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Test Bank questions and answers solution latest update docs

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Test Bank questions and answers solution latest update docs Question type: Multiple Choice 1) The process of _____ converts glucose into _____. A)electron transport; CO2 B)glycolysis; ... pyruvate C)glycogenolysis; glycogen D)gluconeogenesis; glycogen E)glycogen synthesis; pyruvate 2) What pathway is used to make glucose from other metabolites such as oxaloacetate? A)glycogen synthesis B)glycogen degradation C)glycolysis D)pentose phosphate pathway E)gluconeogenesis 3) In eukaryotes, glycolysis typically occurs in the _____, gluconeogenesis typically occurs in the _____. A) mitochondria; cytosol B) Golgi apparatus; mitochondria C)endoplasmic reticulum; mitochondria D)cytosol; cytosol E)lysosome; cytosol 4) The coenzyme _____ is the oxidizing agent in glycolysis. A) ADP B)thiamine pyrophosphate C) NAD+ D) FAD E)biotin 5) Which of the following represents the net products of glycolysis from one molecule of glucose? A) 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ATP B) 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 4 ATP C) 3 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 4 ATP D) 6 CO2, 30 ATP E) 6 CO2, 32 ATP 6) In glycolysis, the net gain of ATP during the energy investment phase is _____ while the net gain of ATP during the energy payoff phase is _____. A) -4; 6 B) -2; 4 C) -2; 2 D) -1; 3 E) 0; 2 7) Hexokinase is an example of a(n) _____ enzyme A)ligase B)hydrolase C)transferase D)ligase E)isomerase 8) With a Gof -16.7 kJ/mol, the reaction catalyzed by hexokinase is considered to be _____. A)at equilibrium B)substrate and product concentration dependent C)freely reversible D)metabolically irreversible E)none of the above 9) Phosphoglucoseisomerase has a Gof 2.2 kJ/mol but a G of -1.4 kJ/mol. Based upon this difference, which of the following is true? A)within a cell, concentrations are non-standard B)within a cell, the concentration of glucose-6-phosphate is higher than fructose-6-phosphate C)within a cell, concentrations of products are often lowered by their rapid use in other reactions D)within a cell, the reaction catalyzed by phosphoglucoseisomerase would be considered freely reversible E) all of the above 10) Which of the following enzymes requires ATP as a substrate? A)phosphofructokinase B)phosphoglucoseisomerase C)aldolase D)triose phosphate isomerase E)enolase 11) What enzyme catalyzes the major regulatory step of glycolysis? A)hexokinase B)aldolase C) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase D)phosphofructokinase E)phosphoglucoseisomerase 12) Which of the following is a potent activator of phosphofructokinase in mammals? A) fructose-6-phosphate B) glucose-6-phosphate C) fructose-2,6-bisphosphate D) fructose-1,6-bisphosphate E) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 13) In bacterial cells, _____ is an activator of phosphofructokinase while _____ is an inhibitor. A) glucose-6-phosphate; ATP B) ADP; phosphoenolpyruvate C) fructose-2,6-bisphosphate; fructose-6-phosphate D) AMP; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate E)citrate; ADP 14) The enzyme responsible for the synthesis of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate is _____. A) phosphofructokinase-2 B) hexosephosphatekinase-2 C) aldolase-2 D)phosphofructose isomerase-2 E)none of the above 15) Which enzyme is responsible for splitting a hexose into two trioses? A)enolase B)phosphoglyceratemutase C)phosphofructoseisomerase D)triose phosphate isomerase E)aldolase 16) The active site of aldolase contains a Lys residue which forms a(n) _____ and a(n) _____ residue that participates in acid-base reactions. A)amide; His B) Schiff base; Asp C)secondary amine; Glu D)amide; Cys E) Schiff base; Tyr 17) In the reaction catalyzed by aldolase, the bond broken is between carbons 3 and 4 of the substrate. What functional groups are present on these two carbons (C3 and C4) in the products? A) C3 becomes an alcohol; C4 becomes a carboxylic acid B) C3 becomes an aldehyde; C4 becomes a ketone C) C3 becomes an aldehyde; C4 becomes an alcohol D) C3 becomes an alcohol; C4 becomes an aldehyde E) C3 becomes a ketone; C4 becomes an alcohol 18) Triose phosphate isomerase catalyzes a reaction that is most similar to _____. A)phosphoglyceratemutase B)phosphoglucoseisomerase