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Portage Learning BIOD 151 Module 1: Problem Set,100% CORRECT

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Portage Learning BIOD 151 Module 1: Problem Set 1. There six levels of organization of the body- what are they? 2. The necessary life function that protects our internal environment from o... ur external environment is provided by what system? 3. The function of movement is provided by what system? 4. The function of responsiveness is provided by what system? 5. The function of digestion is provided by what system? Your Answer: 1) Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism level 2) Integumentary system. 3) Muscular system. 4) Nervous system. 5) Digestive system. 1. chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organism level. 2. Integumentary 3. muscular 4. Nervous 5. Digestive 6. What is anabolism? 7. What is catabolism? 8. Excretion involves what systems? 9. The reproductive system is controlled by what other system? 10. Which tissue covers the body surface and lines the cavities of the body. Your Answer: 6) The synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances from simpler ones. 7) Catabolism is the part of the metabolism responsible for breaking complex molecules down into smaller molecules. 8) Digestive, Respiratory system and Urinary system. 9) It is controlled from the Endocrine system by hormones. 10) Epithelial tissue. 6. making more complex cellular structures from simpler ones 7. Break down of complex cellular structures into simpler ones 8. digestive, respiratory and urinary 9. the endocrine system 10.Epithelium 11. Name the three steps in cellular respiration. 12. What is the purpose of ATP? 13. Epithelial cells perform what types of functions? 14. What are the four basic tissue types? 15. Review the figures in this lecture to recognize the major body systems. Your Answer: 11) Glycolysis, the Kreb's Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain. 12) ATP is typically main source of energy for almost most cellular processes. 13) Secretion, absorption and skin protection. 14) Epithelium, muscle, connective and nervous tissue. 11. Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, Electron transport system 12. ATP is a very energy rich molecule the powers the cellular activities allowing cells to have the energy needed to carry out their functions. 13. The cells that make up epithelial tissue are specialized for tasks such as secretion and absorption. These cells are under constant cell division to replace dead cells that shed away. 14. The four basic tissue types in the human body are epithelium, muscle, connective and nervous tissue, each of which is made up of specific cell types that perform specific functions. 15. See module 16. Toward or at the body surface is known as what direction? 17. Away from the body surface is what direction? 18. Between a more medial and more lateral structure is what orientation? 19. Toward or at the midline of the body or on the inner side of is what direction? 20. Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure of the body, is what direction? Your Answer: 16) Superficial. 17) Deep. 18) Intermediate. 19) Medial. 20) Inferior. 16.superficial 17. deep 18. intermediate 19. medial 20. inferior 21. Toward the head end or upper part of a structure (above) is what direction? 22. Toward or at the front of the body is what direction? 23. Is the knee proximal or distal to the pelvis? 24. Is the elbow proximal or distal to the hand? 25. Toward or at the back of the body is what direction? Your Answer: 21) Superrior. 22) Ventral. 23) Distal. 24) Proximal. 25) Dorsal. 21. superior 22. ventral (anterior) 23. distal 24. proximal 25. Dorsal (posterior) 26. Closing of a joint is which action? 27. Opening of a joint is which action? 28. In anatomical position are the hands in pronation or supination? 29. Why are the hands in this position (answer from #28/above)? 30. Define elevation and depression: Your Answer: 26) Flexion. 27) Extension. 28) Supination. 29) Because the radius and ulna are crossed when the arm is pronated and parallel when the arm is supinated. 30) The upward movement of the scapula and shoulder is elevation, while a downward movement is depression. 26. Flexion 27. Extension 28. Supination 29. Because the bones of the forearm (radius/ulna) are uncrossed in the supinated position 30. Elevation- upward movement of a structure Depression- downward movement of a structure 31. Define retraction and protraction: 32. Look at the figure below of the right elbow. What is the demonstrated action (in the direction of the arrow)? 33. Look at the figure below of the right hand. A person standing in anatomical position moves their right wrist laterally towards the radius. What is this action called (towards label A)? Your Answer: 31) Protraction of the scapula occurs when the shoulder is moved forward, as when pushing against something or throwing something. Retraction is the opposite motion, with the scapula being pulled posteriorly and medially, toward the vertebral column. 32) Extension of the right elbow. 33) A) Radial Deviation. 31. Protraction- movement in the anterior direction Retraction- movement in the posterior direction 32. Elbow Extension 33. Radial Deviation 34. This body division includes the head neck and trunk? 