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NUR 2063 Pathophysiology Rasmussen College Final Exam

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NUR 2063 Pathophysiology Rasmussen College Final Exam Bank, Answered. Explain primary prevention ✅Ans- Preventing"; altering susceptibility or reducing exposure of disease for people Explain... secondary prevention ✅Ans- "Screening"; early detection, screening, and management of disease to catch disease early before it spreads Explain tertiary prevention ✅Ans- "Treating" and preventing further complications from a disorder or disease after the person has the condition What are examples of primary prevention? ✅Ans- Vaccinations and Handwashing What are examples of secondary prevention? ✅Ans- PAP smears for STDs, lab work for HBA1C check, mammogram What are examples of tertiary prevention? ✅Ans- Rehab for hip surgery, relearning ADL's after amputation, Wound care after stroke to prevent pressure ulcer What happens to the body during the sympathetic phase of the flight or fight response? ✅Ans- Pupils dilate, salivation inhibited, increase in HR, bronchodilation of airway, increased respirations, glucose release, inhibit GI/GU. What happens to the body during the parasympathetic phase of the flight or light response? ✅Ans- Rest and Digest. Pupils constrict, salivation occurs, decreased HR, bronchoconstriction,decreased respiration, GI/GU systems resume action Explain the role of the nucleus ✅Ans- control center of the cell, where DNA and genes are stored, produces mRNA to help build body proteins Explain the role of the mitochondria ✅Ans- Powerhouse of the cell. Provides energy in ATP, and has its own set of DNA Explain the role of the ribosome ✅Ans- produces RNA to produce proteins through transcriptions of DNA and translation of RNA into a protein Explain the role of the lysosomes ✅Ans- helps breakdown and digest dead cells, organelles, or tissues Explain the role of the rough ER ✅Ans- folded membranes that move proteins around the cell. Has ribosomes attached to it and helps produce proteins for the cell membrane Explain the role of the smooth ER ✅Ans- helps the Liver and kidney cells to detoxify, lipid metabolism, synthesis of hormones, and calcium storage Explain the role of the peroxisome ✅Ans- membrane cells that contain oxidase and catalase to detoxify harmful chemicals, breakdown hydrogen peroxide and filter metabolic wastes Explain the role of the Golgi body ✅Ans- stacked membranes that act as the sorter and packager for proteins from the ER. Helps move things in and out of cell Explain passive immunity ✅Ans- the transfer of preformed antibodies against specific antigens from a protected or immunized individual to an unprotected or non immunized person. Provides immediate and short term protection. No memory cells are produced. IgA and IgE. Passes protection What are examples of passive immunity? ✅Ans- mom to fetus through placenta or mom to infant through breast milk. Serotherapy Explain active immunity ✅Ans- a protective state owing to the immune system response as a result of active infection or immunization. It has to be activated in the body and the body has to fight it to have long term immunity What are examples of active immunity? ✅Ans- Vaccinations Explain what edema is ✅Ans- accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space. Leads to tissue swelling What are some causes of edema? ✅Ans- increase in the forces that move fluid from capillaries to interstitial compartments or decrease in the opposite. What are factors that contribute to edema? ✅Ans- Increase in hydrostatic forces in the capillaries that increases the blood volume, increased capillary permeability, CHF, HYPTN, decrease in plasma proteins like albumin (causes liver to hold onto more water- ascites, cirrhosis), blockage of lymph drainage What is a hypersensitivity? ✅Ans- an overreaction to antigens or allergens that is beyond the normal range, leading to damage What is a type 1 hypersensitivity? ✅Ans- anaphylactic. Occurs within 2-30mins of exposure. Can be systemic or localized. Binds to IgE and mast cells that release histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins to create inflammation Mediating Factor for type 1 hypersensitivity ✅Ans- IgE Examples of type 1 hypersensitivity ✅Ans- allergic reaction to dust. someone eats peanuts and breaks out in hives and runny nose How do we treat type 1 hypersensitivity reactions? ✅Ans- antihistamines to block histamine, beta adrenergics to bronchodilator , corticosteroids, to decrease inflammation. IgE therapy, epinephrine given during anaphylaxis through IV or through IM in epipens What are signs and symptoms of a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction? ✅Ans- hives, runny