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Test Bank Women’s Health Nies: Community/Public Health Nursing, 7th Edition,100% CORRECT

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Test Bank Women’s Health Nies: Community/Public Health Nursing, 7th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which event caused attention that has resulted in the current emphasis on women’s health? a.... Hillary Clinton’s comments during the presidential race b. Political correctness, including addressing the rights of women c. New research studies that are focusing on women d. Women’s movement from the 1970s ANS: D Beginning in the 1970s, the women’s movement called for the reform of systems affecting women’s health. The current emphasis began before the presidential races that involved Hillary Clinton. The women’s movement has caused there to be new research studies that focus on women. Additionally, political correctness addressing the rights of women has occurred because of the women’s movement. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 2. A nurse has recently learned of the death of a 22-year-old female friend. Which would be the most likely cause of death? a. Complications of childbirth b. Accident or unintentional injury c. Cancer d. Cardiovascular disease ANS: B NURSINGTB.COM In the adolescent to early adulthood years, the leading cause of death for women is unintentional injuries (i.e., motor vehicle accidents, drug overdose). Complications of childbirth, cancer, and cardiovascular disease are not among the most likely causes of death of a 22-year-old female. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 3. Which is the most common cause of death among women after age 75? a. Accidents and unintentional injuries b. Cancer c. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) d. Diabetes and its complications ANS: C About one in four Americans has one or more forms of CVD. One in ten women under age 60 years has some form of CVD; the ratio increases to one in three after age 65 years. CVD continues to be the number one overall killer of women. Accidents and unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in the adolescent and early adulthood years for women. Cancer is the number one cause among women age 35 to 74. Diabetes and its complications are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death among women age 55 to 74, and the sixth leading cause of death among women age 75 to 84. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) 4. Which provides the best explanation for the importance of the “Go Red” and “The Heart Truth” campaigns? a. Because heart disease is so prevalent, we all need to know the usual symptoms so we may seek help quickly. b. Few people are aware of how to prevent chronic diseases such as cancer. c. We need to increase awareness of the genetic component in chronic disease. d. Women have different symptoms and require different treatment than men. ANS: D After the age of 65 years, women are twice as likely to die because of heart disease as men. In part this phenomenon is because the subtle or absence of symptoms of coronary artery disease. Women are still more likely to die from a first myocardial infarction. In 2002, the American Heart Association launched the “Go Red” campaign for women and “The Heart Truth” program for health care providers. Both programs are designed to educate about the unique features of women and heart disease. These campaigns address heart disease and do not include information about other chronic diseases such as cancer. Heart disease is caused by both lifestyle choices and genetic factors, thus education needs to be provided related to both of these aspects. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 5. Which best explains why cancer rates increase as people get older? a. Better prevention programs are available for cardiac disease, so cardiac disease rates are decreasing, making cancer rates increase. b. It is harder to screen for cancer than for other fatal diseases, so the rates are increasing because of the inUabiSlityNto dTetect thOe cancer at an early stage. c. Poor lifestyle choices, environmental exposures, and increased life expectancy have all caused cancer rates to increase. d. Other causes of death are decreasing, so it appears that cancer rates are increasing. ANS: C Cancer rates appear to be increasing for a number of reasons, including lifestyle choices (smoking, diet, sun exposure); increasing exposure to environmental carcinogens; and age. There has not been a significant decrease of cardiac disease or other causes of death. Screening programs exist to detect cancers early and more cancers are detected at earlier stages. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 6. “I want to get pregnant as soon as possible now that I’m married,” a 43-year-old female says to the nurse. Which would be the most appropriate response by the nurse? a. “Having a child will certainly cement your new marriage and give it a focus.” b. “It’s understandable that your ‘biological clock is ticking’ and time is running out.” c. “You’re right, once you hit menopause you won’t be able to have a child.” d. “We will help you, but you need to know that there are more risks for you at your age.” ANS: D An additional risk factor, regardless of race, is advancing age. Women aged 40 years and older have over three times the risk of dying of a pregnancy-related cause as women aged 30 to 39 years. Intrinsic maternal factors, such as increasing frequency of hypertension and a greater likelihood of uterine hemorrhage, help explain this increase in the mortality rate. The other responses are not therapeutic responses by the nurse. It is important for the nurse to educate the woman that there can be more risks associated with becoming pregnant after age 40. