Test Bank: Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing Huether: Understanding Pathophysiology, 7th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A public health nurse is teaching the community about health p... romotion. Which information should the nurse include for innate immunity? Innate immunity is gained: a. following an illness. b. at birth. c. via injection of specific antibodies. d. in adulthood. ANS: B Innate immunity is present at birth, and is considered the body’s first line of defense. It is not dependent on illness or injection. 2. Which statement indicates teaching was successful regarding collectins? Collectins are produced by the: a. kidneys. b. bowel. c. lungs. d. integument. ANS: C Collectins are produced by the lungs. Collectins are not associated with the kidneys, bowel, or integumentary system. NURSINGKING.COM 3. A 20-year-old male received a knife wound to the arm during an altercation. Which of the following types of immunity was compromised? a. Innate immunity b. Inflammatory response c. Adaptive immunity d. Specific immunity ANS: A The epithelial cells of the skin are a part of innate immunity. The inflammatory response is not a type of immunity. Adaptive immunity is represented by the normal flora of the bowel. Specific immunity is a type of adaptive immunity and is not associated with a break in skin integrity. 4. Biochemical secretions that trap and kill microorganisms include: a. hormones. b. neurotransmitters. c. earwax. d. gastric acid. ANS: C Epithelial cells secrete several substances that protect against infection, including earwax. Hormones do not contain biochemical secretions that trap and kill microorganisms. Neurotransmitters carry important messages, and gastric acid helps break down food into its component parts, but neither contains biochemical secretions. 5. A 25-year-old female presents to her primary care provider reporting vaginal discharge of a white, viscous, and foul-smelling substance. She reports that she has been taking antibiotics for the past 6 months. Which finding will the nurse most likely see on the microorganism report? a. Clostridium difficile overgrowth b. Decreased Lactobacillus c. Streptococcus overgrowth d. Decreased Candida albicans ANS: B Diminished colonization with Lactobacillus that occurs as a result of prolonged antibiotic treatment increases the risk for vaginal infections, such as vaginosis. Clostridium difficile and C. albicans occur in the colon, not the vagina. Streptococcus overgrowth will occur in the mouth. 6. When an aide asks the nurse about the purpose of the inflammatory process, how should the nurse respond? a. To provide specific responses toward antigens. b. To lyse cell membranes of microorganisms. c. To prevent infection of the injured tissue. d. To create immunity against subsequent tissue injury. ANS: C NURSINGKING.COM One purpose of the inflammatory process is to prevent infection and further damage by contaminating microorganisms. Specific response toward antigens is a part of the complement system that assists in the inflammatory response, but not its purpose. Lysis of cell membranes is part of the process of phagocytosis, which removes foreign material. Immunity cannot be achieved against future tissue injury. 7. A child fell off a swing and scraped his right knee. The injured area becomes painful. What else will the nurse observe upon assessment? a. Vasoconstriction at injured site b. Decreased RBC concentration at injured site c. Pale skin at injured site d. Edema at injured site ANS: D Increased vascular permeability and leakage of fluid out of the vessel cause edema at the site of injury. Vasodilation occurs, bringing increased RBCs to the site and causing redness. 8. A nurse recalls the mast cell, a major activator of inflammation, initiates the inflammatory response through the process of: a. chemotaxis. b. endocytosis. c. degranulation. d. opsonization. ANS: C Degranulation of mast cells is a major cellular component of inflammation. Chemotaxis is the process of white cell migration. Endocytosis and opsonization are parts of phagocytosis but are not factors in mast cell response. 9. Which of the following individuals would be at greatest risk for an opportunistic infection? a. 18 year old with diabetes b. 70 year old with congestive heart failure c. 24 year old who is immunocompromised d. 30 year old with pneumonia ANS: C Opportunistic microorganisms can cause disease if the individual’s defenses are compromised. Diabetes, congestive heart failure, and pneumonia are not associated with immunocompromised disorders. 10. The directional migration of leukocytes along a chemical gradient is termed: a. chemotaxis. b. endocytosis. c. margination. d. diapedesis. ANS: A Chemotaxis is the process by which leukocytes undergo directed migration. Endocytosis is a form of engulfment and a part of phagocytosis. Margination occurs when leukocytes adhere to endothelial cells in the walls of vessels. Diapedesis is the emigration of the cells through cell junctions that have loosened iNnUreRsSpoInNseGtKoIinNflGam.CmOatMory mediators. 