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NSG 6320 AGNP BOARD EXAM QUESTIONS (latest) Assessment (23 Questions) – South University Savannah Question: Which is NOT a type of diagnostic test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?    ... Antibody test      Combination antibody and antigen test      Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)      Nucleic acid tests (NATs)   Explanation: Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T-helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD4 counts are most often assessed after the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been made. Tests for HIV include the antibody test, combination test, and nucleic acid tests. The CD4 count results, along with an HIV viral load, are used to evaluate the immune system of a person diagnosed with HIV infection and to monitor effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART or ARV), also called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Question: Which sexually transmitted disease (STD) is known as a ‘silent’ infection and often lacks abnormal physical examination findings?    Syphilis      Chlamydia      Trichomoniasis      Bacterial vaginosis   Explanation: Chlamydia is known as a ‘silent’ infection because most infected people are asymptomatic and lack abnormal physical examination findings. A person with primary syphilis generally has chancres at the original site of infection. Symptoms of secondary syphilis include skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, and fever. Tertiary syphilis is associated with severe neurological problems. Trichomoniasis causes burning with urination, as well as foul smelling vaginal or penile discharge. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) causes a thin white or gray vaginal discharge, burning in the vagina, and a strong fish-like odor in women. Question: What is the gold standard method for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis (BV)?    Bimanual examination      Urine culture      Gram stain      Rectal examination   Explanation: A Gram stain (considered the gold standard laboratory method for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis) is used to determine the relative concentration of lactobacilli (i.e., long gram-positive rods), gram-negative and gram-variable rods and cocci (i.e., G. vaginalis, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and peptostreptococci), and curved gram-negative rods (i.e., Mobiluncus) characteristic of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Question: What is the sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by infection with Haemophilus ducreyi and characterized by painful necrotizing genital ulcers?    Herpes simplex virus      Chancroid      Syphilis      Herpes zoster   Explanation: Chancroid is a bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by an infection with Haemophilus ducreyi. It is characterized by painful necrotizing genital ulcers that may be accompanied by inguinal lymphadenopathy. Herpes simplex is caused by the herpes simplex virus-type 1 (HSV-1); syphilis is caused by a spirochete called Treponema pallidum; and herpes zoster is caused by varicella zoster virus. Question: Which of the following symptoms would be a clinical manifestation noted during the tertiary stage of syphilis?    A single painless lesion, chancre, on the genital area      Absence of symptoms      Rash marked by red or reddish-brown, penny-sized lesions over the palms and soles      Poor muscle coordination   Explanation: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection that involves the genitals, skin and mucous membranes. Signs and symptoms occur in four stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Primary stage symptoms include a single painless lesion, chancre, on the genitals, rectum, tongue, or lip and enlarged lymph nodes. In the secondary stage, the rash is marked by red or reddish-brown, penny-sized lesions over any part of the body including the palms and soles. Fever, fatigue, soreness and aching may also be present. These symptoms may disappear within weeks or may come and go for a year. During the latent stage, the symptoms are absent. Symptoms may never recur or they may progress to the tertiary stage. In the tertiary stage, the symptoms become severe and involve the neurologic and cardiac organs and death can ensue. Poor muscle coordination, meningitis, deafness, and aortic valve problems are some symptoms that may be present. Question: Which of the following symptoms would be a clinical manifestation noted during the latent stage of syphilis?    A single painless lesion, chancre, on the genital area      Absence of symptoms      Rash marked by red or reddish-brown, penny-sized lesions over the palms and soles      Poor muscle coordination   Explanation: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection that involves the genitals, skin and mucous membranes. Signs and symptoms occur in four stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Primary stage symptoms include a single painless lesion, chancre, on the genitals, rectum, tongue, or lip and enlarged lymph nodes. In the secondary stage, the rash is marked by red or reddish-brown, penny-sized lesions over any part of the body including the palms and soles. Fever, fatigue, soreness and aching may also be present. These symptoms may disappear within weeks or may come and go for a year. During the latent stage, the symptoms are absent. Symptoms may never recur or they may progress to the tertiary stage. In the tertiary stage, the symptoms become severe and involve the neurologic and cardiac organs and death can ensue. Poor muscle coordination, meningitis, deafness, and aortic valve problems are some symptoms that may be present. Question: What cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) lab result suggests that a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)?    