Marketing > QUESTIONS & ANSWERS > Chapter 5—Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning. Questions and Answers (All)

Chapter 5—Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning. Questions and Answers

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TRUE/FALSE 1. Targeting specific audiences can be considered the starting point for all marcom decisions. T PTS: 1 2. Targeting implies efficiency of effort. T PTS: 1 3. Demographi... c data is relatively easy to obtain and is the most predictive of consumer choice behavior. F PTS: 1 4. Behaviorgraphics is the most predictive indicator of consumer choice behavior while demographics is the least predictive indicator of behavior. T PTS: 1 5. The best predictor of one’s future behavior is his or her past behavior. T PTS: 1 6. There is little need to target consumers using any of the non-behavioral bases for targeting if behaviorgraphic details are available. T PTS: 1 7. Due to privacy laws, marketers are not able to obtain detailed consumer online behavior. F PTS: 1 8. The biggest issue facing marketers that track consumer online behavior is privacy. T PTS: 1 9. Purchasing patterns often are influenced more by our lifestyles than our demographic backgrounds. T PTS: 1 10. Demographics refers to information about consumers’ attitudes, values, motivations, and lifestyles as they relate to buying behavior in a particular product category. F PTS: 1 11. Futures Company MindBase psychographic segmentation scheme consists of 66 general segments. F PTS: 1 12. In the VALSTM segmentation scheme, consumer segments are represented along the dimensions of primary motivations and resources. T PTS: 1 13. In the VALSTM classification system, Thinkers are well-educated professionals who are well-informed about current affairs. T PTS: 1 14. Makers in the VALSTM classification framework tend to buy the finer things in life. F PTS: 1 15. The Actualizers would be the VALSTM group most likely to do gardening. F PTS: 1 16. The Believers is the VALSTM group that is least likely to do gourmet cooking. F PTS: 1 17. The premise underlying geodemographic targeting is that people who reside in similar areas also share demographic and lifestyle similarities. T PTS: 1 18. Geodemographic clustering systems have only been developed for the United States. F PTS: 1 19. PRIZMNE is a classification system that delineates every neighborhood in the United States into 66 clusters based on their demographic characteristics. T PTS: 1 20. In the PRIZMNE segmentation system, Bohemian Mix captures a collection of young, mobile urbanites who represent the nation’s most liberal lifestyles. T PTS: 1 21. In the PRIZMNE segmentation system, Suburban Pioneers is the group that represents those households at the middle of the U.S.’s socioeconomic ladder. F PTS: 1 22. The total population of human beings on the earth is estimated to be approximately 25 billion people. F PTS: 1 23. The median age of Americans has been decreasing in the past three decades. F PTS: 1 24. There are now fewer young adults than was the case in prior generations. T PTS: 1 25. Tweens are usually classified as children between the ages of 8 and 12. T PTS: 1 26. Teenagers want to be “marketed to,” even if irrelevant information is communicated to them. F PTS: 1 27. The Bystander group of Generation X is predominantly white and male. F PTS: 1 28. The Playboy group is the smallest subset of all the Generation X categories and is closest to the Generation X stereotype of being slackers, cynics, and hopeless. F PTS: 1 29. There are indications that baby boomers are retaining many of their more youthful consumption patterns. T PTS: 1 30. Mature consumers are poorer and less willing to spend than ever before. F PTS: 1 31. U.S. citizens aged 55 or older represent 40 percent of the total U.S. population. F PTS: 1 32. Age is the best indicator of how an individual lives and what role consumption plays. F PTS: 1 33. Healthy Indulgers are in good health but are psychologically withdrawn from society. F PTS: 1 34. Ailing Outgoers are a good market for planned retirement communities and entertainment services. T PTS: 1 35. A household represents an independent housing entity, either rental property or owned property. T PTS: 1 36. The traditional American family (i.e., married couples with children younger than 18 years of age) represents over 75 percent of all U.S. households. F PTS: 1 37. Non-family households constitute nearly one-third of all households. T PTS: 1 38. The average age of black Americans is considerably older than that for whites. F PTS: 1 39. Hispanic Americans represent the largest minority group in America. T PTS: 1 40. Approximately half of Hispanic-Americans speak only or mostly Spanish at home. T PTS: 1 41. Asian-Americans are better educated than any other segment of American society. T PTS: 1 42. A brand’s positioning represents