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NURS6521 / NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Final Exam Review (Latest) Walden University

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NURS 6521 - Advanced Pharmacology Final Exam Review 1. Which drug is considered safe for hypertension treatment during pregnancy? - Methyldopa (Aldomet) 2. What drug will reduce afterloa... d because it is an alpha-adrenergic blocker? - Prazosin (Minipress) 3. What is an expected effect of the use of a beta-adrenergic blocker to control angina? - Reduced force of cardiac contraction. 4. What side effect should be monitored closely in the elderly when taking Metformin (Glucophage) for type 2 diabetes? - Lactic acidosis. 5. What is the primary role of cytochrome p-450 in the liver? - Deactivate and detoxify medications and other substances. 6. What is a component of Vitamin K-dependent clotting factors? - 7. How are IV morphine and nitroglycerin beneficial in acute heart failure? - 8. What is the purpose of administering a vasodilating drug to a patient in heart failure? - 9. What are some contraindications for HMG-co A reductase inhibitors (statins)? - 10. Which drug can reduce serum LDL the most in patients with hyperlipidemia? - 11. Which drug is contrindicated in a patient with Myasthena Gravis? - 12. What action is most effective in decreasing the risk of hyperkalemia associated with the start of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy? - 13. What factor influences plasma protein drug binding and distribution of that drug? - 14. What does the half-life of a medication determine? - 15. What important information should be given to a patient who is taking Metoprolol (Lopressor) for angina and hypertension? - 16. Which medications should be avoided for patients with a sulfa allergy? - 17. What should be taken into consideration when prescribing fat-soluble drugs in the elderly? - 18. Which hypolipidemic class of drugs does not have to have liver function studies? - 19. What is the MOA of cardiac glycosides? - 20. What age-related changes place the elderly at risk for an exaggerated response to Warfarin (Coumadin) and Heparin? - 21. Along with diet, what drug is used to treat hypertriglyceridemia? - 22. What drug is the best choice of treatment for a newly diagnosed patient with type 2 diabetes only having postprandial glucose elevation? - 23. Which medication is considered the safest for a diabetic patient if hypoglycemia is a major concern? - 24. What drug is an absolute contraindication if the patient is a smoker and taking medications for type 2 diabetes? - 25. How should an oral glucocorticoid be taken? - 26. The normal starting dose of levothyroxine is 50-100mcg per day for primary hypothyroidism. What is the most appropriate starting dose in a 71-year old female patient? - 27. What drug class should be avoided in patients with a diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis? - 28. What thyroid drug blocks thyroid hormone production and release? - 29. What drug class exacerbates hyperglycemia? - 30. What drug would you add for a patient who has been taking a sulfonylurea medication like Glipizide (Glucotrol) for type 2 diabetes when there is poor glucose control? - . 31. Which drug class may predispose an insulin dependent patient to hypoglycemia? - 32. What side effects may an elderly patient who has just been placed on a calcium channel blocker for treatment of hypertension and angina except to watch for? - 33. What might be a probable cause of a decreased digoxin level of 0.5mg/ml in a 70-year old with previously stable levels be a result of? - 34. What drug used in the treatment of congestive heart failure is NOT associated with decreased mortality? - 35. A patient complains of "puffy feet" shortly after beginning a new medication three months ago. There is no underlying physiological cause for this condition. What medication is most likely causing the problem? - 36. What drugs affect the action of Warfarin (Coumadin)? - 37. What drug has a beneficial effect on benign prostate hypertrophy that may be used to treat simultaneous hypertension? - 38. What antihypertensive agent is safe during pregnancy? - 39. A patient is taking the ACEI Enalapril (Vasotec) for the last four months for the treatment of congestive heart failure, and is complaining of a nonproductive cough. What should the NP advise the patient regarding this side effect? - 40. Which medication classification has been found to be most helpful in managing the problems associated with congestive heart failure? - 41. What potentially serious side effect should a NP monitor or suspect in a patient who has begun taking Lovastatin (Mevacor) approximately three weeks ago, and who now presents complaining of generalized muscle aches. - 42. What drug is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker? - 43. A 75-year old patient is taking Timolol Maleate (Timpotic) for chronic open angle glaucoma and is well controlled. What side effect might you watch for if Propanolol (Inderal) is added? - 44. What is the preferred lab test to evaluate coagulation status in a 76-year old female who is taking Warfarin (Coumadin) for chronic atrial fibrillation, and who is being managed outpatient? - 45. Which drug class is the only one proven to decrease cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients? - ). 