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566 Midterm Study Guide|NR 566 midterm 2021-Chamberlain College of Nursing

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WEEK 1 -Things to know about each of the major antibiotic drug classes · Contraindications and high-risk patients · Know examples of each of the major antibiotic drug classes · Monitoring needs · ... Which ones require renal dosing adjustments and how much (i.e., 25%, 50%, etc.) · Patient education · Lifespan considerations including pregnancy · Indications for use Penicillins  caution with patients allergic reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or carbapenems  Treats infection cause by sensitive bacteria check culture to identify infecting organism  Can order skin test to assess allergy status  adjusted doses for patients with impaired renal fnx NARROW SPECTRUM PENICILLINS: PENICILLIN SENSITIVE(PEN G &PEN V) - Mechanism of Action : “Bactericidal”- Weakens the cell wall, causing bacteria to take up excessive amounts of water and rupture. Occurs by two actions simultaneously: inhibiting transpeptidases and activating autolysins which disrupts synthesis of the cell wall and promotes the active destruction resulting in cell lysis and death. -Examples: Penicillin G (Prototype Drug), Penicillin V, Nafcillin, Oxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Piperacillin Penicillin G- -First Penicillin Available and often referred to plainly as Penicillin -Bactericidal for gram negative and gram positive bacteria -Should be taken with medications whereas Penicillin V is stable in stomach acids. -Side Effects: Allergic reactions, pain at IM injection sites, prolonged (but reversible) sensory and motor dysfunction if injected into peripheral nerves, and neurotoxicity (seizures, confusion, hallucinations- if levels too high) . -Life Span Considerations: *Infants- Used safely in infants with bacterial infections including syphilis, meningitis, & group A streptococcus *Children/Adolescents- Common drug used to treat bacterial infections in children. *Pregnant- No well controlled studies but evidence suggests no 2nd or 3rd trimester fetal risk. *Breastfeeding- Amoxicillin is safe. Data is lacking about transmission of other PCNs from mother to infant through breast milk. *Older Adults- Doses should be adjusted in older adults with renal dysfunction...............................continued [Show More]

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