nose, eczema, throat constriction, ,localized edema, wheezing, tachycardia, anaphylaxis. Explain Type 2 Hypersensitivity ✅Ans- The cells attack healthy organs and blood, causing symptoms Mediating factor for type 2 hypersensitivity ✅Ans- cytotoxic- IgM/ IgG Examples of type 2 hypersensitivity ✅Ans- Blood transfusions when wrong blood given, hemolytic disease of newborn, grans disease, myasthenia gravis What is type 3 hypersensitivity? ✅Ans- The igG antibodies are stuck beneath the membranes of cells. Can activate immune responses that can damage tissues. Immune complex Mediating factor type 3 hypersensitivity ✅Ans- immune complexes Examples type 3 hypersensitivity ✅Ans- RA, lupus What is type 4 hypersensitivity? ✅Ans- there is a delayed cell reaction caused by the T cells. Antigens are phagocytized and are sensitized to receptors on the t cell. Reexposure causes the memory cells to release destructive cytokines. Mediating factor type 4 hypersensitivity ✅Ans- delayed cell mediated Examples type 4 hypersensitivity ✅Ans- TB test, contact dermatitis Characteristics of benign tumors ✅Ans- Localized growth that is curable. They more closely resemble the original tissue type, they grow slowly, have little vascularity, rarely necrotic, and usually have similar function to the original cells. Can be fatal depending on the location (brain, heart,etc), usually grows at the original areas of the body. Encapsulated Characteristics of malignant tumors ✅Ans- usually cancerous. They ignore growth controlling signals and replicate despite signals from the environment. They can escape signals and can die. they can also display different functions poorly or not at all related to the tissue. Greater degree of differentiation means that it is more aggressive. Can move around with a poor prognosis. Anaplasia, metastasis S/S of peptic ulcer disease ✅Ans- epigastric burning pain that is usually relieved by food or antacids (gastric ulcers present on empty stomach but can be after food, duodenal ulcers present 2-3 hours after food and is relieved by food). Can also be life threatening as GI bleeding can occur without warning and cause a drop in H/H and dark tarry stools and hematemesis What is H.pylori? ✅Ans- has a key role in promoting both gastric and duodenal ulcer formation and thrives in acidic areas. It slows down ulcer healing and can reoccur frequently, and taking it away can help ulcers heal What is a functional bowel obstruction? ✅Ans- problem with the act of the bowel actually moving, such as things that inhibit movement from surgery, medications, opioids, low fiber diets that can slow motility or shut off the GI system from the SNS stimulation What is a mechanical bowel obstruction? ✅Ans- blockage of the bowel inhibiting movement. adhesions, hernia, tumors, impacted feces, volvus or twisting of the intestines, intussusception adhesions ✅Ans- bands of scar tissue joining two surfaces that are normally separated in the bowel hernia ✅Ans- Protrusion of bowel through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it volvus ✅Ans- twisting of the bowel Intusseption ✅Ans- telescoping of the intestines S/S of appendicitis ✅Ans- Periumbilical pain, RLQ pain, presence of a positive McBurneys point and rebound tenderness when one presses on the belly button and hip region and when the pressure is removed, the client has pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, diarrhea, RLQ tenderness, systemic signs of infection. how to assess appendicitis ✅Ans- McBurney's point technique when pressing on the belly button and RLQ hip region and removing the pressure causes intense pain, indicates positive appendicitis. Rebound tenderness= positive rebound tenderness ✅Ans- pain that increases when pressure (as from a hand) is removed-in appendicitis S/S of liver disease ✅Ans- hepatocellular failure (jaundice, decreased clotting, hypoalbuminemia, decreased vitamin D and K) and portal hypertension (GI congestion due to blockage of blood, more esophageal or gastric varies, hemorrhoids, enlarged spleen,) what is jaundice? ✅Ans- green yellow staining of tissues from increased level of bilirubin as the liver cannot metabolize extra bilirubin. Found on eyes, skin, and mouth. present with liver disease What is ascites? ✅Ans- pathological accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity due to the loss of albumin in the liver, causing fluid to be free amongst the cells. It can cause a lot of pain in the abdomen, and it must be drained with a parenthesis What is hepatic encephalopathy? ✅Ans- neuropsychiatric syndrome from too much ammonia in the blood as the liver cannot break it down. Dementia=ammonia and psychotic symptoms common along with jerking What is portal hypertension? ✅Ans- Increased pressure in the portal