the key feature, benefit, or image that it stands for in the target audience’s collective mind. T PTS: 1 43. Meaning is determined solely by the message source’s choice of communication elements. F PTS: 1 44. In positioning their brands, marketing communicators draw meaning from the culturally constituted world and transfer that meaning to their brands. T PTS: 1 45. Brand positioning is an essential preliminary activity, or fundamental decision, to developing a successful marcom program. T PTS: 1 46. A good positioning statement should satisfy two requirements: (1) reflect a brand’s competitive advantage, and (2) determine product placement. F PTS: 1 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Targeting implies precision and _____. a. efficiency of effort b. efficiency of placement c. efficiency of promotion d. efficiency of advertising e. efficiency of pricing A PTS: 1 2. _____ represents information about consumers’ behavior in a particular product category or set of related categories. a. Demographics b. Behaviorgraphics c. Psychographics d. Geodemographics e. Lifestyle analysis B PTS: 1 3. Aspects of consumers’ psychological makeup and lifestyles—including their attitudes, values, and motivation—comprise _____. a. demographic characteristics b. purchasing characteristics c. behavioral characteristics d. psychographic characteristics e. physical characteristics D PTS: 1 4. Demographic variables include characteristics such as age, income, and _____. a. voting preferences b. ethnicity c. purchasing preferences d. place of residence e. All of these are correct. B PTS: 1 5. _____ is based on demographic characteristics of consumers who reside within geographic clusters such as zip code areas and neighborhoods. a. Behaviorgraphics b. Psychographics c. Demographics d. Geodemographics e. Cosmographics D PTS: 1 6. In deciding among the four general targeting methods, a marketer must consider two factors. These factors are _____. a. how large should the target be, and what area(s) of the country should it include b. what media would best reach the target market, and what appeal would work best c. how many target markets should be selected, and how large should they be d. how to evaluate the success of the marcom strategies and measure of financial success e. how easy or difficult is it to collect data, and how predictive the characteristic is of consumer choice behavior E PTS: 1 7. Which type of data is relatively easy to obtain but is the least predictive of consumer choice behavior? a. demographic b. behavioral c. psychographic d. geodemographic e. holographic A PTS: 1 8. Which type of data is relatively difficult or expensive to obtain but is the best predictor of choice behavior? a. demographic b. psychographic c. behaviorgraphic d. geodemographic e. holographic C PTS: 1 9. The best predictor of one’s future behavior is his or her _____. a. age b. ethnicity c. income d. place of residence e. past behavior E PTS: 1 10. Which of the following companies tracks Internet users’ surfing behaviors and provides this information to advertisers that wish to target prospective customers based on their online search behavior? a. Audience Science b. Tacoda Systems c. Information Resources Inc. d. a and b only e. a, b, and c D PTS: 1 11. A targeting approach that embodies the “aim-where-the-ducks-are-flying” axiom is _____. a. demographics b. behaviorgraphics c. psychographics d. geodemographics e. physiographics B PTS: 1 12. Technological advances in marketing bring with them increased ability to serve consumers but also at the risk of _____. a. competitive espionage b. invading privacy c. increased costs d. losing competitive advantage e. technological breakdowns B PTS: 1 13. Sophisticated practitioners realized that demographic information tells only part of the story about consumers’ buying preferences and purchase behaviors, and began investigating consumers’ _____ characteristics as a means of obtaining a richer understanding of consumer behavior. a. geographic b. economic c. census data d. psychographic e. holographic D PTS: 1 14. In general, _____ refers to information about consumers’ attitudes, values, motivations, and lifestyles as they relate to buying behavior in a particular product category. a. demographics b. geodemographics c. psychographics d. holographics e. biographics C PTS: 1 15. Which of the following is one of the MindBase segments? a. Realists b. Experiencers c. Thinkers d. Survivors e. Makers A PTS: 1 16. Which of the following is NOT one of the MindBase segments? a. Up & Comers b. Innovators c. Realists d. Family Centereds e. Renaissance Masters B PTS: 1 17. Bob and Sue are a young, newly married couple without any children. They have a positive, upwardly mobile perspective and expect to benefit from their own skills and abilities. They are environmentalists and enjoy outdoor activities in their free time. In