11. A 20-year-old male shoots his hand with a nail gun while replacing roofing shingles. Which of the following cell types would be the first to aid in killing bacteria to prevent infection in his hand? a. Eosinophils b. Neutrophils c. Leukotrienes d. Monocytes ANS: B Neutrophils are the predominant phagocytes in the early inflammatory site, arriving within 6–12 hours after the initial injury. Eosinophils help limit and control inflammation. Leukotrienes are activators of the inflammatory response. Monocytes enter much later and replace leukocytes. 12. The predominant phagocyte of early inflammation is the: a. eosinophil. b. neutrophil. c. lymphocyte. d. macrophage. ANS: B Neutrophils are the predominant phagocytes in the early inflammatory site, arriving within 6–12 hours after the initial injury. Eosinophils help limit and control inflammation, but they are not the prominent phagocyte. Lymphocytes are part of the innate immune response. Macrophages kill microorganisms. 13. A 25-year-old female experiences a headache and takes aspirin for relief. A nurse recalls aspirin relieves the headache by: a. decreasing leukotriene production. b. increasing histamine release. c. decreasing prostaglandin production. d. increasing platelet-activating factor. ANS: C Aspirin is a prostaglandin inhibitor. Aspirin is not associated with leukotriene production, histamine release, or platelet-activating factor. 14. Which factor will help the nurse differentiate leukotrienes from histamine? a. Site of production b. Vascular effect c. Chemotactic ability d. Time of release ANS: D Leukotrienes are released slower and longer than histamine. Both leukotrienes and histamine are produced by mast cells, and they have similar vascular effects and chemotactic abilities. 15. A 25-year-old male is in a car accident and sustains a fracture to his left femur with extensive soft tissue injury. The pain asNsoUcRiaSteId NwGitKh IthNe Gin.juCryOMis related to: a. histamine. b. prostaglandins. c. vasoconstriction. d. immune complex formation. ANS: B Prostaglandins cause increased vascular permeability, neutrophil chemotaxis, and pain by direct effects on nerves. Histamine promotes vasodilation. Prostaglandins are not associated with vasoconstriction or the immune complex formation. 16. The complement, clotting, and kinin systems share which of the following characteristics? a. Activation of a series of proenzymes b. Phagocytosis initiation c. Granulocyte production d. Activated by interferon ANS: A The complement system, the clotting system, and the kinin system are normally in inactive forms but can activate in a series as proenzymes and are involved in the inflammatory process. This system is not associated with phagocytosis, granulocyte production, or the activation of interferon. 17. Which statement indicates teaching was successful regarding the classical pathway of the complement system? The classical pathway of the complement system is activated by: a. histamine. b. antigen-antibody complexes. c. leukotrienes. d. prostaglandins. ANS: B The classical pathway of the complement system is activated by antibodies of the immune system, not by histamine, leukotrienes, or prostaglandins. 18. A patient has researched bradykinin on the Internet. Which information indicates the patient understands the functions of bradykinin? Bradykinin is involved in: a. increasing vascular permeability. b. vasoconstricting blood vessels. c. stimulating the clotting system. d. increasing degradation of prostaglandins. ANS: A Bradykinin increases vascular permeability. It is not associated with vasoconstriction, stimulating the clotting system, or increasing degradation of prostaglandins. 19. After teaching the staff about the clotting system, which statement indicates the teaching was successful? The end product of the clotting system is: a. plasmin. b. fibrin. c. collagen. d. factor X. ANS: B NURSINGKING.COM The end product of the clotting system is fibrin. Plasmin activates the complement cascade. Collagen plays a factor in wound healing. Factor X is a first step in the clotting system. 20. A 5-year-old male is diagnosed with a bacterial infection. Cultures of the bacteria revealed lipopolysaccharides on the bacterial cell surface. Which of the complement pathways would be activated in this case? a. Classical pathway b. Lectin pathway c. Alternative pathway d. Kinin pathway ANS: C The alternative pathway is activated by several substances found on the surface of infectious organisms, such as those containing lipopolysaccharides. The classical pathway is primarily activated by antibodies that are proteins of the acquired immune system. The lectin pathway is similar to the classical pathway but is independent of antibody. It is activated by several plasma proteins. The kinin pathway is involved in coagulation. 