Philosophy > EXAM > Liberty University Online Academy - PHIL 201 Test 3 Questions & Answers (2019/20) A+ Work. (All)

Liberty University Online Academy - PHIL 201 Test 3 Questions & Answers (2019/20) A+ Work.

Document Content and Description Below

PHIL 201 test 3 questions. Which of the following is not a requirement for a good metaphysical theory? Which statement is false based on Hasker’s discussion? The kind of “relationship” th... at is the real problem behind the mind/body problem can be best characterized as: The kind of “relationship” that is the real problem behind the mind-body problem can be best characterized as: What is one of the advantages of Materialism? The Mind-Body theory that has been the most influential in Western philosophy is: Which of the following affirms the existence of essences? Metaphysical Realism says that: According to Hasker, determinism claims that people never make choices. Based on his discussion of John Hick’s examples of resurrection, which of the following statements would Hasker NOT agree to Emergentism states that the mind is produced by the brain and therefore is identical with the brain. According to Hasker, the main problem of theological determinism is: Concerning Max (who stole the hubcaps), Hasker claims that Max is morally responsible for stealing the hubcaps, but did not have freedom of choice in stealing the hubcaps The scientific case for determinism holds that: In the field of Metaphysics, wholism is the view that complex entities are identical to their component parts. Which of the following is not true concerning expert authority? Which of the following is not an element of causality? Which of these is a characteristic of substances? According to Hasker, emergentism implies that at least some non human animals have souls Which of the following statements is true of behaviorism? Which of the following statements is true of metaphysical behaviorism? Which of the following is not a source of authority mentioned in Hasker? Christian theology has made extensive use of pagan philosophy in developing and interpreting Christian revelation. Which of the following statements are not true according to Hasker. Which of the following is not one of the fundamental metaphysical questions identified by Hasker? If a theory is inconsistent that means everything asserted by the theory is wrong. If determinism is correct, then it is necessarily true that God does not exist. Determinism claims that ultimately our choices don’t make any difference. One major argument for libertarianism is: Which of the following is true about Idealism? . Which of the following statements are true about Idealism? For Hasker, the experience of choice is, in itself, enough proof of the existence of free will. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of substances: The proposed solution to the mind/body problem that claims that for every physical state there exists a corresponding mental state, but there is no causal relationship between them. The proposed solution to the mind-body problem that claims that for every physical state there exists a corresponding mental state, but there is no causal relationship between them. Of the elements of causality, the one that seems to be missing in the relationship between the mind and the body: BOOK: 3 elements of causality (1) contiguity , (2) priority, (3) necessary connection According to Dr. Baggett, which of the following best describes libertarian free will: Christian theology has made extensive use of pagan philosophy in developing and interpreting Christian revelation. According to Dr. Baggett, the reason secularists are drawn to compatibilism is that it is consistent with naturalism. Some of the most important questions in metaphysics deal with: In Philosophy, some ideas, concepts or beliefs should be accepted on the grounds of authority, and should never be questioned. According to compatibilism, the proximate cause of an agent’s choice: A strong argument in favor of libertarianism is the rational thought seems to require the ability to freely choose between different options and ideas. Which doctrine does Hasker suggest to be a way to resolve of the problem of divine foreknowledge and human freedom? Question 10 According to Hasker, a misconception that some have of libertarianism: Which of the following statements is true about philosophical Materialism? Idealism tries to avoid the Mind¬-Body problem by reducing mental properties to physical properties. Which of the following statements is true about philosophical Dualism? The two types of substances are: Which of the following is an essential property of a person according to the PointeCast. (PP) Question 19 The kind of "relationship" that is the real problem behind the mind/body problem can be best characterized as: Question 20 An example of an essential property is the fruit on a tree. Question 2 Which of the following is true of metaphysical theories? Question 3 Because not everything can be absolutely proven 100%, then truth is necessarily relative. Question 4 One rule of thumb in doing metaphysics is the recognition that there are some beliefs that should never be challenged or questioned. According to Hasker, the most common response the determinist offers to the idea that rational thinking needs free choice is: For compatibilism a choice is considered free if the: The libertarian concedes that some human actions may, in fact, be socially or psychologically determined, while the determinist does not allow for the possibility of any free human action. Question 9 Compatibilism claims that determinism is logically compatible with freedom as defined by the Question 11 Both Dualism and Emergentism support the idea that the essential "core person" continues to exist after death. Question 12 On the question of life after death, John Hick proposes a theory that involves total annihilation of the entire person, including the soul, at death. Which of the following statements is not taught by Dualism? Behaviorism states that mental properties are merely a special category of physical properties. The term "contiguity" means: Which of these is an example of an essential property? Question 4 If a theory is inconsistent that means everything