terms of MindBase segments, which best describes Bob and Sue? a. Up & Comers b. Aspiring Achievers c. Realists d. New Traditionalists e. Individualists A PTS: 1 18. James is driven by technology and success at work. He is single and finds little time for social interests and prefers to focus on climbing the career ladder. Which of the MindBase segments best describes James? a. Up & Comers b. Aspiring Achievers c. Individualists d. New Traditionalists e. Renaissance Masters C PTS: 1 19. Mauve is 60 years old and financially successful after a career in banking. She is still vitally connected to her community by participating in several civic activities. She is a life-long learner and actively participates in several senior activities that expand her personal horizons. In terms of the MindBase segments, _____ best describes Mauve. a. Up & Comers b. Maintainers c. Aspiring Achievers d. New Traditionalists e. Renaissance Masters E PTS: 1 20. The VALS™ segmentation scheme places American adult consumers into one of _____ segments based on their responses to a 40-item questionnaire. a. four b. five c. six d. seven e. eight E PTS: 1 21. Which of the following is a VALS™ segment? a. Innovators b. Up & Comers c. Realists d. Individualists e. New Traditionalists A PTS: 1 22. Which of the following is a VALS™ segment? a. Innovators b. Thinkers c. Believers d. Experiencers e. All of these are correct. E PTS: 1 23. Which of the following is NOT a VALS™ segment? a. Innovators b. Makers c. Realists d. Experiencers e. Believers C PTS: 1 24. Which of the following is NOT a primary motivations dimension of the VALS™ psychographics classification model? a. pursuit of ideals b. resources c. need for achievement d. drive to self-express e. All of these are primary motivation dimensions. B PTS: 1 25. What are the two main dimensions of the VALS™ framework? a. individuals’ demographic characteristics and geographic location b. individuals’ resources and need for achievement c. individuals’ primary motivations and resources d. individuals’ religious convictions and status orientation e. individuals’ behavioral characteristics and resources C PTS: 1 26. Marketers of which of the following product categories would be most interested in the VALS™ “Achievers” grouping? a. supermarkets b. discount stores c. compact automobiles d. high-end clothing manufacturers e. American-made products D PTS: 1 27. A marketer positioning a product to appeal to members of the “Experiencers” category should emphasize all EXCEPT which of the following benefits? a. fashion b. entertainment c. outdoor recreation d. economical e. social D PTS: 1 28. Katherine is a well-educated professional who is well-informed about current affairs. Although her income allows her many choices, she is a conservative, practical consumer. In terms of the VALS™ framework, Katherine would be classified as a(n) ____. a. Thinker b. Believer c. Achiever d. Experiencer e. Actualizer A PTS: 1 29. In the VALS™ framework, “Believers” _____. a. exhibit high energy levels, which they devote to physical exercise and social activities b. are conservative and predictable consumers who favor established brands and American-made products c. are responsible, well educated professionals who are well informed about current events d. are a politically conservative group who respects authority and the status quo e. are successful, sophisticated, take-charge people with high self-esteem B PTS: 1 30. Martin is a politically conservative person who respects authority and the status quo. He drives a high-end automobile and shops at expensive specialty shops. In terms of the VALS™ framework, Martin is a(n) _____. a. Maker b. Believer c. Achiever d. Experiencer e. Striver C PTS: 1 31. The youngest of the VALS™ segments are the _____. a. Innovators b. Believers c. Achievers d. Experiencers e. Makers D PTS: 1 32. Alan is 26 years old. He exhibits high energy levels, which he devotes to physical fitness and social activities. In terms of the VALS™ framework, Alan is a(n) _____. a. Innovator b. Believer c. Achiever d. Striver e. Experiencer E PTS: 1 33. Antonio is a practical, self-sufficient consumer who focuses on family, work, and physical recreation. He is only interested in material possessions that have a practical or functional purpose. He also likes to fix things, such as his car or things around his house. In terms of the VALS™ framework, Ken is a(n) _____. a. Believer b. Achiever c. Striver d. Maker e. Survivor D PTS: 1 34. Which VALS™ group has the lowest income? a. Thinkers b. Strivers c. Experiencers d. Makers e. Survivors E PTS: 1 35. Joan has a strong self-esteem and abundant resources. Friends and colleagues look to her for new ideas and trends. In terms of the VALS™ framework, Joan is a(n) _____. a. Believer b. Achiever c. Innovator d. Maker e. Shaker C PTS: 1 36. Which VALS™ group is the most likely to buy hand