35. This is a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts 36. These planes lie vertically and divide the body into anterior and posterior parts 37. A transverse plane divides the body into these two parts: 38. These cuts/sections are made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical planes. Your Answer: 34) Axial part. 35) Sagital plane. 36) Frontal plane. 37) Superior and inferior. 38) Oblique. 34. Axial division 35. Sagittal 36. Frontal 37. Superior and Inferior 38. Oblique 39. This body cavity protects the nervous system. 40. This body cavity encases the brain. 41. This cavity encloses the spinal cord. 42. The frontal plane is also known as the plane. 43. The ventral body cavity is divided into these two cavities: Your Answer: 39) Dorsal cavity. 40) Cranial cavity. 41) Spinal cavity. 42) Coronal plane. 43) Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity. 39. Dorsal body cavity 40. Cranial 41. Spinal 42. Coronal 43. Thoracic and abdominopelvic 44. This cavity encloses the heart: 45. The outer surfaces of the organs and body cavities are covered by this double layered membrane called the 46. What is pleurisy? 47. The abdominopelvic region is divided into what four quadrants? 48. This region surrounds the naval Your Answer: 44) Pericardial cavity. 45) Serosa. 46) Pleurisy is inflammation of the sheet-like layers that cover the lungs the pleura. 47) Right upper, right lower, left upper and left lower quandrant. 48) Umbilical region. 44. pericardial 45. Serosa 46. Inflammation of the pleurae. 47. Right upper, Left upper, Right lower and Left lower. 48. Umbilical 49. This region houses the pelvis. 50. This cavity houses the teeth and tongue. 51. This cavity houses the eyes. 52. Joints are lined with what? 53. This cavity contains the tiny ear bones, name them. Your Answer: 49) Iliac 50) Oral cavity. 51) Orbital cavity. 52) Synovial fluid. 53) Middle ear cavities: Malleus, Incus and Stapes. 49. Iliac 50. Oral 51. Orbital 52. Synovial fluid 53. Middle ear: malleus, incus, stapes 54. Explain why active metabolizing cells need to be relatively small. 55. Explain the three differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 56. Explain the function of each of the following in the cell: a. nucleus b. ribosomes c. smooth ER d. rough ER e. RNA f. endospore g. Golgi complex h. lysosome i. mitochondria j. plasma membrane k. microtubules and microfilaments l. extracellular matrix Your Answer: 54) The plasma membrane must be large enough relative to the cell volume in order to transfer materials into the cell and transfer waste out of the cell at a rate fast enough to sustain its needs. 55) - In eukaryotic cells, there are pores (holes) on the nuclear membrane that separates the structure called the nucleus from the cytoplasm. There is no such structure in prokaryotic cells. - Eukaryotic cells contain proteins that can tighten together with DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) during mitosis. There is no protein that can tighten in prokaryotic cells. - Eukaryotic cells contain complex (mixed) membrane cytoplasmic organelles. There is no different organelle in prokaryotic cells other than ribosome. - Eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria, a differentiated cytoplasmic organelle for oxygen respiration. There is no differentiated organelle in prokaryotic cells. - There is chloroplast, a cytoplasmic organelle specialized for photosynthesis from eukaryotic plant cells. There is no such organelle specialized in photosynthesis in prokaryotic cells. 56) 56) a. Nucleus: The nucleus is generally considered the control center of the cell because it stores all of the genetic instructions for manufacturing proteins. b. Ribosomes: A ribosome is an organelle that serves as the site of protein synthesis. c. Smoot ER: Responsible for the synthesis of lipids. d. Rough ER: the synthesis and modification of proteins destined for the cell membrane or for export from the cell. e. RNA: RNA takes the coded amino acid sequence from nucleus to ribosome for protein synthesis. f. Endospore: Dormant, extremely durable bacterial cells. g. Golgi complex: The task of the Golgi device is to ensure that secretion is produced and stored. h. Lysosome: Lysosomes break down large particles and aging organelles with the enzymes they carry. i. Mitochondria: The role of mitochondria in the cell is to produce energy for the cell in which it is located. They obtain energy from food by using oxygen. j. Plasma membrane: contains specialized “pumps” and “gates” that regulate the passage of materials into and out of the cell. In prokaryotic cells the membrane folds inward to provide a place for reactions to take place. k. Microtubules and microfilaments: Micro tubes are tube-like and determine the overall shape of the cell and the distribution of organelles. Microfilaments consist of actin molecules. Micro filaments provide structural support for the cell, but they also participate in cell mobility and changing the shape of the cell. l. Extracellular matrix: Extracellular matrix contains collagen fibers. 54. Cells need to remain relatively small because as a cell expands the amount of surface area relative to the volume of the cell decreases. The smaller cell is more active because relative to its volume its surface area is larger than a bigger cell. With a larger surface area (relative to its volume) this allows the metabolic processes to occur faster. Metabolic processes such as transportation of wastes across the membrane and diffusion can all occur at a faster rate. 55. 