asserted by the theory is wrong. Question 5 According to Hasker, we can and should thoughtfully evaluate our worldviews. According to Hasker, divine foreknowledge means: The view that our choices are governed by whatever is our strongest motive in a given situation is called: The theory that says some actions are chosen and performed by the agent without their being any sufficient cause or condition prior to the action itself. Which of the following is a weakness/problem with Materialism? Which of the following is not true of emergentism? Selected Answer: Emergentism eliminates the mind altogether Which of the following is not a common objection to Materialism? ? One major argument for libertarianism is: The proposed solution to the mind/body problem that says that God preordained our mental states to correspond with the appropriate physical state. Which view attempts to solve the mind/body problem by appealing to God’s involvement: Which view that attempts to solve the mind/body problem by reducing the mind and body to one thing: Which view that attempts to solve the mind-body problem by reducing the mind and body to one thing: Which of the following is a correct statement about "essences?" An example of an essential property is the fruit on a tree. According to Hasker it is possible to establish some metaphysical beliefs to a point where they are beyond the possibility of challenge. A good metaphysical theory should be characterized by explanatory power. According to Hasker, we can and should thoughtfully evaluate our worldviews. According to Hasker, Metaphysical theories should be judged on the basis of their factual adequacy, logical consistency, and explanatory power. According to Hasker, which is true of the premises we use in doing metaphysics? The function of a metaphysical theory is to: Reality is reducible to one basic substance Reality is more than one thing A sensible monist who believed that everything that exists is made of water A sensible monist who identified ultimate reality with fire A non sensible monist who claimed that all reality consisted of one simple, immutable thing (being) A pluralist who argued that everything was composed of tiny, invisible and indivisible particles called "atoms" A non sensible who identified ultimate reality with numbers The view that there are two fundamental types of things, substances or realms. First, the physical or material realm of reality populated by the familiar objects of our sensory experiences (dogs, tables, etc.). Second, there is a Spiritual of immaterial real, were God, angels, human souls exist and other nonphysical things that we do not experience through our senses The view that all that exists is the matter and the physical laws that govern its behavior. no immaterial substances (God, angels, souls). humans are simply physical organisms. "soul" or "mind" is the brain. List the weaknesses of materialism: Synonymous to "soul" or "person"; not equal to brain because brain is a physical substance, mind is a non-physical substance That which has extention, figure, and motion (they impose themselves on me independent of my will) Qualities or attributes List the characteristics of properties: (1) they are universal (2) they are immutable and external (3) they inhere in things (4) they do not have causal power Properties can be in more than one thing at a time. Properties do not change over time. Properties are "had" by or are "in" things. Properties cannot cause any thing or event to occur. Properties which a particular thing may or may not possess; they are not essential to what the thing is (ex. color, height, weight, etc.) Properties which a particular thing must possess; they are necessary to what the thing is (ex. rational, emotional, and willful capacities) The set of the essential properties of a thing that makes it what it is; it is a things "whatness" or its "nature" it unifies and guides a substance into functioning as it does; essence/natures are universals- all beings of the same type share the same nature The view that natures, essences or forms possess objective reality; they actually exist in things themselves The view that natures or essences do not exist at all, they are merely names by which we group things together which possess similar features The view that essences or natures exist, but only subjectively as ideas in our minds and not objectively in reality List the three views concerning essences: (1) metaphysical realism (2) nominalism (3) conceptutalism Man is made up of two distinct substances: an immaterial substance and a material substance What is the problem with mind/body dualism? List the three elements of causality: (1) contiguity (2) priority (3) necessary connection In order for P to cause Q they must come into contact either directly or indirectly In order for P to cause Q, P must come into contact with Q prior to the caused event It is P's coming into contact with Q that causes the causal event to occur Which of the three elements of causality is missing in the mind body dualism? The mind and body interact in some way List the problem with interactionism: For every physical state there exists a corresponding mental state, but there is no causal relationship between them Physical state have been pre-ordained by God to correspond with appropriate mental state On the occasion of physical stimuli, God creates the appropriate mental state Mind is an emergent property of the brain; brain can cause mental events but mental events cannot cause physical events; mental state area by-product of physical states Only one substance exists (mental); There is no brain, just mind; There is no physical state, just mental state (ideas); All that exists is mind and ideas Everything is reducible to matter or physical states; it denies the reality of mind altogether; mind= brain Materialism: List the four arguments against dualism: (1) principle of simplicity (2) explanatory impotence (3) dependence (4) evolutionary history It is simpler to postulate only one kind of substance (matter) instead of two. Matter can be observed, the mind cannot Neuroscience can explain a great amount about the workings of the brain; dualism can explain very little about the workings of the "mind" Mental states are often dependent on the physical and chemical states of the brain and body (MS <---> PS) = (MS=PS) If man evolved from lower forms that have no "mind" as we understand it, then form whence did "mind" come? All things are reducible to matter and motion and therefore are predetermined by fixed physical laws. Everything, including man, is like a machine; all things are causally determined: reality occurred in such a way that it could not have been otherwise; man is a machine, no free will, we are just series of causal actions that were predetermined to occur from the first cause Each particular mental state is equal to and identical to a particular brain state (a specific c-fiber firing a specific neuron releasing a particular neurotransmitter through a specific synapse); mental states are reduced to brain states; reductive materialism MS=BS, they are identical Materialism: List four problems with the identity thesis (1) Moral problem (2) Epistemology problem (3) problem of correlation (4) problem of co-extensionality Can moral predicates be applied to physical body? Can my body be praised or blamed for a moral action? If I believe something to be true that is actually false, then I am in a "false physical state"; but physical states cannot be true or false they just are: Infinite number or mental states but only a finite number of physical states deny/refutes 1:1 correlation Just because for every mental state there is an existing brain state, it does not mean that every mental state is identical to a brain state; they may be co-existential (if you have one then you always have the other) but that doesn't make them identical (MS <---> PS) is not equal to (MS=PS) Some things are defined by how they function not by what they are made of, all mental states are reduced to a physical process or whole physical system or causal relations rather then any particular physical substance, "mind" is more a description of how the physical system works not so much what it is Functionalism cannot account for the subjective experience of the quality of our experiences, individual instances of subjective conscious experience All forms of materialism lead to determinism List the problems with materialism: (1) Morality is impossible (2) reasoning is impossible If any two terms are referring to the same thing (i.e. they are identical) then whatever is true about one of the terms must be true about the other Property of philosophical proposition, which implies that it is necessarily true simply by virtue of being believed (example: "I think, therefore I am) Who believed that the mind and body are two components of one substance, the "human part" which is a composite of mind and body ( rational souls can exist beyond death)? All natural substances are a composite of form and matter (form is NOT shape; think "essence" that which makes a thing to be the kind of thing it is' unifies it and gives it its structure) to be is to be perceived, everything is dependent upon being perceived for its existence, if something is not perceived, it does not exist All things, material and immaterial, are ultimately reduced to mind and ideas Everything that happens including human actions is determined by the laws of causality Humans can act free from any causal chain and have the ability to do other than what they choose to do Free will and determinism are compatible with each other human actions are determined but free will is not preserved Free will; that which is not caused Agents are beings that have the ability to instigate new series of causes That which has its being in itself and not in another, such as a particular thing (table, tree, hand, Tom, God) characteristics of substances: (1) substances are particular things (2) substances can change and are not necessarily eternal (3) substances are "fundamental existants" – my hands has fingers (substances) but it is the having that makes them existants—hands (substance) have fingers (substance) (4) substances have causal powers Substances can only be in one place at a time Substances have being in themselves; they do not inhere in other things Substances can cause things or events to occur. Substances made out of matter Substances not made from matter - God, angels, mind Determinism ? Determinism Are particular events causally necessary: for determinists? for fatalists? Apparent Conflict between Free Will and Determinism Selected Answer: What position: it is possible that humans have free will and human actions and choices are determined. What position: it is NOT possible that humans both have free will and human actions and choices are determined. Classical compatibilism What position: Freedom requires: 1) a power or ability to do something; and 2) no constraints or impediments (including physical restraints, coercion or compulsion) What term: given exactly this set of conditions (past and laws of nature), there is more than one causally possible outcome. What position has a problem with the Molly example, says that with exactly the same desires, motives, deliberation, she could've chosen the other option? Compatibilist Whose conditional account of "can" says: "I could have done otherwise" (AP) means: If I had chosen differently, I would have acted differently. Does determinism imply we act against our wills? What is the relationship between causation and constraint? Why? Selected Answer: Causation is NOT constraint, constraints undermine freedom Is determinism manipulation by other agents? Is determinism fatalism? Does determinism turn us into robots? Soft determinism What position: 1) compatibilism is true; 2) humans have free will; 3) human actions and choices are determined. Must a compatibilist be a soft determinist? Must a soft determinist be a compatibilist? Must a soft determinist be a determinist? The Consequence Argument What argument: 1. I cannot now change the past. 2. I cannot now change the laws of nature. 3. I cannot now change the past and laws of nature. 4. If determinism is true, my present action is the necessary consequence of the past and laws of nature. 