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NSG 6320 AGNP BOARD EXAM QUESTIONS (latest) Assessment question of Endocrinology (48 Questions) – South University Savannah | 100% CORRECT ANSWERS

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NSG 6320 AGNP BOARD EXAM QUESTIONS (latest) Assessment question of Endocrinology (48 Questions) – South University Savannah Question: The earliest recognizable clinical manifestation(s) of cy... stic fibrosis in an infant is:    History of poor intestinal absorption      Foul smelling, frothy, greasy stools      Meconium ileus      Salty taste on the skin   Explanation: The signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis (CF) vary from person to person and over time. Sometimes there will be few symptoms and other times, symptoms may become more severe. One of the first signs of CF that parents may notice is that their baby's skin tastes salty when kissed, or the baby doesn't pass stool when first born. Most of the other signs and symptoms of CF happen later. They're related to how CF affects the respiratory, digestive, or reproductive systems of the body. Question: If a newborn is suspected of having congenital hypothyroidism, which clinical manifestation would be evident?    Prematurity      Hyperthermia      Hyperactivity      Enlarged anterior fontanel   Explanation: Infants with congenital hypothyroidism are usually born at term or after term. Most practitioners now depend on the screening test in newborns to diagnose this condition since the symptoms or signs take time to develop. The symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism may include some of the following: puffy face, coarse facial features, enlarged anterior fontanel, thick protruding tongue, poor feeding, constipation or reduced stooling, prolonged jaundice, decreased activity with hypotonia, hypothermia and cool and pale skin, goiter, birth defects (e.g., heart valve abnormality), poor weight gain due to poor appetite, and swollen hands, feet and genitals. Question: The appearance of breast development in girls before the age of 8 years is termed:    amenorrhea.      gynecomastia.      adrenarche.      precocious puberty.   Explanation: Puberty that begins before age 8 in girls and before age 9 in boys is considered precocious puberty. Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation. Gynecomastia is swelling of the breast tissue in boys or men. Adrenarche is the early presence of pubic hair in girls aged 5-8 years old. Question: A butterfly-shaped gland located in the middle of the neck below the larynx and above the clavicles is the:    parathyroid gland.      thyroid gland.      hypothalamus gland.      thymus gland.   Explanation: The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the middle of the neck below the larynx and above the clavicles. The parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands located in the neck behind the thyroid gland. The thymus gland is rectangular and located in the mediastinum of the thoracic cavity anterior and superior to the heart and posterior to the sternum. The hypothalamus is located in the brain. Question: When auscultating the enlarged thyroid with a stethoscope, a bruit is suggestive of:    a carotid aneurysm.      a normal finding.      hyperthyroidism.      a thyroid malignancy.   Explanation: A systolic or continuous bruit auscultated with a stethoscope over an enlarged thyroid may be heard in hyperthyroidism. This is not a normal finding. A bruit is not usually associated with a thyroid malignancy. Question: During assessment of the thyroid, a fixed, firm, nontender large mass is noted. These findings describe:    a cyst.      a nodule.      a goiter.      hyperplasia.   Explanation: A thyroid nodule presents as a fixed, firm, nontender large mass. Thyroid cysts are fluid-filled. A goiter causes visible swelling at the base of the neck. Hyperplasia is an abnormal increase in the volume of a tissue or organ caused by the formation and growth of new normal cells Question: A hormonal disorder in adults resulting from the overproduction of growth hormones is known as:    gigantism.      prolactinoma.      acromegaly.      congenital adrenal hyperplasia.   Explanation: Gigantism refers to an abnormally high linear growth due to the excessive action of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) while the epiphyseal growth plates are open during childhood. Acromegaly is the same disorder of IGF-I excess but occurs after the growth plate cartilage fuses in adulthood. Excessive growth hormone is almost always caused by a noncancerous (benign) pituitary tumor. A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces excessive prolactin resulting in decreased levels of some sex hormones. The term congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive disorders, each of which involves a deficiency of an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol, aldosterone, or both. Question: Hyperpigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes can be seen in patients who:    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).      