21. An 8-year-old female presents with edema of the cutaneous and mucosal tissue layers. Her mother reports that the condition is recurrent and seems to occur more often during stressful situations. The child is diagnosed with hereditary angioedema. Which of the following is deficient in this child? a. C1 esterase inhibitor b. Carboxypeptidase c. Neutrophils d. Plasmin ANS: A A genetic defect in C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH deficiency) results in hereditary angioedema. Hereditary angioedema is due to C1 esterase inhibitor, not neutrophils. Carboxypeptidase degrades kinins. Plasmin is associated with clots. 22. A nurse is preparing to teach on the subject of opsonins. Which information should the nurse include? Opsonins are molecules that: a. are composed of fatty acids. b. regulate inflammation. c. degranulate mast cells. d. enhance phagocytosis. ANS: D Opsonins coat the surface of bacteria and increase their susceptibility to being phagocytized. Opsonins are not associated with fatty acids, the regulation of the inflammatory process, or the degranulation of mast cells. 23. A 10-year-old male is diagnosed with a parasite. Which lab result should the nurse check for a response to the parasite? a. Monocytes b. Eosinophils c. Neutrophils d. Macrophages ANS: B NURSINGKING.COM Eosinophils serve as the body’s primary defense against parasites. Monocytes and neutrophils are phagocytic. Macrophages are not active against parasites; they act as long-term defense against infections. 24. A 65-year-old female is diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. She has developed muscle wasting. Which of the following substances would be produced in large quantities to eliminate the tumor cells and cause muscle wasting? a. Interleukin-6 b. Eosinophils c. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha d. Platelets ANS: C Tumor necrosis factor-alpha causes muscle wasting. Interleukin-6 stimulates growth and differentiation of blood cells. Eosinophils are stimulated by parasites. Platelets stimulate clotting. 25. When phagocytes begin to stick avidly to capillary walls, which process is occurring? a. Margination b. Exudation c. Integration d. Emigration ANS: A Both leukocytes and endothelial cells secrete substances that increase adhesion, or stickiness, causing the leukocytes to adhere more avidly to the endothelial cells in the walls of the capillaries and venules in a process called margination. Exudation is the process of pus formation and does not result in stickiness. Integration occurs in cells but is not a major function and does not lead to stickiness. Emigration is similar to diapedesis and is not associated with increased stickiness. 26. An infant develops a fever secondary to a bacterial infection. Which of the following most likely triggered the fever? a. Interleukin-1 b. Interleukin-6 c. Interleukin-10 d. Interferons (IFNs) ANS: A Interleukin-1 is responsible for fever production. Interleukin-6 stimulates growth and differentiation of blood cells. Interleukin-10 helps decrease the immune response. INFs are members of a family of cytokines that protect against viral infections. 27. A 54-year-old male intravenous (IV) drug user is diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C. Testing revealed that he is a candidateNfUoRr tSreIaNtmGeKntI. NWGh.icCh OofMthe following could be used to treat his condition? a. Interleukin-1 b. Interleukin-6 c. Interleukin-10 d. INFs ANS: D INFs are members of a family of cytokines that protect against viral infections. Interleukin-1 is responsible for fever production. Interleukin-6 stimulates growth and differentiation of blood cells. Interleukin-10 helps decrease the immune response. 28. A 35-year-old male is diagnosed with lobar pneumonia (lung infection). Which of the following exudates would be present in highest concentration at the site of this advanced inflammatory response? a. Serous b. Purulent c. Hemorrhagic d. Fibrinous ANS: D Fibrinous exudates occur in the lungs of individuals with pneumonia. Serous fluid is watery fluid, as in a blister. Purulent is characterized by an abscess, such as pus. Hemorrhagic occurs when the exudates are filled with erythrocytes. 29. During inflammation, the liver is stimulated to release plasma proteins, collectively known as: a. opsonins. b. acute phase reactants. c. antibodies. d. phagolysosomes. ANS: B The synthesis of many plasma proteins by the liver is increased during inflammation. These proteins, which can be either proinflammatory or antiinflammatory in nature, are referred to as acute phase reactants. Opsonins coat the surface of bacteria and increase their susceptibility to being phagocytized. Antibodies are proteins of the immune system. Phagolysosomes destroy bacteria. 30. A 3 year old is making play cakes in a sandbox and is eating the play cakes. The sand was also being used by cats as a litter box and was contaminated with toxoplasmosis. Which of the following would most likely also be present? a. Granuloma formation b. Degranulation c. Blood clots d. Exudate production ANS: A Infections caused by bacteria such as toxoplasmosis can result in granuloma formation. Degranulation is a part of mast cell destruction. Blood clots are not expected with chronic inflammation. Exudate production is pus formation. 