5. I cannot now change the fact that determinism implies that my present action is the necessary consequence of the past and the laws of nature. Therefore, if determinism is true, I cannot now change my present action. Who does not agree with the consequence argument? Libertarianism What position: 1) incompatibilism is true 2) humans sometimes have free will 3) determinism is false Hard incompatibilism What position: 1) incompatibilism is true 2) humans never have free will Hard determinism What position: 1) incompatibilism is true 2) determinism is true 3) humans never have free will because determinism is true Indeterminist What condition: The agent is able to act and act otherwise (choose different possible futures), given the same past circumstances and laws of nature Luck objection to Indeterminism What argument: 1. Suppose that agency and moral responsibility do not require determinism. 2. If agency is not determined, then there are some choices that have no causal connection to the agent who makes them. 3. Therefore, the agent's choices (and therefore the actions that follow) are due to chance. In other words it is just a matter of luck-the agent has no control-that the agent performs one action rather than another. 4. It is absurd to (morally) praise or blame merely lucky choices. Therefore, agency and moral responsibility require determinism. Agent causal libertarianism What position: -free actions are agent-caused -event-caused actions are unfree -when agents act freely (when agents agent-cause), actions are not caused by any events at all -instead, action are caused by agents What three things do the simple indeterminist require for free action? A person who acts The origins of an action are "in me", not in something outside of me beyond my control The ability to satisfy one's desires without interference responsibility that in virtue of which one is held accountable for her decision or action fatalism the view that every fated event that happens must happen regardless of what else goes on in the universe causally necessary if an event is ____________ ____________, it MUST occur, it cannot fail to occur logically possible if an event is _________ ________, regardless of the particular circumstances (ignoring the past and laws of nature), there is no contradiction in conceiving [claim]. causally possible if an event is __________ ________, in these particular circumstances (including the past and laws of nature), [event] must occur. Cannot In a deterministic world, there (can/cannot) be more than one causally possible future "In a deterministic world, it is impossible for agents to have free will"-would be said by what position? If there were an impediment to my acting, Hobbes would say that I am (free/not free) to wave my arm. If there were no causal connection between the decision and the action (between choosing and actually doing), Hobbes would say that the action is (free/not free). If there were a compulsion that produced the decision, Hobbes would say that the decision is (free/not free). True or False? Compatibilists deny that free will requires contra-causal freedom. True or False? According to Hobbes, having a power or ability right now does not require that one exercise it right now. True or False? We objected to the compatibilist analysis of "can" on the grounds that it leads to an infinite regress of choices that must be performed in order to be able to do otherwise. True or False? According to compatibilists, determinism does not entail that I am always forced to act against my will. True or False? According to compatibilist, even if determinism is true, my future depends on what I do. True or False? According to compatibilists, causation does not always involve force or constraint. True or False? According to the classical compatibilist, (using the conditional analysis of "can"), I cannot now change the laws of nature. True or False? According to the classical compatibilist, (using the conditional analysis of "can"), if determinism is true, I cannot now change what I do right now. True or False? According to the incompatibilist, I cannot now change the past. True or False? The conclusion of the Consequence Argument is equivalent to the claim that determinism is true. True or False? We objected to mental-physical dualist libertarianism on the grounds that the introduction of an undetermined immaterial mind does not by itself explain how the agent is able to control her actions. True or False? The reason that some libertarians introduce an "extra factor" is to show that determinism is true. True or False? If an action is caused by events, the agent causalist would say that that action is not free. True or False? If the agent causalist says that agents cause actions and their agent-causings of actions, that leads to an infinite regress. True or False? The simple indeterminist thinks that intentions necessitate actions. True or False? If it turns out that the world is deterministic, then hard determinism must be true too. True or False? Hard determinists disagree with libertarians about the concept of free will. True or False? A hard incompatibilist can hold that the world is indeterministic. [Show More]

Last updated: 1 year ago

Preview 1 out of 28 pages

Add to cart

Instant download

We Accept:

We Accept
document-preview

Buy this document to get the full access instantly

Instant Download Access after purchase

Add to cart

Instant download

We Accept:

We Accept

Reviews( 0 )

$11.00

Add to cart

We Accept:

We Accept

Instant download

Can't find what you want? Try our AI powered Search

OR

REQUEST DOCUMENT
116
0

Document information


Connected school, study & course


About the document


Uploaded On

Nov 16, 2019

Number of pages

28

Written in

Seller


seller-icon
Expert1

Member since 4 years

885 Documents Sold


Additional information

This document has been written for:

Uploaded

Nov 16, 2019

Downloads

 0

Views

 116

Document Keyword Tags

Recommended For You

Get more on EXAM »

$11.00
What is Browsegrades

In Browsegrades, a student can earn by offering help to other student. Students can help other students with materials by upploading their notes and earn money.

We are here to help

We're available through e-mail, Twitter, Facebook, and live chat.
 FAQ
 Questions? Leave a message!

Follow us on
 Twitter

Copyright © Browsegrades · High quality services·