tools? a. Innovators b. Thinkers c. Believers d. Makers e. Survivors D PTS: 1 37. Which VALS™ group is the most likely to drink domestic beer? a. Experiencers b. Believers c. Innovators d. Survivors e. Strivers B PTS: 1 38. Which VALS™ group is the most likely to structure their social lives around their family, place of worship, and work? a. Innovators b. Thinkers c. Achievers d. Strivers e. Makers C PTS: 1 39. Which VALS™ group is the most likely to camp, hike, or enjoy other types of outdoor recreation? a. Innovators b. Strivers c. Survivors d. Experiencers e. Believers D PTS: 1 40. The premise underlying geodemographic targeting is that people who _____ also share demographic and lifestyle similarities. a. are in the same income category b. reside in similar areas c. are of the same age d. are of the same gender e. are of the same ethnic group B PTS: 1 41. _____ is a combination of demographic and lifestyle characteristics of consumers within clusters such as ZIP-code areas. a. Psychographics b. Topographics c. Geodemographics d. Behaviorgraphics e. Cosmographics C PTS: 1 42. Nielsen Claritas’ PRIZMNE, a geodemographic marketing service, has grouped U.S. neighborhoods into 66 clusters and given them descriptive names. The “Bohemian Mix” cluster would be expected to have all EXCEPT which of the following types of residents? a. early adopters of products and services b. urbanites c. blue-collar workers d. students e. liberal people C PTS: 1 43. In Nielsen Claritas’ PRIZMNE system of geodemographic profiling, PRIZM stands for ____. a. Personal Rating Information by Zip Markets b. Potential Rank Index by Zip Markets c. Personal Rank Index by Zip Markets d. Personal Rating Index by Zip Markets e. Potential Rating Index by Zip Markets E PTS: 1 44. In Nielsen Claritas’ PRIZMNE system of geodemographic profiling, NE represents the ____ of Nielsen Claritas’s original segmentation system. a. new evolution b. new edition c. next evolution d. neo-edition e. need edition A PTS: 1 45. Terron is a young professional that always attends the latest movie, frequents the newest nightclubs, and has the most up-to-date electronic equipment. To which PRIZMNE cluster would Terron most likely belong? a. Innovators b. Bohemian Mix c. White Picket Fences d. Upper Crust e. Big Fish, Small Pond B PTS: 1 46. Which PRIZMNE cluster represents a stereotypical American household of previous generations? a. Bohemian Mix b. White Picket Fences c. Suburban Pioneers d. Up & Comers e. Traditionalists B PTS: 1 47. Which PRIZMNE cluster includes neighborhoods where occupants live eclectic lifestyles and includes a mix of singles, recently divorced and single parents who have moved into older, inner-ring suburbs? a. White Picket Fences b. Suburban Pioneers c. Bohemian Mix d. Up & Comers e. Non-traditionalists B PTS: 1 48. Which of the following is NOT a major demographic aspect that has considerable relevance for marcom practitioners? a. geographic distribution of consumers b. age structure of the population c. changing household composition d. ethnic population developments e. All of these are major demographic aspects. A PTS: 1 49. Leslie was born in 1957. To which generation does she belong? a. Generation X b. Generation Y c. Baby Boom d. Yup & Comers e. Traditionalists C PTS: 1 50. There are proportionately _____ young adults (ages 20 to 34) than there were in prior generations. a. the same number of b. more c. fewer d. dramatically more e. fewer middle-agers than C PTS: 1 51. In the U.S., middle-agers (ages 35 to 54) have _____ in recent years. a. stayed the same in number b. decreased in number c. increased in number d. become less affluent e. become more affluent C PTS: 1 52. Marketers typically refer to children aged 4 through 12 as _____ to distinguish this cohort from younger or older children. a. tweens b. toddlers c. teenagers d. kids e. busters D PTS: 1 53. Jessica is 10 years old. To marketers, she is classified as a _____. a. kid b. teenager c. toddler d. buster e. tween E PTS: 1 54. The desire to buy and own products, the enjoyment of these items, and the desire for money that enables the acquisition of products is known as _____. a. socialization b. materialism c. functionalism d. socialism e. egoism B PTS: 1 55. Social networking sites such as Facebook have become particularly effective venues for reaching and influencing the consumer behavior of _____. a. children b. tweens c. parents d. older individuals e. teens and young adults E PTS: 1 56. Which of the following is a group into which Generation-Xers have been placed based on their attitudinal profiles? a. Yup & Comers b. Bystanders c. Drifters d. Playboys e. All of these are correct. E PTS: 1 57. The _____ category of Generation X has the highest level of education and income. a. Yup & Comers b. Bystanders c. Playboys d. Drifters e. Slackers A PTS: 1 58. Leigh is a well educated 28 year old and