Addison's Disease.      Cushing's Disease.      diabetes.   Explanation: Hyperpigmentation of skin and mucous membranes is usually seen in patients who have Addison's Disease. Hairy leukoplakia can be seen in patients who have AIDS. Cushing's disease can present with any of the following skin lesions: striae, skin atrophy, purpura, ecchymosis, telangiectasias, acne, moon facies, buffalo hump, or hypertrichosis. Diabetes may produce any of these skin conditions: necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic bullae, diabetic dermopathy, granuloma annulare, acanthosis nigricans, candidiasis, neuropathic ulcers, eruptive xanthomas, and peripheral vascular disease. Question: Women with hyperthyroidism often experience:    oligomenorrhea.      normal menstruation.      amenorrhea.      menorrhagia.   Explanation: Women diagnosed with hyperthyroidism usually present with oligomenorrhea or infrequent menstrual periods. Menstruation is normal vaginal bleeding. Amenorrhea is an absence of menstruation. Menorrhagia is prolonged or heavy vaginal bleeding. Question: A 20-year-old with acanthosis nigricans should be evaluated for:    acute renal failure.      diabetes mellitus.      alcohol-induced cirrhosis.      hypothyroidism.   Explanation: Acanthosis nigricans is a skin condition characterized by dark velvety patches in the body folds and creases. It is typically noted in patients who are obese or who have diabetes. Question: Which one of the following groups of symptoms would be more consistent in a child with type 2 diabetes mellitus?    Blood glucose levels on two separate occasions between 75 mg/dL and 110 mg/dL, weight loss, and frequent urination      Complaints of being hungry all the time, hyperactivity, and frequent urination      Blood glucose levels on two separate occasions greater than 126 mg/dl, enuresis, and complaints of being tired      Polyphagia, polydipsia, and polyuria   Explanation: Classic S/S of type 2 diabetes mellitus include: non-fasting blood glucose levels >200 (especially with other symptoms of diabetes), overweight, fatigue, frequent infections, and enuresis. Polyphagia, polydipsia, and polyuria are classic signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Question: A 30-year-old woman is taking phenytoin (Dilantin) for seizures. She has recent hair loss and anorexia but is craving salty foods. Her lab results show abnormally high cortisol levels. These symptoms suggest:    hyperparathyroidism.      Addison's disease.      anorexia nervosa      celiac disease.   Explanation: Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypercortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate steroid hormones. Classic symptoms of Addison's disease include fatigue, anorexia, chronic diarrhea, salt craving, mucosal pigmentation, and hair loss. Lab tests for adrenal function shows a subnormal rise in cortisol levels. Question: Based on the 2-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT), a positive result for gestational diabetes is:    120 mg/dL.      150 mg/dL      180 mg/dL      200 mg/dL   Explanation: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is diagnosed based on a glucose tolerance test (GTT) of 200 mg/dL or higher. GDM can be diagnosed based on the same criteria used to diagnose types 1 and 2 DM: a fasting blood glucose concentration of >126 mg/dL on two separate occasions or a random blood glucose concentration of >200 mg/dL on two separate occasions. Question: Which of the following is NOT a complaint of patients with type 1 diabetes?    Polydipsia      Polyuria      Polyphagia      Polycythemia   Explanation: Polycythemia results in an increased level of red blood cells in the bloodstream and is not directly associated with diabetes. Causes of polycythemia include hypoxia, sleep apnea, and certain tumors. The 3 P's of type 1 diabetes include polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia. Question: Hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland would lead to all the following disorders except:    myxedema.      Grave's disease.      hypothyroidism.      Hashimoto's thyroiditis.   Explanation: Hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland leads to an insufficient production of thyroid hormones. This results in a hypometabolic state leading to a decrease in oxygen consumption by the tissues and decreased heat production. Disorders related to hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland include primary hypothyroidism, myxedema, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, iodine deficiency, and myxedema coma. Grave's disease results in hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland. Question: The most common cause of death in children diagnosed with cystic fibrosis is:    heart failure.      