l50 cells/mm3      300 cells/mm3      500 cells/mm3      650 cells/mm3   Explanation: Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) are cells that the HIV virus kills. As HIV infection progresses, the number of these cells declines. When the CD4 count drops below 200 due to advanced HIV disease, a person is diagnosed with AIDS. A normal range for CD4 cells is about 500-1,500. Question: Which of the following is NOT considered a sexually transmitted disease (STD)?    Chlamydia      Gonorrhea      Trichomoniasis      Bacterial vaginosis (BV)   Explanation: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection affecting young women. It is considered a sexually associated disease, not a sexually transmitted disease, and the chances of developing bacterial vaginosis seem to increase with the number of sexual partners a woman has. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis are considered sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Question: Development of a single, firm, painless, non-itchy genital skin chancre that develops into an ulcer describes which stage of syphilis?    Primary      Secondary      Latent      Tertiary   Explanation: Primary syphilis is typically acquired by direct sexual contact with the infectious lesions of another person. Symptoms begin 3 to 90 days after the initial exposure when a skin lesion, called a chancre, appears at the point of contact. This is classically a single, firm, painless, non-itchy skin ulceration with a clean base and sharp borders 0.3–3.0 cm in size. The lesion may take on almost any form. In the classic form, it evolves from a macule to a papule and finally to an erosion or ulcer. During the secondary syphilis stage, patients develop skin rashes and/or mucous membrane lesions. Tertiary syphilis affects major organs such as the brain, causing damage and possible death. Question: Which sexually transmitted disease (STD) can lead to serious neurological conditions if left untreated?    Chlamydia      Gonorrhea      Trichomoniasis      Syphilis   Explanation: Untreated tertiary syphilis can spread to the brain and nervous system (neurosyphilis) or to the eye (ocular syphilis). Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections in women can lead to serious consequences including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Trichomoniasis can increase the risk of contracting or spreading other sexually transmitted infections, and can cause preterm delivery in pregnant women. Question: Which sexually transmitted disease (STD) is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite?    Chlamydia      Genital herpes      Trichomoniasis      Syphilis   Explanation: Trichomoniasis (or “trich”) is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD). It is caused by infection with a flagellated protozoan parasite. Chlamydia and syphilis are bacterial infections and genital herpes is caused by a viral infection. Question: How long after exposure to syphilis will symptoms begin to present?    7 days to six months.      10 days to 3 months.      14 days to 6 months.      21 days to a year.   Explanation: Primary symptoms of the syphilis bacterial infection may occur 10 days to three months after exposure to the pathogen. Question: Which stage of syphilis is described as having serologic proof of infection without symptoms of disease?    Primary      Secondary      Latent      Tertiary   Explanation: Latent syphilis is defined as having serologic proof of infection without symptoms of disease. It is further described as early (less than 1 year after secondary syphilis) or late (more than 1 year after secondary syphilis). Primary syphilis involves chancre development on the skin. Secondary syphilis causes a symmetrical, reddish-pink, non-itchy rash on the trunk and extremities, including the palms and soles. Tertiary syphilis involves major organ damage and neurological issues. Question: Which type of virus causes oral and genital lesions through sexual contact?    Chancroid      Herpes simplex virus (HV-1)      Herpes zoster      Syphilis   Explanation: Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is mainly transmitted by oral-to-oral contact to cause oral herpes (which can include symptoms known as “cold sores”). HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes through acts of cunnilingus (oral stimulation of vulva or clitoris) or fellatio (oral stimulation of the penis). Chancroid is characterized by painful necrotizing genital ulcers that may be accompanied by inguinal lymphadenopathy. Herpes zoster is characterized by generalized eruption of more than 10-12 extra dermatomal vesicles, usually along the nerve dermatomes. Syphilis presents as a single, firm, painless, non-itchy skin ulceration with a clean base and sharp borders. It is 0.3–3.0 cm in size and appears on the skin or genital area. Question: Which sexually transmitted disease (STD) in men causes a yellowish discharge from the penis, accompanied by itching and burning?    Chlamydia      Gonorrhea      Trichomoniasis      Syphilis   Explanation: Men with gonorrhea have a yellowish discharge from the penis accompanied by genital itching and burning. Chlamydia causes a thick, white penile discharge and burning with urination. Trichomoniasis causes burning with urination and ejaculation. Syphilis causes a small, painless open sore called a chancre on the genitals, mouth, skin, or rectum. Question: After completing the oral medication treatment for gonorrhea and chlamydia, how long should the patient wait to have sexual intercourse?    