earns a higher income than most people her age. She would most likely fit into the Generation X category known as _____. a. Achievers b. Bystanders c. Yup & Comers d. Playboys e. Drifters C PTS: 1 59. The Bystanders category of Generation X is most likely to contain _____. a. white males b. white females c. female African-Americans and Hispanics d. male African-Americans and Hispanics e. male Asian-Americans C PTS: 1 60. Marian is uneducated, frustrated with her life, and seeks security and status. Marian would fit into the Generation X category known as _____. a. Showers b. Bystanders c. Yup & Comers d. Playboys e. Drifters E PTS: 1 61. Meaningful and profitable marcom targeting efforts typically require that audience members share a combination of _____. a. attitudes, opinions, and purchase behavior b. demographic, lifestyle, and possibly geographic characteristics c. marketing, message, and media preferences d. product, place, and price expectations e. shopping behaviors, discretionary income, and household type B PTS: 1 62. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, people who are 55 and older are classified as _____. a. baby boomers b. mature people c. middle-aged d. elders e. the very old B PTS: 1 63. Alex is a semi-retired individual who is in good health but is psychologically withdrawn from society. Alex would be classified as a(n) _____. a. Healthy Hermit b. Ailing Outgoer c. Frail Recluse d. Healthy Indulger e. Healthy Insider A PTS: 1 64. The best media for reaching the Healthy Hermits would be _____. a. television b. radio c. outdoor advertising d. telemarketing e. direct mail E PTS: 1 65. Juanita is in poor health, but she is socially active, health-conscious, and interested in learning how to do new things. Juanita would be classified as a(n) _____. a. Healthy Hermit b. Ailing Outgoer c. Frail Recluse d. Healthy Indulger e. Unhealthy Outsider B PTS: 1 66. Frail Recluses are _____. a. in good health, relatively wealthy, and are socially active b. in good health but psychologically withdrawn from society c. withdrawn from society and in poor health d. in poor health but socially active e. the best market for leisure/travel entertainment C PTS: 1 67. _____ are in good health, relatively wealthy, and are socially active. a. Healthy Hermits b. Ailing Outgoers c. Frail Recluses d. Healthy Indulgers e. Happy Campers D PTS: 1 68. Non-family households constitute approximately _____ percent of all households. a. 18 b. 24 c. 32 d. 45 e. 66 C PTS: 1 69. Since the 1950s, households in the U.S. have _____ in number, _____ in size, and _____ in character. a. increased; grown; changed b. stayed about the same; increased; stayed the same c. decreased; increased; remained similar d. grown; shrunk; changed e. increased; increased; changed D PTS: 1 70. Singles _____. a. watch more prime-time television than the national average b. watch less late-night television than the national average c. watch less cable television than the general population d. read more magazines than the general population e. are more difficult to reach via any medium compared to married consumers D PTS: 1 71. Which of the following is a FALSE statement? a. The African American population is growing faster than the rest of the population. b. The average age of black Americans is younger than that of whites. c. African-Americans are geographically concentrated. d. Whites tend to purchase prestige and name-brand products in greater proportion than African-Americans. e. None of these are correct. D PTS: 1 72. Which is the largest minority group in the United States? a. African Americans b. Asian Americans c. Jews d. Hispanics e. Muslim Americans D PTS: 1 73. Approximately _____ percent of Hispanic Americans speak only or mostly Spanish at home. a. 20 b. 30 c. 40 d. 50 e. 60 D PTS: 1 74. Which group has the highest incomes and most prestigious jobs of any segment of American society? a. Whites b. African Americans c. Hispanic Americans d. Muslim Americans e. Asian Americans E PTS: 1 75. The mere fact of being repeatedly exposed to a message increases the likelihood that the receiver will judge that message to be true is known as the _____. a. mere repetition effect b. mere exposure effect c. exposure paradox d. truth effect e. repeat effect D PTS: 1 76. In practical terms, exposing consumers to a brand’s message is a function of _____. a. establishing a sufficient marcom budget b. selecting appropriate media and vehicles in which to present a brand message c. having a creative message d. a and b only e. a, b, and c D PTS: 1 77. Focusing on and considering a message to which one has been exposed is known as _____. a. perception b. exposure c. attention d. comprehension e. interpretation PTS: 1 78. A brand’s _____ represents the key feature, benefit, or image that it stands for in the target audience’s collective mind. a. logo b. name c. positioning d. placement