respiratory failure.      liver failure.      renal failure.   Explanation: The cause of death in more than 90% of patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis is chronic pulmonary disease caused by bacterial and viral pathogens. This leads to a host inflammatory response. Question: When assessing the thyroid gland, the nurse practitioner palpates for abnormalities while asking the patient to:    cough.      turn the neck.      stick out tongue.      swallow water.   Explanation: Proper posterior assessment of the thyroid is performed by palpating between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. One hand is used to slightly retract the sternocleidomastoid muscle; the other hand palpates the thyroid. The patient is asked to swallow a sip of water during palpation, while the examiner feels for the upward movement of the thyroid gland. Abnormalities include asymmetry, masses, erythema, or deviation of the trachea. Question: A patient has an enlarged thyroid gland with an audible bruit. The examiner should suspect:    hypothyroidism.      a thyroid malignancy.      hyperthyroidism.      thyroiditis.   Explanation: In a patient who has hyperthyroidism, the examiner could expect an enlarged thyroid gland. Often a localized or continuous bruit is audible over the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland. Question: Myxedema is a symptom commonly found in patients diagnosed with:    Addison's disease.      hypothyroidism.      thyroid nodule.      adrenal insufficiency.   Explanation: Myxedema is a deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the dermis that results in swelling of the affected area, giving the skin a waxy appearance. One manifestation of myxedema in the lower limb is pretibial myxedema, a hallmark of Graves' disease, an autoimmune form of hyperthyroidism. Myxedema can also occur in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and other longstanding forms of hypothyroidism. Myxedema is not associated with Addison's disease, thyroid nodule, or adrenal insufficiency. Question: A 13-year-old girl presents with complaints of insomnia and hyperactivity along with gradual weight loss despite a good appetite. She has warm, flushed, and moist skin and unusually fine hair. These manifestations are indicative of which one of the following conditions?    Hypothyroidism      Hyperthyroidism      Cushing's Syndrome      Addison's Disease   Explanation: Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in children may include: anxiousness, irritability and/or nervousness, poor, restless sleep, increased activity/fidgetiness, hyperactivity, increased appetite with or without weight loss, increased number of bowel movements per day, decreased or poor school performance, difficulty concentrating that may be diagnosed as "late-onset" attention deficit disorder, and a feeling of a “lump” in the throat. These symptoms are not seen in the other choices. Question: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus usually present with which one of the following symptoms?    Obesity      High cholesterol levels      Polyuria      Hypoglycemia   Explanation: The classic symptoms of type 1 diabetes are polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and unexplained weight loss. Obesity and elevated cholesterol are more consistent with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hypoglycemia is usually not seen. Question: A six-year-old has a history of diabetes mellitus type I and is now experiencing cellulitis of the right lower leg. The child presents with deep, rapid, and unlabored respirations, fruity odor, and dry skin. These are symptoms of:    Hypoglycemia      Sepsis      Stevens Johnson Syndrome      Ketoacidosis   Explanation: These are signs of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and can occur in diabetic patients with infections. DKA is characterized by elevated blood glucose (usually higher than 240 mg/dl) and ketonuria. The respiratory pattern is consistent with Kussmaul breathing and are signs of hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia, Stevens Johnson Syndrome, and sepsis are not consistent with these symptoms. Question: Which electrolyte is regulated by the parathyroid gland?    Calcium      Sodium      Potassium      Melatonin   Explanation: The parathyroid glands are four tiny glands in the neck that control the body's calcium levels. The adrenal gland regulates sodium and potassium. The pineal gland produces melatonin. Question: Which of the following is NOT considered a benign tumor of the pituitary gland?    