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 7. Which is the leading cause of death for women in their first trimester? a. Anesthesia b. Ectopic pregnancy c. Hemorrhage d. Pulmonary embolism ANS: B According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal death in the first trimester. Historically, the leading cause of maternal death had been pulmonary embolism, followed by pregnancy-induced hypertension, ectopic pregnancy, hemorrhage, stroke, and anesthesia. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) 8. Which best explains why many elderly women do not prepare meals or do housework? a. Chronic diseases, especially arthritis and rheumatism, hinder their ability. b. Living in a nursing home does not require them to do so. c. They do not want to; their hUusbSandNs caTn shareOin the work. d. With Social Security, they can afford to pay someone else to do these tasks. ANS: A Women are more likely than men to be disabled from chronic conditions. Arthritis and rheumatism, hypertension, and impairment of the back or spine decrease women’s activity level. Women are likely to have difficulty performing activities such as walking, bathing or showering, preparing meals, and doing housework. The majority of elderly do not live in nursing homes but are able to remain in their own homes. It is unlikely that they are not willing to do any work or want to pay someone else to complete these tasks. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 9. A nurse has just been told by a friend that her physician has recommended a hysterectomy for fibroids in her womb. Which would be the most appropriate response by the nurse? a. “Hysterectomies are the most common surgical procedure done on women; you’ll be fine.” b. “Tell your doctor to remove your ovaries as well so you will never have to worry about ovarian cancer.” c. “There are other alternatives. Why don’t you seek a second opinion just to be sure a hysterectomy is best for you?” d. “Uterine fibroids are very common so don’t feel badly; you’ve already had your children, so there’s no reason to keep your uterus.” ANS: C Hysterectomy is the second most frequently performed major surgical procedure among women of reproductive age, after C-section. The most common reason for hysterectomy is uterine fibroids. Optional procedures are becoming available to women. Myomectomy, or removing only the tumors with repair of the uterus, uterine artery ablation, and the use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone to shrink the tumors can decrease the need for hysterectomy, but women may not know about these alternatives. Community health nurses function as advocates for women and can provide health education programs related to alternatives to hysterectomy, indications for hysterectomy, and oophorectomy, and information regarding the type of surgical approach and the purpose of a second opinion. Second opinions and higher levels of education tend to decrease the rate of hysterectomies. Thus, it is important that the nurse first encourage the friend to seek a second opinion rather than encouraging the procedure or ovary removal. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 10. A nurse is called by her pregnant sister, who tells her how she is going to request that her physician deliver her baby via C-section so that the baby will be healthier. Which would be the most appropriate response by the nurse? a. ”There is not evidence to support that your baby will be healthier if it is born via C-section.” b. “That’s a great idea, now I will be able to plan when I will be able to visit you in the hospital.” c. “There are many benefits to both you and your baby by having a C-section. I am glad you are making that request.” d. “I think you should wait until you are in labor to make this request.” ANS: A NURSINGTB.COM Birth by cesarean section (C-section) is the most prevalent surgical procedure experienced by women in the United States and accounts for 32% of births. Several factors contribute to the high rates of C-section, including physician fear of malpractice suits, routine use of early induction of labor, and epidural anesthesia. The technology of fetal monitoring has been shown to increase the C-section rate without improving neonatal outcomes. The other responses do not consider the importance of education needed for the client in this situation and that outcomes have not improved through the use of C-sections. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 11. Which outcomes for the infant and mother have occurred because of fetal monitoring? a. Improved outcomes for both infant and mother b. No difference for the infant but improved outcomes for the mother c. No difference for the mother but improved outcomes for the infant d. No difference in outcomes for the infant but increased risk for the mother ANS: D The technology of fetal monitoring has been shown to increase the C-section rate without improving neonatal outcomes. C-sections are risky for the mother as they involve the risks of any major surgery such as hemorrhage, infection, damage to adjacent structures, as well as risks associated with anesthesia. Long-term sequelae for women include pelvic pain, along with formation of adhesions and placental abnormalities that lead to complications in subsequent pregnancies. Improved outcomes both for the mother and infant have not been demonstrated. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 12. Which statement best explains the difference in suicide rate according to gender? a. Men are less likely to attempt suicide and less likely to be successful. b. Men are more likely to attempt suicide but less likely to be successful. c. Women are more likely to attempt suicide but less likely to be successful. d. Women are less likely to attempt suicide but more likely to be successful. ANS: C Women are more likely to attempt suicide but less likely to be successful. On the other hand, men are less likely to attempt suicide, but are more likely to be successful. