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HESI Adult Health Review Questions /Latest 2022 / Well Elaborated

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HESI Adult Health Review Questions A central venous catheter has been inserted via a jugular vein, and a radiograph has confirmed placement of the catheter. A prescription has been received for a med... ication STAT, but IV fluids have not yet been started. Which action should the nurse take prior to administering the prescribed medication? A. Assess for signs of jugular venous distention. B. Obtain the needed intravenous solution. C. Flush the line with heparinized solution. D. Flush the line with normal saline. (- Answer, D Rationale- Medication can be administered via a central line without additional IV fluids. The line should first be flushed with a normal saline solution to ensure patency. Insufficient evidence exists on the effectiveness of flushing catheters with heparin. Option A will not affect the decision to administer the medication and is not a priority. Administration of the medication STAT is of greater priority than option B. A client is ready for discharge following the creation of an ileostomy. Which instruction should the nurse include in discharge teaching? A. Replace the stoma appliance every day. B. Use warm tap water to irrigate the ileostomy. C. Change the bag when the seal is broken. D. Measure and record the ileostomy output. (- Answer- C Rationale- A seal must be maintained to prevent leakage of irritating liquid stool onto the skin. Option A is excessive and can cause skin irritation and breakdown. Ileostomies produce liquid fecal drainage, so option B is not necessary. Option D is not needed. An older male client comes to the outpatient clinic complaining of pain in his left calf. The nurse notices a reddened area on the calf of his right leg that is warm to the touch, and the nurse suspects that the client may have thrombophlebitis. Which additional assessment is most important for the nurse to perform? A. Measure the client's calf circumference. B. Auscultate the client's breath sounds. C. Observe for ecchymosis and petechiae. D. Obtain the client's blood pressure. (- Answer- B Rationale- All these techniques provide useful assessment data. The most important is to auscultate the client's breath sounds because the client may have a pulmonary embolus secondary to the thrombophlebitis. Option A may provide data that support the nurse's suspicion of thrombophlebitis. Option C is the least helpful assessment because bruising is not a typical finding associated with thrombophlebitis. Option D is always useful in evaluating the client's response to a problem but is of less immediate priority than breath sound auscultation. The nurse is caring for a critically ill client with cirrhosis of the liver who has a nasogastric tube draining bright red blood. The nurse notes that the client's serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels are decreased. Which additional change in laboratory data should the nurse expect? A. Increased serum albumin level B. Decreased serum creatinine C. Decreased serum ammonia level D. Increased liver function test results (- Answer- C Rationale- The breakdown of glutamine in the intestine and the increased activity of colonic bacteria from the digestion of proteins increase ammonia levels in clients with advanced liver disease, so removal of blood, a protein source, from the intestine results in a reduced level of ammonia. Options A, B, and D will not be significantly affected by the removal of blood. [Show More]

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