Craniopharyngioma      Prolactinoma      Gonadotropin-secreting adenoma      Thyrotropin-secreting adenoma   Explanation: Craniopharyngiomas develop in the area of the brain near the pituitary gland and are derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue. They are most common in children and in adults in their 50s and 60s. Almost all pituitary tumors are benign glandular tumors called pituitary adenoma. Examples include: prolactin-producing adenomas (prolactinomas), gonadotropin- and growth hormone-secreting adenomas, and thyrotropin-secreting adenomas. Question: Which of the following is NOT associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis?    Weight loss      Cold intolerance      Hair loss      Decreased sweating   Explanation: Cold intolerance, hair loss, and decreased perspiration are associated with Hashimoto's hypothyroidism. Weight loss is usually noted in patients with hyperthyroidism. Question: A common clinical term used to refer to women with an excess growth of terminal hair in a male pattern is:    androgenetic alopecia.      alopecia.      hirsutism.      vellus hair.   Explanation: Although hirsutism is broadly defined as excess hair, the common clinical use of the term refers to women with excess growth of terminal hair in a male pattern. Vellus hair is short, thin, slight-colored, and barely noticeable thin hair that develops on most of the body during childhood. Androgenetic alopecia is a genetically determined disorder characterized by the gradual conversion of terminal hairs into indeterminate, and finally vellus, hairs. Alopecia is a condition in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body. It often results in bald spots. Question: Which hemoglobin A1C level is typically used to diagnose type 2 diabetes?    5%      5.50%      6%      6.50%   Explanation: Hemoglobin A1C levels between 5.7% and 6.4% are reflective of impaired glucose metabolism. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed when the A1C is 6.5 % or greater. Question: A sweat test is used to help diagnose:    Graves' disease.      hypothyroidism.      cystic fibrosis.      Crohn's disease.   Explanation: A sweat test measures the amount of sodium and chloride in sweat and is used to assist in diagnosing cystic fibrosis. Patients with cystic fibrosis have 2 to 5 times the normal amount of sodium and chloride in their sweat. Question: Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland could lead to all the following disorders except:    Grave's disease.      thyrotoxicosis.      myxedema.      toxic goiter.   Explanation: Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland leads to a hypermetabolic state causing an increase in metabolic function, increased oxygen consumption by tissues, and heat production. Disorders include: Grave's disease, toxic goiter, thyroid storm (thyrotoxicosis). Myxedema is seen in hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland. Question: Symptoms of underdeveloped ovaries, web-like neck, and short stature are associated with:    polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).      prolactinoma.      Klinefelter syndrome.      Turner syndrome.   Explanation: Symptoms of Turner syndrome include short stature, delayed growth, low-set ears, web-like neck, and in girls, underdeveloped ovaries. Symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) include infertility, unwanted hair growth, weight gain, and fatigue. Prolactinoma symptoms include infertility, irregular menstrual periods, acne, and unwanted hair growth. Klinefelter syndrome is characterized by hypogonadism, gynecomastia in late puberty, elevated urinary gonadotropin levels, and behavioral concerns in boys. Question: A life-threatening symptom of parathyroid hormone (PTH) deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, is:    dystonia.      myoclonia.      tetany.      chorea.   Explanation: A lack of parathyroid hormone (PTH) leads to decreased blood levels of calcium (hypocalcemia) and increased levels of blood phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia). Muscle cramps involving the lower back, legs, and feet are common in patients with hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia. Tetany develops if hypocalcemia is severe. In some patients, laryngospasm and bronchospasm may be life threatening. Question: A 29-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) complains of facial swelling. She has been on a prolonged course of corticosteroids. On assessment, moon face appearance is noted. She has most likely developed:    Cushing syndrome.      Addison's disease.      Sjögren syndrome.      Syndrome X.   