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PSYC 435: Abnormal Psychology, 3 Versions Merged, All Correct Test bank Questions and Answers with Explanations (latest Update), 100% Correct, Download to Score A

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PSYC 435: Abnormal Psychology Unit 1: A. Discuss common topics and issues relevant to Abnormal Psychology.  drug or alcohol problem, a suicide, an eating disorders, or psychological difficulty, ... addiction  problems with depression, schizophrenia, postpartum difficulties, eating disorders, depression  questions that will enable us to help patients and families w/ mental disorders  heart of a research-based approach that looks to use scientific inquiry and careful observation to understand abnormal psychology B. Explain why we need to classify mental disorders.  Because all classifications play a roll on their own but can also be connected. One example could be considered a mental disorder but in a different context could be normal  To have a common language between clinicians and bc culture shifts over time/these disorders may change or no longer be considered as disorders  Most sciences rely on classification - provide us with a nomenclature (a naming system) common language and shorthand terms for complex clinical conditions  Structure - classification systems typically place diagnoses commonalities (panic disorder, specific phobia, and agoraphobia = fear anxiety based)  Classification facilitates research, which gives us more information and facilitates greater understanding.  Classify which types of psychological difficulties warrant insurance reimbursement and the extent of such reimbursement. C. Explain the DSM definition of mental disorders.  DSM: accepted standard for defining various types of mental disorders - descriptions, lists of symptoms to diagnose mental disorders. Provides clinicians with specific diagnostic criteria for each disorder.  A common language so specific diagnosis means the same thing to everyone.  descriptive info on the type and number of symptoms needed for each diagnosis helps ensure diagnostic accuracy and consistency (reliability). Help w/treatment D. Identify how culture can influence the definition of Abnormal Psychology.  Different values amongst cultures differences between what is considered normal or abnormal  Public etiquette, standards of health and safety, religious or societal differences E. Types of people who help with Therapy  People with mental disorders do seek help, they are often treated by their family physician rather than by a mental health specialist  Psychiatrist may prescribe medications and monitor the patient for side effects. 12  Clinical Psychologist give individual therapy, meeting with patient few times per/week  Clinical social worker helps patient resolve family problems,  Psychiatric nurse may check in with the patient daily to provide support and help the patient cope better in the hospital environment. Text Objectives: 1. Explain how we define abnormality and classify mental disorders.  There is no one behavior that makes someone abnormal  Subjective Distress: Psychological pain distress – depressive anxious ppl indicate being distressed save for manic highs. Is an element of abnormality but in many cases, neither a sufficient condition (all that is needed) nor necessary condition (a feature that all cases of abnormality must show)  Maladaptive Behavior: interferes with our well-being / ability to enjoy work / relationships depressives may withdraw from work, friends and family, anorexia becomes emaciated & hospitalized. Not all disorders have maladaptive behavior: conartist and contract killer hurt society, not self.  Statistical Deviancy: Statistically rare and represents a deviation from normal (mental disability) in defining abnormality we make value judgments. Rare talents are not abnormal, a cold is normal but still an illness. Rare + undesirable = abnormal / rare + desirable = normal (ex. genius)  Violation of the standards of society: people fail to follow the conventional social and moral rules of their cultural group (parking violation common, vs mother drowning child uncommon)  Social discomfort: when someone violates an implicit or unwritten social rule, those around him or her may experience a sense of discomfort or unease. (sit next to you on an empty bus)  Irrationality and unpredictability: a point at which we are likely to consider a given unorthodox behavior abnormal (schizo often an example or manic in bipolar)  Dangerousness: may be a danger to themselves or to others (but does not always mean mentally ill) also can’t assume that someone diagnosed with a mental disorder must be dangerous. 2. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of classification.  That culture/society plays a role in determining what is/isn’t abnormal* change between years  They can work on their own as a classification but often overlap, many cases are particular to culture and context  Loss of information, personal details about the actual person who has the disorder  Stigma around being diagnosed (rather diabetic than depressive) fear of discrimination  they classify the disorders that people have not the people themselves - a person with x 13 3. Explain how culture affects what is considered abnormal and describe two different culture-specific disorders.  Cultural history and background, religious, paradigms, social courtesy and correctness  Amish people will act differently than what would be normal to a north American culture - Number 13 being bad luck (Christian) 4 In japan (“four” sounds like “death”)  Jamaicans are statistically as prejudice towards MI people as western countries 4. Distinguish between incidence and prevalence and identify the most common and prevalent mental disorders.  Epidemiology: is the study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health- related behaviors in a given population.  Mental Health Epidemiology: is the study of the distribution of mental disorders.  Point Prevalence: refers to the estimated proportion of actual, active cases of a disorder in each population at a given point in time. (depression coming and going at different 3points of the year)  1-Year Prevalence: figure, we would count everyone who experienced depression at any point in time throughout the entire year (this would be higher than Point P. bc includes more time)  Lifetime Prevalence: includes the whole lifespan including recovery time  Incidence: Refers to the number of new cases that occur over a given period (1 year). Someone who was quite well previously but then developed schizophrenia during our 1- year window would be included in incidence estimate. 14  Not always serious 12-month rates of serious mental illness are estimated to be 5.8 % for adults and 8.0 % among adolescents  Comorbidity: describes the presence of two or more disorders in the same person.  ½ of individuals with a disorder rated as serious on a scale of severity (mild, moderate, and serious) had two or more additional disorders.  depression, which accounts for more than 40 percent of the DALYs 5. Discuss why abnormal psychology research can be conducted in almost any setting.  there has been an enormous decrease in inpatient beds.  variety of settings outside the research laboratory, including clinics, hospitals, schools, or prisons. highly unstructured contexts such as naturalistic observations of the homeless on the street. 6. Explain inpatient and outpatient treatment.  Outpatient Treatment: requires that a patient visit a mental health facility practitioner; however, the patient does not have to be admitted to the hospital or stay there overnight.  Hospitalization and Inpatient: preferred options for people who need more intensive treatment than can be provided on an outpatient basis. usually admitted to psychiatric units of general hospitals, or private psychiatric hospitals specializing mental disorders. 7. Describe three different approaches used to gather information about mental disorders.  Acute (short in duration) or Chronic (long in duration) Etiology (or causes) of disorders  Research Methodology: the scientific processes and procedures we use to conduct research - is constantly evolving.  Case studies: In-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community. Typically, data are gathered from a variety of sources and by using several different methods (e.g. observations & interviews) - case studies are excellent way to illustrate clinical material. may provide insight into unusual clinical conditions that are too rare to be studied in a more systematic way.  Generalizability: to draw conclusions about other cases even when those cases involve people with a seemingly similar abnormality.  Self-report Data: Subjects complete questionnaires, can sometimes be mis- leading, child might report 20 best friends but only has 1 when observed.  Observational Approach: collect information in a way that does not involve asking people directly (self-report) Direct Observation: observer watches subject, or take measures (e.g. Heartrates of aggressive children, hormones such as cortisol,) FMRI brain scans another way to measure or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)  Observing behavior, refers to scrutiny of the conduct and manner of specific individuals (e.g. healthy people, people with depression, people with anxiety, people with schizophrenia). 8. Explain why a control (or comparison group) is necessary to adequately test a hypothesis. 15  Hypothesis: is an effort to explain, predict, or e [Show More]

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