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 13. Which group of persons is most likely to be able to access health care? a. Adults who work for small businesses b. Unemployed women c. Older women on fixed incomes d. Young adults, aged 16 toN24 RyearIs G B.C M ANS: A U S N T O Through the implementation of the ACA, young adults (i.e., those between ages 16 and 24 years) can now obtain coverage or stay on their parent’s insurance until the age of 26. Previously, this aggregate made up approximately 50% of individuals without health insurance. Women who choose not to enroll in the ACA are not likely to seek health care until they or a family member is in acute distress. Older women on ?9?xed incomes may have dif?9?culty meeting copayments required by Medicare and paying for prescription medications. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 14. A woman with two young children is debating if she should try to work using child care or stay at home and care for her children. Based on the current trends, which decision is she most likely to make? a. Enter the work force b. Invite a relative to live with them to care for the children c. Negotiate with her husband so he stays home with the children d. Stay home with the children ANS: A Sixty-four percent of women with young children (younger than 6 years) work outside the home. Thus, it is most likely the woman will enter the workforce based on current trends. A working woman is less likely to have a spouse or partner to help with the home and children. Even when a spouse or partner is present, the burdens of housework and child care usually fall more heavily on women, regardless of ethnicity. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 15. Which group has the highest poverty rate in the United States? a. Married couples with several children b. Single female heads of household c. Single male heads of household d. Two adults cohabitating when one is unemployed ANS: B Women heads of households and their children are the poorest aggregate in the United States. This phenomenon is labeled “the feminization of poverty.” In 2014, the poverty rate for single female heads of household was 38.9% compared to 8.2% for men. Thus, married and cohabitating adults are not the group that has the highest poverty rate in the United States. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 16. Which best explains how marriage customs have remained unchanged over the last couple decades? a. Lesbian and homosexual adults are adopting children. b. Women are usually responsible for the children following a divorce. c. Single adults are adoptingNchRildrIen. G B.C M d. Women are trying to avoidUspinSsteNrhooTd. O e. Women seek to marry at a young age. ANS: B Today, as in the past, when a relationship ends in divorce or separation, more women than men have the responsibility of providing for themselves and their children. Differences today include that many women are delaying marriage and many are not marrying. Single-parent adoptions are legal; single women, including lesbians, are becoming adoptive parents. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 17. Which best explains why some community health nurses find nursing models inappropriate for use in their clinical practice? a. Models are almost always based on meeting the needs of individuals, not groups. b. Models are too theoretical and not realistic. c. Models, developed for the middle class, do not fit low-income families. d. Models taught in nursing school are not remembered by nurses in practice. ANS: C Because many models were developed for the middle class, they may not be useful to community health nurses working with low-income families. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 18. A middle-aged woman was obese and being treated for hypertension; and her blood tests showed elevated triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Besides recommending physical activity, which nutritional guidance should be provided by the nurse? a. Buy a good diet book, and follow its advice. b. Eat fish and seafood such as salmon, halibut, tuna, and scallops at least three times a week. c. Use olive oil when you cook, especially if you are frying food. d. You have to lose weight, so stop all desserts and eat nothing but salads for 2 weeks. ANS: B Metabolic syndrome is a group of risk factors that have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular events. These factors include abdominal obesity (waist circumference greater than 35 inches in women), dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides and low HDL), insulin resistance, and elevated blood pressure. The underlying etiology of metabolic syndrome is related to the combination of inactivity, obesity, and genetics. Nutritional advice should focus on weight loss, use of olive oil (but do not fry foods), and eating fish and seafood such as salmon, halibut, tuna, and scallops at least three times a week to increase omega-3 intake. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 19. A community health nurse suggested that a group of nursing students perform a diabetic screening at a location where groups of people meet. Which site would be best for the screening? a. The senior citizens center, which always welcomes students back b. The shopping mall where many young adults go to save money c. The YWCA/YMCA dowNn thRe stIreetG B.C M d. The Weight Losers group mUeetSingNat tThe churcOh ANS: D Adults who are obese and meeting at a group such as “Weight Losers” probably have not previously been screened for diabetes. If the senior citizen center always welcomes students back, they have clearly had screenings there before. Hence, even though older adults are at risk, it would be better to choose a different group. Young adults and those working out at a YMCA are not particularly at high risk. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 20. Which is the leading cause of disability in the United States? a. Arthritis b. Car accident c. Falls d. Heart disease ANS: A Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in the United States. Car accidents, falls, and heart disease are not among the leading causes of disability in the United States. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) 21. Which is the most serious complication of women having osteoporosis? a. Hip fracture b. Need to avoid sunlight c. Need to decrease weight-bearing physical activity d. Stooped posture ANS: A The most serious complication of osteoporosis is hip fracture. Approximately 24% of people with hip fractures die of complications within a year. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) 22. A female client has recently been diagnosed with osteoporosis. Which would the nurse anticipate as the most likely treatment prescribed by the health care provider? a. Instructions to begin weight-bearing exercise at least three times a week b. Instructions to increase the amount of calcium and Vitamin D in her diet c. A prescription for hormone replacement therapy d. A prescription for oral bisphosphonates ANS: D Guidelines issued by the National Osteoporosis Foundation recommend bone mineral density tests for selected postmenopausal women and the use of oral bisphosphonates as the ?9?rst-line pharmacological treatment. In light of the results of the Women’s Health Initiative Study showing that nonestrogen therapies fail or cause intolerable side effects, hormone replacement therapy is currently considered second-line therapy for the disease. Prevention is especially important early in life. Prevention involves an awareness of dietary practices such as maintaining a correct balance of calcium, vitamin D, and protein throughout life, in addition to regular weight-bearing, muscle-strengthening, and aerobic exercise. N R I G B.C M DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 23. Which best explains why lung cancer kills more women than breast cancer? a. Early detection and cure of breast cancer has lowered the death rate. b. Pap smears lead to early detection and often the cure of uterine cancers, hence avoiding breast metastasis. c. There is no accepted treatment for lung cancer. d. Women have begun smoking. ANS: D Lung cancer is responsible for more deaths yearly in U.S. women than breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers combined. The increase in the incidence of lung cancer in women is due primarily to an increase in their tobacco use. Eighty-five percent to 90% of all clients in whom lung cancer develops have a history of cigarette smoking. The incidence of breast cancer continues to increase and is the most common cancer among women, but it is not responsible for as many deaths as lung cancer. Pap smears are used as a screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer. There is accepted medical treatment for lung cancer, and it is similar for both men and women with the disease. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 24. In a college health course, the question arose as to when a woman needs to see her health care provider for a Pap smear. Which would be the most appropriate response by the nurse? a. “After you reach age 21.” b. “Before having sexual intercourse, when you go to obtain your birth control.” c. “If your periods change at all, go to see your health care provider.” d. “If you have a vaginal discharge that’s unusual, go right in for a Pap smear.” ANS: A Current guidelines recommend cervical cancer screening to begin at 21 years of age. So it will be important for the woman to have a Pap smear after beginning to have intercourse, or by the age of 21. It is not necessary to obtain a Pap smear before having sexual intercourse. A Pap smear may not be necessary for a change in periods or unusual vaginal discharge; these may be signs of other problems that will not be diagnosed through a Pap smear. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 25. A nurse is on the treadmill exercising, when the woman next to her says, “You’re a nurse. Explain to me how the scale says I’ve lost weight, but my waist and tummy just keep getting larger.” Which would be the most appropriate response by the nurse? a. “I’m concerned. You need to see your health care provider to follow up on this.” b. “Muscle weighs more than fat so you’re creating muscle while losing fat, but it takes a while for the body to redistribute the weight.” c. “Tell me what you’ve been eating in the last week or so.” d. “You’re running so you’re strengthening your legs and thighs, but to lose around your tummy, you have to exercise your abdominal muscles.” ANS: A The most common sign of ovarian cancer is abdominal enlargement. A woman may complain that her skirts and slacks are getting tighter in the waist. Because ovarian cancer is a silent cancer that causes more deathNsUthRaSn IanNyGoTthBer.pCelOviMc malignancy, the woman needs to see her health care provider immediately for transvaginal ultrasonography, MRI, or computed tomography scan along with a blood test (CA-125). Thus, it is important to refer the woman to a health care provider and not try to minimize or rationalize the symptoms that she has reported. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 26. A parent at a school says to the school nurse, “I can’t keep that plate thing straight. What is the bottom line about nutritious eating today?” Which is the most appropriate response by the nurse? a. “Avoid processed foods, and eat fresh fruits and vegetables.” b. “Eat lots of protein, fruits, and vegetables, and don’t worry about the other rules.” c. “Let me get you a copy of the Department of Agriculture plate that you can keep on your refrigerator for easy reference.” d. “Balance your plate with half of a plate of fruits and vegetables, and a quarter of a plate of both proteins and grains.” ANS: D The “My Plate” approach encourages persons to be mindful of the foods they eat in terms of both portion size and proportion to other foods. One-half of the plate should consist of fruits and vegetables, one-quarter each for meats/proteins and grains, preferably whole grains. Recommendations also include decreased sodium and sugary foods. Thus, there are additional considerations to keep in mind in addition to avoiding processed foods and eating fresh fruits and vegetables. Giving the parent a copy of the plate does not help educate the parent about the “My Plate” approach. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 27. Which is the greatest single cause of absenteeism from school and work among young women? a. A child’s illness b. Dysmenorrhea c. Mental health disorders d. Upper respiratory tract infection ANS: B Dysmenorrhea is the greatest single cause of absenteeism from school and work among young women and causes the loss of approximately 140 million working hours annually; therefore the economic influence of this condition is significant. A child’s illness, mental health disorders, and upper respiratory tract infections do not cause as many days of absenteeism as dysmenorrhea. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) 28. Which is the most common sNexuRallyItranGsmBitt.edCdisMease (STD)? a. Chlamydia b. Gonorrhea c. HIV d. Syphilis ANS: A U S N T O In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that the most common STD was Chlamydia trachomatis infection, followed by gonorrhea. The spread of HIV and syphilis are also of concern, but these rates are not as high as they are for chlamydia and gonorrhea. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) 29. “I don’t want to listen to another lecture on safe sex. Just give me my antibiotic and let me leave,” said a client. Which would be the best response by the nurse? a. “As you wish. But can you tell me why you still engage in unprotected sex?” b. “Gonorrhea is becoming resistant to antibiotics. It’s becoming difficult to treat you, and permanent damage to your body is occurring.” c. “Our policy requires that we review how to protect yourself even if you have heard the information before.” d. “These recurrent infections are damaging you inside; please consider using condoms.” ANS: B Gonorrhea is becoming resistant to all our current drugs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has had to change its treatment guidelines. Also, persons with gonorrhea often have other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as well. This person has heard the lectures on safe sex and is not changing personal behavior. Upholding policy or appealing to the person’s better emotions is probably ineffective. Many people have become complacent about STDs. The nurse is obligated to warn the patient that the infections are becoming resistant to pharmaceutical treatment. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 30. Which is the most likely reason for adult women to be injured? a. Automobile accidents b. Intimate partner violence c. Falling d. Stranger violence (theft, rape) ANS: B Intimate partnerviolence is the single largest cause of injury to women between the ages of 15 and 44 years in the United States—more than muggings, car accidents, and rapes combined. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) 31. A woman was in the emergency department with a bruised and broken leg. She explained that she had accidentally opened the car door on a trip and the door had blown back on her leg. Her husband was very attentive, constantly asking the nurse to make his wife more comfortable. Which actions should be taken by the nurse? a. Ask the husband to step out of the room while you get a urine specimen, and, after he leaves, ask the woman, “UHaSve yNou Tever beeOn deliberately hurt by someone?” b. Call x-ray immediately, and prepare for the leg to have a cast applied. c. Put ice bags on the area until the leg can be repaired. d. Try to get an additional pain medication order from the physician. ANS: A Abuse of women is often explained as accidental injury. Approximately 6% of visits made by women to emergency departments are for injuries that result from physical battering by their husbands, former husbands, boyfriends, or lovers. It is important for the nurse to understand the state laws related to reporting known or suspected intimate partner violence. The AMA and ANA advocate that all women should be assessed for intimate partner violence. Questions should be posed privately, in nonjudgmental specific terms (i.e., “Do you feel safe?” “Have you ever been hit, punched, slapped, or kicked?”) with follow-up questions if the woman responds “yes.” In this situation, with a questionable explanation for the injury and an overly attentive husband, it would be important to complete this assessment. This invention would be more important than calling for x-ray, applying ice, or administering additional pain medication. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 32. Which best explains how the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, Title X, has been helpful to families? a. It provides funds for family planning, including contraception. b. It created a child care subsidy to help adults obtain and retain employment. c. It provides housing for low-income families. d. It prevents utility companies from shutting off service and allows for bills to be subsidized. ANS: A Title X of the PHS Act is the Family Planning Public Service Act, which helped 5 million women obtain family planning services in 2008. Since 1970, federally subsidized family planning funds have been available to clinics and health departments throughout the country. These facilities provide not only access to contraception but also routine preventive health services, education, and counseling. The program is an important part of the public effort to prevent low birth weight through addressing the relationship between lack of family planning and those at greatest risk for low-birth-weight infants (women who are adolescents, single, and/or low income). This program does not provide subsidies for child care or utility payments or housing for low-income families. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 33. Which best explains how the Civil Rights Act amendments have been helpful to adult women who are employed? a. If both a man and a woman apply for a position, preference must be given to the woman. b. Everyone has permission to apply for any employment position regardless of gender. c. Employers are prohibited from paying different salaries to men and to women for the same position responsibilities. d. Discrimination against pregnant women or conditions involving childbirth or pregnancy is prohibited. NURSINGTB.COM ANS: D There is no affirmative action for gender, and pay scales remain different for men and women. Anyone has always been able to apply for any position; the issue is whether or not you would be chosen. The Civil Rights Act was amended to prohibit discrimination against pregnant women or conditions involving childbirth or pregnancy. This landmark legislation makes it unlawful for employers to refuse to hire, employ, or promote a woman because she is pregnant. In addition, employee benefit plans that continue health insurance, income maintenance during disability or illness, or any other income support program for disabled workers must include disabilities resulting from pregnancy, childbirth, and other related conditions. If employers allow disabled employees to assume lighter or medically restricted assignments, the same considerations must extend to pregnant women. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Which best explains why a community health nurse would choose to emphasize women’s health? (Select all that apply.) a. Different nurses prefer different specialties. b. It is currently politically correct to verbalize support for female issues. c. Many women’s groups are lobbying for more programs. d. Many factors resulting in illness and death in women are preventable. e. Knowledge deficits prevent women from assuming responsibility for their own health. f. Women face barriers in accessing health care. ANS: D, E, F Many factors that lead to death and illness among women are preventable or avoidable. Knowledge deficits related to health promotion and disease prevention activities prevent women of all educational and socioeconomic levels from assuming responsibility for their own health and well-being. A significant number of women and their families face tremendous barriers in gaining access to health care. Although different nurses select different specialties, this does not explain why a nurse would choose women’s health. Because women face tremendous barriers in addressing female issues, it is important that nurses provide political support for these issues because of their professional commitment, not because it is the politically correct action to take. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 2. Which are factors that have led to the decrease in mortality of some cancers? (Select all that apply.) a. An increase in mortality rate among other cancers b. Early detection through emphasis on routine screening c. Fewer sexual partners with emphasis on monogamy d. An increased awareness of influence of lifestyle choices e. Legislation such as the Clean Air Act f. A decrease in tobacco use and smoking among women ANS: B, D, F The good news is that healthNy UlifResStyIleNcGhaTnBge.sCanOdMearly detection and intervention have contributed to the decrease in mortality rates from some cancers. For example, the death rate for colorectal cancer has been decreasing for the past 15 years because of early detection and treatment (American Cancer Society, 2014). Lung cancer deaths are beginning to show a slight decline that parallels a decreased incidence of smoking by women over the age of 18 years. Certain health choices may reduce an individual’s risk of cancer. Women could reduce their risk for cancer by never smoking or by quitting if they already use tobacco products. Eating a nutritious, plant-focused, high-fiber diet, along with adopting a physically active lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight protect against both heart disease and many cancers. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 3. Which describe health hazards to which nurses in hospitals are exposed? (Select all that apply.) a. Anesthetic gases b. Dust c. Heat and chemicals d. Heavy lifting e. Infectious diseases f. Solvents and acids ANS: A, D, E Hospital and other health care workers are exposed to infectious diseases, heavy lifting, radiation, skin disorders, and anesthetic gases. Dust may be a health hazard for those employed in textile and apparel. Launderers and dry cleaners may be exposed to heat and chemicals as a health hazard. Solvents and acids may be a health hazard for those employed in electronics. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) NURSINGTB.COM [Show More]

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