C)hexokinase D)aldolase E)enolase 19) What is the name for the process that produces ATP from ADP in glycolysis? A) substrate-level phosphorylation B)oxidative phosphorylation C)autophosphorylation D)glycolytic phosphorylation E)cytosolic phosphorylation 20) Experimental evidence indicates that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase contains a critical _____ residue in its active site, as shown by its inactivation by iodoacetamide. A) Lys B) His C) Asp D)Ser E)Cys 21) Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase oxidizes _____. A)an alcohol to a ketone B)a carboxylic acid to CO2 C)an alcohol to an aldehyde D)an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid E)an aldehyde to an alcohol 22) Glyceraldehyde is oxidized to _____ which can transfer a phosphate to _____. A)phosphoenolpyruvate; ADP B)phosphoenolpyruvate; AMP C) 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate; ADP D) 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate; AMP E) 3-phosphoglycerate; ADP 23) Why is phosphoglycerate kinase still considered a kinase even though ADP is converted to ATP? A)the enzyme is freely reversible B) ATP is the ultimate source of the phosphate that is transferred to ADP C)the phosphate is transferred in conjunction with an oxidation reaction D)the reaction is metabolically irreversible E)none of the above 24) What residue of phosphoglyceratemutase undergoes covalent catalysis during the reaction? A) Asp B) His C)Ser D) Tyr E)Cys 25) What type of enzyme is enolase, which catalyzes the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate and water? A)transferase B)hydrolase C)ligase D)lyase E)oxidoreductase 26) What is the greatest driving force for the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate kinase? A)hydrolysis of phosphate from phosphoenolpyruvate B)transfer of phosphate from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP C)release of ATP from active site D)tautomerization of enolpyruvate to pyruvate E)release of pyruvate from the active site 27) What sort of activity does fructose-1,6-bisphosphate have on pyruvate kinase? A)no effect B)competitive inhibitor C)noncompetitive inhibitor D)allosteric inhibitor E) feed-forward activator 28) Which of the following contains a high energy bond that is used for a substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis? A) fructose-1,6-bisphosphate B) 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate C)acetyl phosphate D) 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate E) 1-phosphoglycerate 29) What regulatory enzyme of glycolysis is skipped during fructose metabolism? A)hexokinase B)phosphoglucoseisomerase C)phosphofructokinase D)pyruvate kinase E)fructose metabolism does not skip any steps of glycolysis 30) If a cell were given glucose labeled at carbon-3 with 14C, what carbon(s) of pyruvate would contain the label? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 1 and 3 E) 2 and 3 31) Under anaerobic conditions in skeletal muscle, pyruvate is converted into _____. A)ethanol and CO2 B)propionate C)acetyl-CoA D)lactate E)alanine 32) Fill in the missing reagents in the following reaction. A)reactant: NAD+ + H+; product: NADH B)reactant: NADH + H+; product: NAD+ C)reactant: ATP; product: ADP + Pi D)reactant: NADH + H+; product: CO2 E)none of the above 33) Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted to _____ by pyruvate dehydrogenase. A)oxaloacetate B)ethanol C)lactate D)glucose E)acetyl-CoA 34) What coenzyme is required for the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate? A) NADH B)pyridoxal phosphate C)biotin D)thiamine E) FADH2 35) Which of the following correctly describes the mechanism of pyruvate carboxylase? A) ATP and bicarbonate react, carboxyphosphate formed, carboxyl group transferred to biotin, deprotonated pyruvate attacks carboxyl group B) ATP and bicarbonate react, carboxyl group transferred to biotin carboxyphosphate formed, deprotonated pyruvate attacks carboxyl group C) ATP and bicarbonate react, carboxyphosphate formed, deprotonated pyruvate attacks carboxyl group, carboxyl group transferred to biotin D)carboxyphosphate formed, ATP and bicarbonate react, carboxyl group transferred to biotin, deprotonated pyruvate attacks carboxyl group E)carboxyphosphate formed, deprotonated pyruvate attacks carboxyl group, ATP and bicarbonate react, carboxyl group transferred to biotin 36) Which of the