31. The macrophage secretion thaNtUstRimSuIlaNteGsKpIroNcGol.laCgeOnMsynthesis and secretion is: a. angiogenesis factor. b. matrix metalloproteinase. c. vascular endothelial growth factor. d. transforming growth factor-beta. ANS: D Macrophages secrete transforming growth factor-beta to stimulate fibroblasts to secrete the collagen precursor procollagen. Angiogenesis factor supports the growth of new vessels. Matrix metalloproteinase remodels proteins at the site of injury. Vascular endothelial growth factors are also involved in vessel growth. 32. A 30-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle accident. The glass from the shattered window cut his face and neck. The scar, however, was raised and extended beyond the original boundaries of the wound. This pattern of scarring is caused by impaired: a. nutritional status. b. collagen synthesis. c. epithelialization. d. contraction. ANS: B Impaired production of collagen can cause surface overhealing, leading to a keloid or a hypertrophic scar. Nutritional deficiencies would lead to healing problems, but not extended scarring. Necrosis or steroid use leads to impaired epithelialization. Impaired contraction would lead to drawing of tissues, not raised. 33. The nurse is reviewing the lab data of a newly admitted patient. The nurse notes the patient had an erythrocyte sedimentation done, and the results are quite elevated. The nurse would focus the care plan on which of the following conditions? a. Anemia b. Infection c. Inflammation d. Electrolyte imbalance ANS: C Common laboratory tests for inflammation measure levels of acute phase reactants. An increase in fibrinogen is associated with an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which is considered a good indicator of an acute inflammatory response. An elevated sedimentation rate is not associated with anemia, infection, or an electrolyte imbalance. 34. Healing by secondary intention would occur in which of the following patients? A patient with a: a. sutured surgical wound. b. stage IV pressure ulcer. c. paper cut. d. sunburn. ANS: B A patient with a stage IV presNsUurRe SulIceNrGwKoIulNdGh.eaCl ObyMsecondary intention. A surgical wound and a paper cut would heal by primary intention. A patient with a sunburn would heal without needing either primary or secondary intention. 35. The post-surgical patient is experiencing delayed wound healing. The dietitian believes the delay is related to nutritional intake. A deficiency in which of the following substances could directly affect healing? a. Vitamin D b. Ascorbic acid c. Melanin d. Cholesterol ANS: B Most of the factors that interfere with the production of collagen in healing tissues are nutritional. Scurvy, for example, is caused by lack of ascorbic acid—one of the cofactors required for collagen formation by fibroblasts. The results of scurvy are poorly formed connective tissue and greatly impaired healing. Healing is not associated with vitamin D, melanin, or cholesterol. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. A nurse remembers that the primary actions of the complement cascade include: (Select all that apply.) a. increased vascular permeability. b. vasoconstriction. c. chemotaxis. d. opsonization. e. cell killing. f. increased clotting. ANS: A, C, D, E The actions of the complement cascade include increased vascular permeability and vasodilation, chemotaxis, opsonization, and cell killing. They do not involve vasoconstriction or increased clotting. 2. The nurse is assessing a patient with a diagnosis of inflammation. The nurse would expect to find which of the following signs and symptoms consistent with acute inflammation? (Select all that apply.) a. Heat b. Erythema c. Pain d. Swelling e. Paleness f. Loss of function ANS: A, B, C, D, F The classic symptoms of acute inflammation include redness (erythema), heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Paleness would indicate poor circulation, not inflammation. 3. The nurse identified each of the following clinical manifestations of inflammation. Which would the nurse classify as a NloUcaRl SreIspNoGnKseI? N(SGe.leCctOaMll that apply.) a. Fever b. Redness c. Swelling d. Heat e. Pain ANS: B, C, D, E Local manifestations of inflammation are the result of the vascular changes associated with the inflammatory process, including vasodilation and increased capillary permeability. The symptoms include redness, heat, swelling, and pain. Fever is a symptom of infection. 4. Physical barriers that offer the body protection from damage and infection are located in the: (Select all that apply.) a. gastrointestinal tract. b. genitourinary tract. c. respiratory tract. d. lymph system. e. hematopoietic system. ANS: A, B, C The physical barriers that cover the external parts of the human body offer considerable protection from damage and infection. These barriers are composed of tightly associated epithelial cells of the skin and of the linings of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory tracts. [Show More]
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