Explanation: Risk factors for Cushing syndrome include prolonged use of corticosteroids. Classical presentation and assessment include “moon face” or “buffalo hump” appearance. Question: A finding NOT identified in boys diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome is:    a low testosterone level.      micro-orchidism.      gynecomastia.      a high sperm count.   Explanation: Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects male physical and cognitive development. Signs and symptoms vary among patients. Low testosterone level, micro-orchidism, gynecomastia, facial hair, baldness, and low sperm count are all associated with Klinefelter syndrome. Question: Thyrotoxicosis is most commonly associated with:    hyperthyroidism.      hypothyroidism.      thyroid nodules.      nontoxic goiter.   Explanation: Hyperthyroidism occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis is a result of high levels of thyroid hormones and therefore includes hyperthyroidism. A thyroid nodule is an abnormal growth of thyroid cells that forms a lump within the thyroid gland; the majority are benign. A nontoxic goiter is a diffuse or nodular enlargement of the thyroid gland that does not result from an inflammatory or neoplastic process and is not associated with abnormal thyroid function. Question: A 9 year old girl had a history of tuberculosis when she was 6 years old. She presents with recent weight loss and anorexia. Along with her presenting symptoms, which one of the following assessment findings would be most indicative of Addison's disease?    Thin, fragile skin and multiple bruises      Hyperpigmentation and low blood pressure      Blurred vision, headaches and enuresis      Constipation   Explanation: The symptoms of Addison's disease can include any or all of the following: loss of appetite and weight loss, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, muscle weakness, low blood pressure, salt cravings, dehydration and hypoglycemia, increased pigmentation of the skin, particularly around scars and bony areas, and irregular or no menstrual periods in women. Tuberculosis (TB), an infection that can destroy the adrenal glands, accounts for less than 20 percent of cases of Addison's disease in developed countries. When adrenal insufficiency was first identified by Dr. Thomas Addison in 1849, TB was the most common cause of the disease. As TB treatment improved, the incidence of adrenal insufficiency due to TB of the adrenal glands greatly decreased. Question: What is the earliest recognizable clinical manifestation(s) of cystic fibrosis in a child?    Clubbing, frequent respiratory infections, and rectal prolapse      Pigeon breast, protruding tongue, and exophthalmos      Meconium ileus, abdominal distention, and hyperplasia of the lungs      Hypoglycemia, hyperthermia, and tachycardia   Explanation: Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common genetic disorders in Caucasian children in the United States and is usually diagnosed at an early age. However, if it is not diagnosed in infancy, some of the symptoms seen in children include: not growing or gaining weight appropriately, frequent lung infections, persistent cough, and wheezing. Other symptoms may also develop in childhood such as: clubbing, rectal prolapse, and polyps in the nose or sinuses. The other choices are not seen in cystic fibrosis. Question: Fruity breath odor correlates with assessment for:    salicylate toxicity.      diabetic ketoacidosis.      urinary tract infection.      acute pancreatitis.   Explanation: Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus. A fruity odor is often present on the breath of a patient with diabetes. This is a result of acetone, a direct byproduct of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. Question: Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland is caused by a deficiency of:    phosphorus.      iron.      magnesium.      iodine.   Explanation: Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland (goiter) results from an iodine-deficient diet, which causes overgrowth of the thyroid gland. Question: Symptoms of Graves' disease include:    weight gain.      bradycardia.      anemia.      proptosis.   Explanation: Proptosis is defined as a bulging of the eyes, which is a symptom of hyperthyroidism or Graves’ disease. Weight gain, bradycardia, and anemia are associated with hypothyroidism. Question: A general term for an enlarged thyroid is:    exophthalmos.      a goiter.      lymphadenopathy.      acromegaly.   Explanation: A general term for an enlarged thyroid is goiter. In the presence of goiter, thyroid function can be increased, decreased, or normal. Exophthalmos is a term used to describe an abnormal protrusion of the eye often seen in patients who have thyroid disease. Lymphadenopathy is used to describe swollen or enlarged lymph nodes. Acromegaly is a condition characterized by an increase in growth hormones producing enlargement of bones and soft tissues. Question: The presence of pubic hair in girls between the age of 5 and 8 years is termed:    hypertrichosis.      