1) Prokaryotic cells are typically smaller than eukaryotic cells. Most are between 1- 10 μm (micrometers) in size (about 1/30,000 of an inch); therefore, they are just visible with the light microscope. 2) The DNA of a prokaryotic cell is not enclosed in a nuclear membrane (prokaryotic means “before the nucleus”). 3) Prokaryotic cells do not contain many of the internal membrane-bounded organelles of eukaryotic cells. 56. Nucleus - contains DNA and serves as the control center of the cell. Ribosomes - tiny manufacturing plants that assemble proteins. Smooth ER -synthesizes lipids. Rough ER - modifies and transports proteins derived from the ribosomes that are found along its surface. RNA - take the coded amino acid sequence from nucleus to ribosome for protein synthesis. Endospore -dormant, extremely durable cell produced by the bacteria clostridium botulinum which can lead to botulism. Golgi complex - responsible for receiving lipids and proteins synthesized by the endoplasmic reticulum, altering their structures and shipping them to other parts of the cell. Lysosome - possess digestive enzymes which break down biomacromolecules. Mitochondria - convert the chemical energy found in food into ATP. Plasma membrane - contains specialized “pumps” and “gates” that regulate the passage of materials into and out of the cell. In prokaryotic cells the membrane folds inward to provide a place for reactions to take place. Microtubules are hollow and anchored to the MTOC; microfilaments are solid and create movement. extracellular matrix contains collagen fibers, found in human/animal cells. 57. Describe aerobic respiration and the purpose of ATP production. 58. Explain what happens in Tay-Sachs disease. 59. Label all structures inside a cell (See figure in module) Your Answer: 57) With oxygen, organisms can break down glucose all the way to carbon dioxide. This releases enough energy to produce up to 38 ATP molecules. Thus, aerobic respiration releases much more energy than anaerobic respiration. 58) Tay-Sachs disease, a lipid-digesting enzyme is missing or inactive, and the brain becomes impaired by an accumulation of lipids in the cells. In Tay-Sachs, the 57. Eukaryotic cells require mitochondria to convert the chemical energy found in food (glucose) into ATP. This process is called aerobic respiration. During cellular respiration oxygen is required to break down food. Carbon dioxide, water and ATP are produced. 58. One of the normally present digestive enzymes inside lysosomes is lacking. Thus, a toxic lipid in the brain cells cannot be broken down. The resulting buildup of lipids in these cells can cause intellectual disability and death. 59. Label all parts of a cell 60. A phospholipid molecule, which is the major constituent of membranes, is said to be amphipathic because it contains polar and non-polar groups in the same molecule. On a scrap sheet of paper, draw the diagram normally used to illustrate an amphipathic phospholipid and name the functional group that makes up each part of the molecule. Compare your drawing to the answer key. 61. Define the following terms: a. eukaryotic cells/prokaryotic cells b. membranes c. diffusion d. active transport e. endocytosis f. proteins g. isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic h. cholesterol 62. Be able to label a diagram of the cell membrane. Your Answer: 61) 1. eukaryotic cells/prokaryotic cells: 2. membranes: Keep toxic substances out of the cell, contain receptors and channels that allow specific molecules. 3. diffusion: Transfer higher concentration gradient to lower concentration 4. active transport: Transfer lower concentration gradient to higher with ATP. 5. endocytosis: From outside to in cell, biomacromolecule transfer. 6. proteins: Proteins are major constituent of membranes. 7. isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic: isotonic, equal amount of solute. Hypertonic, more solute contains. Hypotonic, lesser concentration than inside cell. 8. cholesterol: A steroid lipid. 60. 61. Overview of key principles: a. eukaryotic cells/prokaryotic cells - recognize the three main differences between them (size, organelles and membranes). b. membranes - know their detailed structure (including hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions of proteins, phospholipids and cholesterol). Understand the importance of membranes in being able to separate or confine molecules. Know what is “fluid” about a membrane. c. diffusion - know the difference between diffusion and facilitated diffusion and know which molecules use each type and why. d. active transport - know how this process relates to the concentration gradient and that it requires additional energy. e. endocytosis – understand the three types of endocytosis (also in the figure). Know how to describe which types of molecules use this method. f. proteins - know how proteins are used in diffusion, active transport, and the extracellular matrix. g. isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic-know the difference in these terms and how a cell would react in different solutions (see examples in text). Remember that these terms refer to the amount of solute in an aqueous solution. Water moves into an area of high solute concentration. h. cholesterol- describe how it helps to stabilize the cell membrane. 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