified because a rash developed while the client was receiving cefazolin sodium. C. The client is apparently allergic to cefazolin sodium, as indicated by warm, flushed skin and a rash on the arms, chest, and back. D. During an infusion of cefazolin sodium, the client complained that his skin was itchy. The client’s skin was warm and flushed, with a red rash on the arms, chest, and back. The physician was notified. Correct Rationale: The nurse should document relevant information in an accurate, complete, and objective form. Noting the client had an allergy to cefazolin sodium does not identify objective data. Assuming that the client is allergic to cefazolin sodium because of warm and flushed skin makes an interpretation about the occurrence. Documenting that the physician was notified because the client developed a rash while receiving the medication identifies accurate data, but is incomplete. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, recalling that documentation should include relevant information in an accurate, complete, and objective form. This will direct you to the correct option. Also note the relationship of the data in the question and in the correct option. Review the principles related to documentation if you had difficulty with this question. References: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., p. 389). St. Louis: Mosby. Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing (7th ed., p. 709). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. F. 83.ID: 327496873 A nurse who works in a medical care unit is told that she must float to the intensive care unit because of a short­staffing problem on that unit. The nurse reports to the unit and is assigned to three clients. The nurse is angry with the assignment because she believes that the assignment is more difficult than the assignment delegated to other nurses on the unit and because the intensive care unit nurses are each assigned only one client. The nurse should most appropriately: A. Refuse to do the assignment B. Tell the nurse manager to call the nursing supervisor C. Ask the nurse manager of the intensive care unit to discuss the assignment Correct D. Return to the medical care unit and discuss the assignment with the nurse manager on that unit Rationale: A nurse who feels that the assignment is more difficult than the assignments delegated to other nurses on the unit would most appropriately discuss the assignment with the nurse manager of the intensive care unit. This will help the nurse identify the rationale for the assignment or determine whether the assignment is actually more difficult. A nurse would not refuse an assignment. The nurse would not return to the medical care unit, which would constitute client abandonment. Additionally, this action does not address the conflict directly. Telling the nurse manager to call the nursing supervisor is an aggressive action that does not address the conflict directly. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, dealing with conflict. Refusing to perform the assignment is unethical and could be grounds for dismissal. Leaving the nursing unit constitutes client abandonment and could also result in dismissal. From the remaining options, select the option in which the conflict is dealt with directly. Review the appropriate methods of dealing with a conflict if you had difficulty with this question. References: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., pp. 163, 164). St. Louis: Mosby. Marriner­Tomey, A. (2009). Guide to nursing management and leadership (8th ed., pp. 153, 154). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. G. 84.ID: 327498241 A client with a left arm fracture complains of severe diffuse pain that is unrelieved by pain medication. On further assessment, the nurse notes that the client experiences increased pain during passive motion, compared with active motion, of the left arm. On the basis of these assessment findings, which action should the nurse take first? A. Contacting the physician Correct B. Reassessing the client in 30 minutes C. Checking to see whether it is time for more pain medication D. Encouraging the client to continue active range of motion exercises of the left arm Rationale: The client with early acute compartment syndrome typically complains of severe diffuse pain that is unrelieved by pain medication. The affected client also complains that pain during passive motion is greater than that during active motion. The nurse must notify the physician immediately. The other options are incorrect because they delay necessary interventions. Test­Taking Strategy: Focus on the assessment data presented in the question. Recall that these signs indicate early acute compartment syndrome. Remember, if this is suspected, the physician needs to be notified. Also note that the incorrect options are comparable or alike in that they delay necessary intervention. Review the complications associated with a fracture of an extremity and the associated priority nursing interventions if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Ignatavicius, D., & Workman, M. (2010). Medical­surgical nursing: Patient–centered collaborative care (6th ed., p. 1181). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. H. 85.ID: 327498213 A client with terminal cancer is receiving a continuous intravenous infusion of morphine sulfate. On assessment of the client, what does the nurse check first? A. Pulse B. Urine output C. Temperature D. Respiratory status Correct Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. I. 86.ID: 327498247 A nurse is preparing to administer medications to a client by way of a nasogastric (NG) tube. Before administering the medication, the nurse must first: A. Check the client’s apical pulse B. Check the placement of the tube Correct C. Check when the last feeding was given D. Check when the last medications were given Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. J. 87.ID: 327496855 An emergency department nurse is performing an assessment of a client who has sustained circumferential burns of both legs. What should the nurse assess first? A. Heart rate B. Radial pulse rate C. Peripheral pulses Correct D. Blood pressure (BP) Rationale: The client who has sustained circumferential burns to the extremities is at risk for altered peripheral circulation. The priority assessment is to check the peripheral pulses to ensure that circulation is adequate. Although the heart rate and BP would also be assessed, the priority with a circumferential extremity burn is the assessment of peripheral pulses. Test­Taking Strategy: Eliminate the options that are comparable or alike first (heart rate and radial pulse rate). To select from the remaining options, focus on the strategic words “first” and “circumferential burns of both legs.” If you had difficulty with this question or are unfamiliar with the priority assessment in a client who has sustained a circumferential burn of an extremity, review this content. Reference: Black, J., & Hawks, J. (2009). Medical­surgical nursing: Clinical management for positive outcomes (8th ed., p. 1252). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Delegating/Prioritizing Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. K. 88.ID: 327496867 A nurse employed at a hospital is asked by a nurse manager to review the organizational chart. The nurse reviews the chart so that he will: A. Understand the organization’s reason for existence B. Be familiar with the organization’s line of authority Correct C. Be familiar with the beliefs and values of the organization D. Be aware of the geographical area that the organization serves Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. L. 89.ID: 327497537 A physician asks the nurse who is caring for a client with a new colostomy to ask the hospital’s stoma nurse to visit the client and assist the client with care of the colostomy. The nurse initiates the consultation, understanding that the stoma nurse will be able to influence the client because of his: A. Expert power Correct B. Reward power C. Referent power D. Coercive power Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. M. 90.ID: 327498217 A nurse manager discusses staff empowerment with the nursing team. The nurse manager explains that staff empowerment: A. Allows the staff to make every decision regarding employee scheduling B. Fosters the growth of others so that they are less dependent on the leader Correct C. Means that the staff has the power to reprimand and punish any individual who is not meeting the standards of care delivery D. Indicates that the nurse leader will make decisions regarding the nursing unit and expects that the staff will comply with the changes Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. N. 91.ID: 327498201 A client who has undergone a total hip replacement is told that she will need to go to an extended care rehabilitation facility for therapy before going home. Which member of the healthcare team does the nurse ask to plan the discharge and transition from the hospital to the rehabilitation facility? A. Clergy B. Social worker Correct C. Physical therapist D. Occupational therapist Rationale: A social worker is trained to counsel clients in a variety of areas. Counseling services may include providing emotional support for clients and families during severe and terminal illnesses, arranging placement in extended care facilities, and locating financial resources. Clergy (pastoral care) offer spiritual support and guidance to clients and families. A physical therapist assists in examining, testing, and treating the physically disabled or handicapped through the use of exercises and other techniques. An occupational therapist assists a client who experiences impairment in performing activities of daily living such as feeding him­ or herself with the use of an adaptive device. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and focus on the subject, discharge planning. Recalling the functions and roles of the social worker and the other members of the healthcare team presented in the options will direct you to the correct option. Review the roles of the various healthcare team members if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2008). Contemporary nursing issues: Trends & management (4th ed., p. 536). St. Louis: Mosby. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Content Area: Leadership/Management Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. O. 92.ID: 327496859 The nurse notes that a physician has documented the following prescription in a client’s record: Furosemide (Lasix) 40 mg stat once. What action should the nurse take? A. Contacting the physician Correct B. Administering the medication C. Drawing up the medication in a syringe D. Planning to have the nurse on the next shift administer the medication Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. P. 93.ID: 327497551 A 17­year­old client arrives at the clinic and asks to be examined because she believes that she has contracted a sexually transmitted infection. In regard to informed consent, the nurse tells the client that: A. She will need to sign an informed consent form Correct B. Her mother or father will need to be contacted for permission to treat her C. Anyone over the age of 18 years may sign a consent form for her treatment D. A consent form is not needed if the problem is a sexually transmitted infection Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. Q. 94.ID: 327497547 An 18­year­old client is brought to the emergency department (ED) by emergency medical services after sustaining life­threatening injuries in an automobile accident. The client is unconscious and requires an emergency splenectomy. A nurse in the ED assists in quickly preparing the client for surgery and tries to contact the client’s parents but is unsuccessful. In regard to informed consent for the surgery: A. The nurse understands that consent is not needed Correct B. The nurse will contact the hospital clergy to provide informed consent C. The nurse will sign informed consent on behalf of the client and ask another nurse to witness the signature D. The nurse will prepare the client to undergo mechanical ventilation until the client’s parents can be contacted Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. R. 95.ID: 327497579 A nurse is supervising a new nursing graduate in various procedures. Which of the following actions by the new nursing graduate constitutes a negligent act? A. Giving a verbal report to the nurse on the oncoming shift B. Checking neurological signs in a client with a head injury C. Using clean gloves to change a gastrostomy tube dressing Correct D. Contacting a physician about a change in a client’s blood pressure Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. S. 96.ID: 327498239 A nurse is reviewing the notes written by a nurse on a previous shift. Which note in the client’s record reflects the correct use of guidelines for documentation? A. The client seems anxious B. The client’s intake was 360 mL Correct C. The client’s wound is healing well D. The client is voiding large amounts Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. T. 97.ID: 327497567 A nurse is reading the nurse practice act for the state in which she is employed. The nurse uses the information in this act to: A. Identify healthcare policies in her state B. Know how to perform certain procedures C. Be aware of the role of the professional nurse Correct D. Be aware of hospital and long­term care facilities policies Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. U. 98.ID: 327498215 A client whose right leg is in skeletal traction complains of pain in the leg. Which action should the nurse take first? A. Realigning the client Correct B. Asking the client to wiggle her toes C. Removing some of the traction weights D. Medicating the client with the prescribed analgesic Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. V. 99.ID: 327497569 A nurse is performing suctioning through an adult client’s tracheostomy tube. The nurse notes that the client’s oxygen saturation is 89% and terminates the procedure. Which action would the nurse take next? A. Calling the physician B. Calling the respiratory therapist C. Rechecking the pulse oximetry reading D. Oxygenating the client with 100% oxygen Correct Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. W. 100.ID: 327497585 A nurse is assisting a client with a closed chest tube drainage system in bathing. As the nurse is turning the client onto his side, the chest tube is disconnected. What should the nurse do first? A. Call the physician B. Clamp the chest tube with a Kelly clamp C. Instruct the client to inhale and hold his breath D. Submerge the end of the chest tube in a bottle of sterile water Correct Rationale: If the tube becomes disconnected, it is best to immediately reattach it to the drainage system or to submerge the end in a bottle of sterile water or saline solution to reestablish a water seal. The physician must be notified, but this is not the first action. The client would not be instructed to inhale, because this would cause atmospheric air to enter the pleural space. In most situations, clamping of chest tubes is contraindicated. When the client has a residual air leak or pneumothorax, clamping the chest tube may precipitate a tension pneumothorax, because the air has no escape route. Test­Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination, noting the strategic word “first.” Thinking about the principles related to a chest tube drainage system will direct you to the correct option. Remember that if the tube is disconnected the water seal must be reestablished. Review the immediate nursing actions related to the complications associated with a closed chest tube drainage system if you had difficulty with this question. Reference: Black, J., & Hawks, J. (2009). Medical­surgical nursing: Clinical management for positive outcomes (8th ed., p. 1624). St. Louis: Saunders. Cognitive Ability: Applying Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment Integrated Process: Nursing Process/Implementation Awarded 1.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. [Show More]

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