thelarche.      adrenarche.      adrenal hyperplasia.   Explanation: Adrenarche is the early presence of pubic hair in girls aged 5 to 8 years. Hypertrichosis is an abnormal amount of hair growth over the body. Thelarche is the onset of female breast development. Adrenal hyperplasia is the excess production of male sex hormones that results in short height, early puberty and in females, abnormal genital development. Question: Breastfeeding is contraindicated for an infant diagnosed with which one of the following conditions?    Congenital hypothyroidism      Phenylketonuria (PKU)      Galactosemia      Tay Sachs Disease   Explanation: Galactosemia is the lack of a specific enzyme in the liver that breaks down galactose into glucose. Some infants may inherit a gene that allows for some galactose metabolism. However, if the baby has “classic galactosemia” in which the baby has no galactose metabolizing enzymes, the baby will need to be weaned abruptly, and then fed a lactose free formula. Breast feeding is not contraindicated in the other conditions. Question: A common symptom noted in patients who have a thyroid goiter is:    a frequent cough.      decreased oral secretions.      fatigue.      gastric reflux.   Explanation: A thyroid goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland. Because of the anatomic relationship of the thyroid gland to the trachea, larynx, superior and inferior laryngeal nerves, and esophagus, abnormal growth may cause a variety of compressive syndromes. These symptoms may include: wheezing, cough, globus hystericus, dysphagia, and vocal cord dysfunction and hoarseness. Compression of the venous outflow results in facial plethora and dilated neck and upper thoracic veins. Other symptoms include waking up from sleep with the sensation of being unable to breathe or feeling that food is stuck in the throat. Question: Which of the following is NOT a symptom of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)?    Acne      Insomnia      Infertility      Hirsutism   Explanation: Symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) include acne, infertility, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and hirsutism. Question: A common arrhythmia associated with hyperthyroidism is:    first-degree heart block.      atrial fibrillation.      ventricular tachycardia.      sinus bradycardia.   Explanation: Hyperthyroidism is associated with atrial fibrillation, systolic murmur, and cardiac failure. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include sinus bradycardia, mild hypertension (diastolic), and narrowed pulse pressure. Supraventricular tachycardia may be associated with hyperthyroidism, however, ventricular tachycardia is not. Question: Bilateral exophthalmos suggests:    the presence of a goiter.      Hashimoto's thyroiditis.      Grave's disease.      hypothyroidism.   Explanation: Exophthalmos is an abnormal protrusion of the eye. When it presents bilaterally, it is suggestive of Grave's disease, a form of hyperthyroidism. Unilateral exophthalmos may be due to Grave's disease or to a tumor or inflammation of the orbit. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, and goiter do not present with exophthalmos. Question: When a patient presents with myxedema coma, which one of the following groups of symptoms may be present?    Hypothermia, thickening of the tongue, and disorientation      Dehydration, tachycardia, and tachypnea      Diarrhea, hyperactive peristalsis, and abdominal distention      Seizures, hyperthermia, and conjunctivitis   Explanation: Myxedema coma is a loss of brain function as a result of severe, longstanding low level of thyroid hormone in the blood (hypothyroidism). Myxedema coma is considered a life-threatening complication of hypothyroidism and represents the far more serious side of the spectrum of thyroid disease. Some of the symptoms seen with myxedema are: hypothermia, severe mental changes including hallucinations, disorientation, seizures, and ultimately, deep coma, significant edema, swollen eyes, thickening of the tongue, difficulty breathing, and constipation. Question: Examination of the hair reveals a sparse amount with a coarse appearance. This finding may be seen in patients who have:    hypothyroidism.      hyperthyroidism.      type 2 diabetes.      celiac disease.   Explanation: Sparse, coarse, and thin hair is more characteristic of hair seen in patients with hypothyroidism. Fine silky hair may be seen in patients who have hyperthyroidism. In celiac disease and type 2 diabetes, alopecia may be seen. [Show More]

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