e. semiotics PTS: 1 79. The central idea that encapsulates a brand’s meaning and distinctiveness vis-a-vis competitive brands is known as a _____. a. positioning statement b. summary statement c. constructive process d. sign e. symbol A PTS: 1 80. Fundamental to the concept and practice of positioning is the idea of _____. a. meaning b. target marketing c. signs d. symbols e. referents A PTS: 1 81. When positioning their brands, marketing communicators draw meaning _____ and transfer that meaning to their brands. a. from the dictionary b. objectively c. subjectively d. from consumers e. from the culturally constituted world E PTS: 1 82. A sign relation is established in marketing communications when _____. a. a brand and a referent belong to the same cultural context b. a brand is characterized with a logo c. a brand is personified d. a metaphor is used e. a simile is used A PTS: 1 83. A good positioning statement should satisfy which of the following? a. reflect a brand’s competitive advantage b. motivate consumers to action c. based on product-related attributes d. a and b only e. a, b, and c D PTS: 1 84. A positioning statement that neither reflects a brand’s advantage nor motivates consumers to action _____. a. is a winner b. is a loser c. promotes competitors d. is “swimming up the river” e. is “swimming up the river without a paddle” B PTS: 1 85. When a proposed positioning for a brand represents a competitive advantage for a trivial product feature or benefit, but does not represent something that would give consumers compelling reasons to select the brand positioned as such, this would be considered a _____ option. a. loser b. winner c. swimming-up-the-river d. promote-competitors e. match-competitors C PTS: 1 86. A positioning statement that reflects a brand’s competitive advantage but does not motivate consumers to action _____. a. is a winner b. is a loser c. promotes competitors d. is “swimming up the river” e. is adequate D PTS: 1 87. A positioning statement that motivates consumers to action but does not reflect a competitive advantage for the brand _____. a. is a winner b. promotes competitors c. is a loser d. is “swimming up the river” e. is effective B PTS: 1 88. When a proposed positioning for a brand represents a competitive advantage on a feature or benefit and gives consumers a persuasive reason for trying the brand, this would be considered a _____ option. a. loser b. winner c. swimming-up-the-river d. promote-competitors e. match-competitors B PTS: 1 89. A positioning statement that reflects a brand’s competitive advantage and motivates consumers to action _____. a. promotes competitors b. is a winner c. is a loser d. is “swimming up the river” e. is ineffective B PTS: 1 90. An ad for Hanes brand of underwear says, “Wait ’til we get our Hanes on you!” The brand is positioned as being comfortable for the wearer, and the ad really stressed how comfortable the brand feels against your skin. This brand’s positioning is best described as appealing to consumers’ _____ needs. a. functional b. rational c. emotional d. symbolic e. experiential E PTS: 1 91. Product design, color, and size are all examples of _____. a. non-product-related attributes b. product benefits c. basic consumer needs d. product-related attributes e. product imagery D PTS: 1 92. Price, packaging, and user and usage imagery are all examples of _____. a. product-related attributes b. product benefits c. basic consumer needs d. product imagery e. non-product-related attributes E PTS: 1 ESSAY 1. Name and briefly describe the four sets of consumer characteristics described in this chapter that singularly or in combination influence what people consume and how they respond to marketing communications. 2. Explain the VALS™ classification model. Name and describe two categories of consumers from this model, the best way to promote to each category you’ve chosen, and the types of products and services that would most likely be purchased by members in each of those categories. 3. Explain the concept of geodemographic targeting and how it is being used in today’s marketplace. 4. There are indications that baby boomers are retaining many of their more youthful consumption habits. Which industries would be the most influenced by this phenomenon? Discuss how marketing strategies would be impacted. 5. The Bureau of the Census divides people 55 and older into four distinct segments. Name and describe theses segments, and discuss why these groups of consumers are significant for marketers. 6. Discuss the differences between the African American population and the general population that makes this segment attractive for many companies. How would these factors influence the development of promotional campaigns targeted to African Americans? 7. Explain how marketers create meaning for a brand. [Show More]

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