venous system from a build-up of portal vein pressure due to progressive hepatic fibrosis which increases hepatic resistance What is esophageal varices? ✅Ans- a complication of portal hypertension resulting from alcoholism or hepatitis. Causes the vessels in the esophagus to become dilated and bleed, and the rupturing can be forceful enough for one to bleed out How do we treat esophageal varices? ✅Ans- reduce the hypertension, banding the varices to prevent rupturing and bleeding by cutting of the flow with a band What role does albumin play in the blood? ✅Ans- Albumin helps keep fluid in the blood stream and in cells so it does not leak into other tissues. It can also carry other substances in the body What happens to albumin during liver failure? ✅Ans- leads to low albumin levels, causing edema in the extremities and buildup of fluid in abdomen called ascites from fluid leaking through the cells and vessels into the tissues Three functions of the kidneys ✅Ans- elimination, excretion, regulation Explain elimination ✅Ans- discharge of waste (urine) from the body Explain Excretion ✅Ans- removal of organic wastes from the blood Explain regulation ✅Ans- regulating blood volume, ion concentration, blood pH and nutrients Manifestations of renal disorders ✅Ans- Pain: usually in the back-flank area, felt at the CVA angle when one palpates with a closed fist and it causes the client tenderness. Pain upon micturition What are abnormal urinalysis findings? ✅Ans- dark, strong smelling urine could denote decreased renal function, infection or dehydration, cloudy urine could denote infection or high WBC count. Ketones or glucose suggest diabetes, and proteinuria Normal GFR ✅Ans- 125 mL/min Normal urine output per hour ✅Ans- 30 mL/hr What is polycystic kidney disease? ✅Ans- a congenital abnormality of the kidney that is genetically transmitted, and it results in fluid filled cysts on one or both kidneys that can lead to renal failure, needing dialysis, or kidney transplantation What causes polycystic kidney disease? ✅Ans- genetics Explain nephron ✅Ans- in the kidney and helps to filter blood and remove waste products. The kidney has 1-2 million of them Explain hematuria ✅Ans- blood found in the urine not due to menstruation Explain proteinuria ✅Ans- protein found in the urine What is nephrolithiasis? ✅Ans- kidney stones that obstruct the ureters and kidneys. Usually made of calcium and can cause urinary stasis and pain What is pyleonephritis? ✅Ans- infected and inflamed kidney, usually caused by e.coli from the lower urinary tract that ascends Explain how to assess for pyelonephritis ✅Ans- Percussion at the CVA noting tenderness, pain when urinating, low GFR, concentrated urine with things in urine s/s of pyelonephritis ✅Ans- CVA tenderness most common, fever, chills, N/V, anorexia or not willing to eat, flank pain What is cystitis? ✅Ans- inflammation of the bladder (UTI) How to prevent pyelonephritis ✅Ans- remove catheters as early as possible to prevent infection as it can spread s/s of acute kidney injury (AKI) ✅Ans- low urine output, concentrated urine, low GFR, high BUN/CRE, sudden reduction in kidney function 3 Causes of AKI ✅Ans- Prerenal, intrarenal, postrenal explain pre renal causes of AKI ✅Ans- disruption in renal perfusion and blood flow. It can cause low blood pressure, low blood volume, heart failure, renal artery obstruction, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, burns that lead to dehydration, Drugs such as ACE inhibitors or angiotensin 2 blockers, NSAIDs that can drop the blood pressure or cause bleeding Explain intrarenal causes of AKI ✅Ans- damage or disruptions within the kidney blood vessels, tubules, or glomeruli. It can cause reduced blood supply within the kidneys, toxic injury with medications, chemo, and contrast medias, renal inflammation, or prolonged prostate/ stones/ in the post renal stage Explain postrenal causes of AKI ✅Ans- caused by an obstruction in the urinary collecting system, urethra, bladder, or ureters due to stone, tumor, or enlarged prostate that results in elevated pressure in the Bowman's capsule that impedes glomerular filtration. Prolonged injury can lead to intrinsic injury and irreversible damage Examples of prerenal causes of AKI ✅Ans- low BP, hypovolemia, heart failure, renal artery occlusion, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, burns leading to dehydration, NSAIDs, and antihypertensives that drop the BP Examples of intrarenal causes of AKI ✅Ans- chemo, contrast dye, prolonged kidney stones in the post renal stage Examples of postrenal causes of AKI ✅Ans- renal stones, enlarged prostate, tumor in the urethra *********************CONTINUED***************** [Show More]

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