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NURS 618 Saunders Med Surg Neuro Revised 2020 | NURS618 Saunders Med Surg Neuro

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NURS 618 Saunders Med Surg Neuro Revised 2020 100+ pages of questions with answers Saunders Med Surg Neuro 1. The nurse is assessing the motor and sensory function of an unconscious client. The n... urse should use which technique to test the client's peripheral response to pain? 1. Sternal rub 2. Nail bed pressure 3. Pressure on the orbital rim 4. Squeezing of the sternocleidomastoid muscle Answer: 2. Nail bed pressure Rationale: Nail bed pressure tests a basic motor and sensory peripheral response. Cerebral responses to pain are tested using a sternal rub, placing upward pressure on the orbital rim, or squeezing the clavicle or sternocleidomastoid muscle. 2. The nurse is caring for the client with increased intracranial pressure. The nurse would note which trend in vital signs if the intracranial pressure is rising? 1. Increasing temperature, increasing pulse, increasing respirations, decreasing blood pressure 2. Increasing temperature, decreasing pulse, decreasing respirations, increasing blood pressure 3. Decreasing temperature, decreasing pulse, increasing respirations, decreasing blood pressure 4. Decreasing temperature, increasing pulse, decreasing respirations, increasing blood pressure Answer: 2. Increasing temperature, decreasing pulse, decreasing respirations, increasing blood pressure Rationale: A change in vital signs may be a late sign of increased intracranial pressure. Trends include increasing temperature and blood pressure and decreasing pulse and respirations. Respiratory irregularities also may occur. 3. A client recovering from a head injury is participating in care. The nurse determines that the client understands measures to prevent elevations in intracranial pressure if the nurse observes the client doing which activity? 1. Blowing the nose 2. Isometric exercises 3. Coughing vigorously 4. Exhaling during repositioning Answer: 4. Exhaling during repositioning Rationale: Activities that increase intrathoracic and intraabdominal pressures cause an indirect elevation of the intracranial pressure. Some of these activities include isometric exercises, Valsalva's maneuver, coughing, sneezing, and blowing the nose. Exhaling during activities such as repositioning or pulling up in bed opens the glottis, which prevents intrathoracic pressure from rising. 4. A client has clear fluid leaking from the nose following a basilar skull fracture. Which finding would alert the nurse that cerebrospinal fluid is present? 1. Fluid is clear and tests negative for glucose. 2. Fluid is grossly bloody in appearance and has a pH of 6. 3. Fluid clumps together on the dressing and has a pH of 7. 4. Fluid separates into concentric rings and tests positive for glucose. Answer: 4. Fluid separates into concentric rings and tests positive for glucose. Rationale: Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the ears or nose may accompany basilar skull fracture. CSF can be distinguished from other body fluids because the drainage will separate into bloody and yellow concentric rings on dressing material, called a halo sign. The fluid also tests positive for glucose. 5. A client with a spinal cord injury is prone to experiencing autonomic dysreflexia. The nurse should include which measures in the plan of care to minimize the risk of occurrence? Select all that apply. 1. Keeping the linens wrinkle-free under the client 2. Preventing unnecessary pressure on the lower limbs 3. Limiting bladder catheterization to once every 12 hours 4. Turning and repositioning the client at least every 2 hours 5. Ensuring that the client has a bowel movement at least once a week Answers: 1. Keeping the linens wrinkle-free under the client 2. Preventing unnecessary pressure on the lower limbs 4. Turning and repositioning the client at least every 2 hours Rationale: The most frequent cause of autonomic dysreflexia is a distended bladder. Straight catheterization should be done every 4 to 6 hours (catheterization every 12 hours is too infrequent), and urinary catheters should be checked frequently to prevent kinks in the tubing. Constipation and fecal impaction are other causes, so maintaining bowel regularity is important. Ensuring a bowel movement once a week is much too infrequent. Other causes include stimulation of the skin from tactile, thermal, or painful stimuli. The nurse administers care to minimize risk in these areas. 6. The nurse is evaluating the neurological signs of a client in spinal shock following spinal cord injury. Which observation indicates that spinal shock persists? 1. Hyperreflexia 2. Positive reflexes 3. Flaccid paralysis 4. Reflex emptying of the bladder Answer: 3. Flaccid paralysis Rationale: Resolution of spinal shock is occurring when there is return of reflexes (especially flexors to noxious cutaneous stimuli), a state of hyperreflexia rather than flaccidity, and reflex emptying of the bladder. 8. The nurse is assigned to care for a client with complete right-sided hemiparesis from a stroke (brain attack). Which characteristics are associated with this condition? Select all that apply. 1. The client is aphasic. 2. The client has weakness on the right side of the body. 3. The client has complete bilateral paralysis of the arms and legs. 4. The client has weakness on the right side of the face and tongue. 5. The client has lost the ability to move the right arm but is able to walk independently. 6. The client has lost the ability to ambulate independently but is able to feed and bathe himself or herself without assistance. Answers: 1. The client is aphasic. 2. The client has weakness on the right side of the body. 4. The client has weakness on the right side of the face and tongue. Rationale: Hemiparesis is a weakness of one side of the body that may occur after a stroke. It involves weakness of the face and tongue, arm, and leg on one side. These clients are also aphasic: unable to discriminate words and letters. They are generally very cautious and get anxious when attempting a new task. Complete bilateral paralysis does not occur in hemiparesis. The client with right-sided hemiparesis has weakness of the right arm and leg and needs assistance with feeding, bathing, and ambulating. 9. The nurse has instructed the family of a client with stroke (brain attack) who has homonymous hemianopsia about measures to help the client overcome the deficit. Which statement suggests that the family understands the measures to use when caring for the client? 