following forms a substrate cycle with hexokinase? A)phosphoglucoseisomerase B) glucose-6-phosphatase C)phosphofructokinase D)phosphoglycerate kinase E)fructosebisphosphatase 37) Which of the following can serve as a source of carbon for gluconeogenesis? A)glycerol B)serine C)alanine D)glutamate E) all of the above 38) How many equivalents of ATP are required to convert two molecules of pyruvate to glucose? A) 2 B) 4 C) 6 D) 8 E) 10 39) What would occur if both phosphofructokinase and fructose bisphosphatase were active simultaneously? A)a futile cycle B)a substrate cycle C)an inhibitor cycle D)the alanine cycle E)the Cori cycle 40) Gluconeogenesis is most active in the _____. A)muscles B)brain C)heart D)liver E)kidneys 41) Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate is an activator of _____ and an inhibitor of _____. A)phosphofructokinase; hexokinase B)fructosebisphosphatase; phosphofructokinase C)phosphofructokinase; fructose bisphosphatase D) glucose-6-phosphatase; pyruvate kinase E)pyruvate kinase; phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxykinase 42) Muscle cells are not able to supply glucose for other tissues because they do not contain which of the following enzymes? A)debranching enzyme B)pyruvate carboxylase C)glycogenphosphorylase D)fructosebisphosphatase E) glucose-6-phosphatase 43) Which of the following supplies the energy for glycogen synthesis? A) ATP B) GTP C) CTP D) UTP E)none of the above 44) Which of the following correctly relates the order of intermediates during the synthesis of glycogen? A)glucose glucose-1-phosphate  glucose-6-phosphate  UDP-glucose  glycogen B)glucose glucose-6-phosphate  glucose-1-phosphate  UDP-glucose  glycogen C)glucose glucose-6-phosphate  UDP-glucose  glucose-1-phosphate  glycogen D)glucose UDP-glucose  glucose-1-phosphate  glucose-6-phosphate  glycogen E)glucose UDP-glucose  glucose-6-phosphate  glucose-1-phosphate  glycogen 45) Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the conversion of glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate? A)phosphoglucomutase B)glucose phosphatase C)glycogenphosphorylase D)phosphoglucoseisomerase E)phosphorylasemutase 46) In glycogen synthesis, what is the intermediate between glucose-1-phosphate and glycogen? A) glucose-6-phosphate B) glucose-1,6-bisphosphate C) UTP-glucose D) UDP-glucose E)none of the above 47) In the muscle, when a residue of glucose is cleaved from glycogen and converted to pyruvate via glycolysis, what is the net ATP production? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5 48) Glycogen storage occurs in _____ and _____ tissue. A)muscle; kidney B)liver; pancreas C)brain; muscle D)kidney; pancreas E)muscle; liver 49) The main enzyme of glycogen catabolism is _____, which catalyzes a _____ reaction. A)glycogen hydrolase; hydrolysis B)glycogenphosphorylase; phosphorolysis C)glycogenmutase; mutarotation D)debranching enzyme; hydrolysis E)glycogentransferase; glucose residue transfer 50) NADPH used in lipid biosynthesis is produced in _____. A)the pentose phosphate pathway B)the citric acid cycle C)glycolysis D)gluconeogenesis E)none of the above 51) For each molecule of glucose-6-phosphate that enters the pentose phosphate pathway, _____ NADPH and _____ CO2 are produced. A) 1; 0 B) 1; 1 C) 2; 1 D) 2; 2 E) 3; 2 52) Which of the following enzymes catalyzes an oxidative decarboxylation reaction? A) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase B) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase C)glycogen dehydrogenase D)6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase E)none of the above 53) Which of the following requires large amounts of both ribose-5-phosphate and NADPH? A) DNA synthesis B)amino acid synthesis C)lipid synthesis D)glycogen synthesis E)cholesterol synthesis 54) In the event that NADPH is needed but ribose is not, which of the following is an end product of the pentose phosphate pathway? A) ribulose-5-phosphate B)dihydroxyacetone phosphate C) fructose-1,6-bisphosphate D) 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate E) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 55) In the conversion of ribulose-5-phosphate to glycolytic intermediates, which of the following enzymes is used? A)phosphoglucomutase B)transketolase C)phosphoglyceratemutase D)phosphofructoisomerase E)none of the above [Show More]

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