1 day      3 days      7 days      14 days   Explanation: Gonorrhea and chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics. Patients with gonorrhea and chlamydia should abstain from intercourse for 7 days after single-course antibiotics or completion of a 7-day course of antibiotics to prevent spreading the infection to partners. Question: Which of the following signs and symptoms are consistent with genital warts?    Pain or itching in the genital area and the presence of small, red papules or vesicles      Small, flesh-colored or grey lesions and itching in the genital area      Presence of vaginal or penile discharge      Painful bowel movements, anal itching, and painful or swollen testicles or abnormal menstrual bleeding   Explanation: The signs and symptoms of genital warts include small, flesh-colored or gray lesions in the genital area with itching or discomfort. Some women may experience bleeding with intercourse. Genital warts can grow on the vulva, the walls of the vagina, the perineum, and the cervix in women. In men, they may occur on the penis, scrotum, and anus. They have also been detected in the mouth or throat of those who have had oral sex with infected persons. Pain or itching in the genital area and the presence of small, red papules or vesicles are symptoms consistent with genital herpes. The presence of vaginal or penile discharge is more consistent with Chlamydia trachomatis. Painful bowel movements, anal itching, and painful or swollen testicles, or abnormal menstrual bleeding are consistent with gonorrhea. Question: Which type of human papillomavirus (HPV) causes most cases of genital warts?    Type 6      Type 8      Type 16      Type 18   Explanation: Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 and 11 cause most cases of genital warts. Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 lead to the majority cervical cancer cases. Cervical cancer is most commonly linked to HPV, but HPV can also cause cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, mouth, and throat. Question: Which genital infection can cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women if untreated?    Chlamydia      Syphilis      Trichomoniasis      Bacterial vaginosis (BV)   Explanation: Chlamydial infections in women can lead to serious consequences including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Untreated syphilis can spread to the brain and nervous system (neurosyphilis) or to the eye (ocular syphilis). If untreated, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (BV) can increase the risk of contracting or spreading other sexually transmitted infections, and can cause preterm delivery in pregnant women. Question: Which type of human papillomavirus (HPV) is most commonly linked to cervical cancer?    Type 6      Type 11      Type 18      Type 21   Explanation: Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 lead to the majority cervical cancer cases. Cervical cancer is most commonly linked to human papillomavirus (HPV), but this virus can also cause cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, mouth, and throat. Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 and 11 cause most cases of genital warts. Question: Which gynecological assessment finding includes a fish-like odor with white vaginal discharge on physical presentation and clue cells on microscopic exam?    Chlamydia      Gonorrhea      Trichomoniasis      Bacterial vaginosis (BV)   Explanation: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a clinical syndrome characterized by excessive growth of bacteria that results in a fish-like smelling white or gray vaginal discharge. Demonstration of clue cells on a saline smear is the most specific criterion for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis (BV). Chlamydia and gonorrhea can be asymptomatic and later cause burning with urination and abnormal vaginal or penile discharge. Trichomoniasis causes a change in vaginal discharge that can be clear, white, yellowish, or greenish with an unusual fishy smell. Wet mount smear findings for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis include large amounts of white blood cells. Question: Which stage of syphilis includes findings of a symmetrical, reddish-pink, non-itchy rash on the trunk and extremities, including the palms and soles of the feet?    Primary      Secondary      Latent      Tertiary   Explanation: Secondary syphilis causes a symmetrical, reddish-pink, non-itchy rash on the trunk and extremities, including the palms and soles. The rash may become maculopapular or pustular. It may form flat, broad, whitish, wart-like lesions known as condyloma latum on mucous membranes. All of these lesions harbor bacteria and are infectious. Other symptoms may include fever, sore throat, malaise, weight loss, hair loss, and headache. Primary syphilis involves chancre development on the skin. Latent syphilis is defined as having serologic proof of infection without symptoms of disease. Tertiary syphilis involves major organ damage and neurological issues. Question: What type of cells are found on the wet mount slide of a patient with bacterial vaginosis (BV)?    Lactobacilli      Yeast cells      Clue cells      White blood cells   Explanation: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by findings of clue cells (e.g., vaginal epithelial cells studded with adherent coccobacilli) on microscopic examination. Lactobacilli are present with vaginitis. Yeast cells are seen on the wet mount of a patient with a yeast infection. Large numbers of white blood cells (WBCs) in the specimen suggest a concomitant infection, such as gonorrhea or infection with trichomoniasis. [Show More]

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