46. What is the most common adverse side effect of drugs taken to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, such as a bile acid sequestrant like Questran and Ezetimibe (Zetia)? - 47. What medications are most appropriate for effectively managing a patient with moderate persistent asthma? - 48. What medication class should be avoided in patients with bronchitis due to the fact it might worsen the symptoms of congestion. - 49. Which antibiotic is most effective in treating community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a young adult without co-morbid conditions? - 50. What drug combination would be most effective to keeping a 20-year old patient with mild persistent asthma symptom free? - 51. What drug should be avoided in a patient who is taking Theophylline twice daily for bronchospastic disease, and who presents today with thick, discolored, tenacious sputum, and mild shortness of breath, and fever? - 52. What is the optimal time to start antiviral therapy, such as Oseltamivir Phosphate (Tamiflu), in select patients with influenza? - 53. What is the most important teaching point for a patient taking Salmeterol (Serevent) for asthma? - 54. Which medication is most effective for patients with chronic emphysema? - 55. What is the most appropriate treatment of exercise induced asthma? - 56. What is the treatment of choice for recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection? - 57. What is the most appropriate treatment for a patient with a history of rheumatic fever and resultant valvular disease who is about to undergo a dental procedure, and who has no known drug allergies? - 58. What antimicrobial agent would be appropriate to prescribe in a 65-year old patient who presents with a past medical history of coronary artery disease, a 101F temperature, and tachypnea of 24 breaths per minute. Chest X-ray confirms a left lower lobe pneumonia. - 59. What is the most appropriate intervention for an 8-yr old sent home from school with mucopurulent discharge from his eye and suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? - 60. Which class of drugs should NOT be used to treat COPD? - 61. How do antiprostaglandin drugs cause stomach mucosal injury? - 62. What do gastric parietal cells produce? - 63. How do Diphenoxylate (Lomotil) and Loperamide (Imodium) help relieve diarrhea? - 64. Can antacids cause diarrhea? - 65. Which medication does NOT increase the incidence of constipation in an older adult? - 66. Which laxative is safe for long-term use? - 67. Which medication given for nausea and vomiting works by affecting the chemoreceptor trigger zone, thereby stimulating upper gastrointestinal motility and increasing lower esophageal sphincter pressure? - 68. Which drug class is most likely to produce the most rapid relief for a patient who is having heartburn symptoms? - 69. Which H2RA is most likely to cause drug interactions with Phenytoin (Dilantin) and Theophylline (Bronkodyl)? - 70. Which pharmacologic intervention should you consider when treating a middle-aged man with recurrent gastric ulcers? - 71. Which OTC supplement commonly taken by the elderly exacerbates constipation? - 72. What direction would you give when prescribing Sucralfate (Carafate)? - 73. What drug should be limited when the patient has a NSAID induced peptic ulcer? - 74. A patient presents with a history of GERD and many other medical conditions. What medication would you encourage her to avoid? - 75. What drug can exacerbate the symptoms of GERD? - 76. Why are nitrate-free periods every 24 hours necessary for the patient on nitroglycerin therapy? - 77. What does a low level of thyroid-stimulating hormone indicate? - 78. What would be the best option to treat a newly diagnosed patient with a low TSH level with? - 79. Spironoaldactone (Aldactone) has what mechanism of action (MOA)? - 80. Heparin exerts its therapeutic action by what? - 81. What physiologic action happens when the offending drug is administered during an anaphylactic reaction. - 82. What are two systemic psoriasis medications? - 83. What is the first choice of drug therapy for the majority of patients with uncomplicated stage I hypertension? - 84. What is the effect of cardiac glycosides? - 85. Amenorrhea is the most common side effect of which birth control medication? - 86. What is an anti-hypertensive agent which competes with epinephrine for available beta-receptor sites? - 87. What type of action does nitrates have on the body? - 88. What is the recommended level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) for patients with known coronary artery disease? - 89. What is the MOA of group IV anti-dysrhythmia drugs? - 90. Which drug therapy should be used to lower the serum concentration of thyroid hormones and re-establish eumetabolic state in a patient with Graves' disease? - 91. Which type of diuretic would be used for a stage I hypertension in a patient with renal insufficiency? - 92. What drug should be considered as first-line therapy for a client with hypertension and heart failure? - [Show More]

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