1. "We need to discourage him from wearing eyeglasses." 2. "We need to place objects in his impaired field of vision." 3. "We need to approach him from the impaired field of vision." 4. "We need to remind him to turn his head to scan the lost visual field." Answer: 4. "We need to remind him to turn his head to scan the lost visual field." Rationale: Homonymous hemianopsia is loss of half of the visual field. The client with homonymous hemianopsia should have objects placed in the intact field of vision, and the nurse also should approach the client from the intact side. The nurse instructs the client to scan the environment to overcome the visual deficit and does client teaching from within the intact field of vision. The nurse encourages the use of personal eyeglasses, if they are available. 10. The nurse is assessing the adaptation of a client to changes in functional status after a stroke (brain attack). Which observation indicates to the nurse that the client is adapting most successfully? 1. Gets angry with family if they interrupt a task 2. Experiences bouts of depression and irritability 3. Has difficulty with using modified feeding utensils 4. Consistently uses adaptive equipment in dressing self Answer: 4. Consistently uses adaptive equipment in dressing self Rationale: Clients are evaluated as coping successfully with lifestyle changes after a stroke if they make appropriate lifestyle alterations, use the assistance of others, and have appropriate social interactions. Options 1 and 2 are not adaptive behaviors; option 3 indicates a not yet successful attempt to adapt. 11. The nurse is teaching a client with myasthenia gravis about the prevention of myasthenic and cholinergic crises. Which client activity suggests that teaching is most effective? 1. Taking medications as scheduled 2. Eating large, well-balanced meals 3. Doing muscle-strengthening exercises 4. Doing all chores early in the day while less fatigued Answer: 1. Taking medications as scheduled Rationale: Clients with myasthenia gravis are taught to space out activities over the day to conserve energy and restore muscle strength. Taking medications correctly to maintain blood levels that are not too low or too high is important. Muscle-strengthening exercises are not helpful and can fatigue the client. Overeating is a cause of exacerbation of symptoms, as is exposure to heat, crowds, erratic sleep habits, and emotional stress. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -168. The client with a head injury opens eyes to sound, has no verbal response, and localizes to painful stimuli when applied to each extremity. How should the nurse document the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score? 1. GCS = 3 2. GCS = 6 3. GCS = 9 4. GCS = 11 Answer: 3. GCS = 9 Rationale: The GCS is a method for assessing neurological status. The highest possible GCS score is 15. A score lower than 8 indicates that coma is present. Motor response points are as follows: Obeys a simple response = 6; Localizes painful stimuli = 5; Normal flexion (withdrawal) = 4; Abnormal flexion (decorticate posturing) = 3; Extensor response (decerebrate posturing) = 2; No motor response to pain = 1. Verbal response points are as follows: Oriented = 5; Confused conversation = 4; Inappropriate words = 3; Responds with incomprehensible sounds = 2; No verbal response = 1. Eye opening points are as follows: Spontaneous = 4; In response to sound = 3; In response to pain = 2; No response, even to painful stimuli = 1. Using the GCS, a score of 3 is given when the client opens the eyes to sound. Localization to pain is scored as 5. When there is no verbal response the score is 1. The total score is then equal to 9. 169. The client with a spinal cord injury at the level of T4 is experiencing a severe throbbing headache with a blood pressure of 180/100 mm Hg. What is the priority nursing intervention? 1. Notify the health care provider (HCP). 2. Loosen tight clothing on the client. 3. Place the client in a sitting position. 4. Check the urinary catheter tubing for kinks or obstruction. Answer: 3. Place the client in a sitting position. Rationale: The client is demonstrating clinical manifestations of autonomic dysreflexia, which is a neurological emergency. The first priority is to place the client in a sitting position to prevent hypertensive stroke. Loosening tight clothing and checking the urinary catheter can then be done, and the HCP can be notified once initial interventions are done. 170. The nurse is caring for a client who is in the chronic phase of stroke (brain attack) and has a right-sided hemiparesis. The nurse identifies that the client is unable to feed self. Which is the appropriate nursing intervention? 1. Assist the client to eat with the left hand to build strength. 2. Provide a pureed diet that is easy for the client to swallow. 3. Inform the client that a feeding tube will be placed if progress is not made. 4. Provide a variety of foods on the meal tray to stimulate the client's appetite. Answer: 1. Assist the client to eat with the left hand to build strength. Rationale: Right-sided hemiparesis is weakness of the right arm and leg. The nurse should teach the client to use both sides of the body to increase strength and build endurance. Providing a pureed diet is incorrect. The question does not mention swallowing difficulty, so there is no need to puree the food. Informing the client that a feeding tube may need to be placed is incorrect. That information would come from the health care provider. Providing a variety of foods is also incorrect because the problem is not the food selection but the client's ability to eat the food independently. 171. A client is newly admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of stroke (brain attack) manifested by complete hemiplegia. Which item in the medical history of the client should the nurse be most concerned about? 1. Glaucoma 2. Emphysema 3. Hypertension 4. Diabetes mellitus Answer: 2. Emphysema Rationale: The nurse should be most concerned about emphysema. The respiratory system is the priority in the acute phase of a stroke. The client with a stroke is vulnerable to respiratory complications such as atelectasis and pneumonia. Because the client has complete hemiplegia (is unable to move) and has emphysema, these risks are very significant. Although the other conditions of glaucoma, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus are important, they are not as significant as emphysema. 174. A client with a history of myasthenia gravis presents at a clinic with bilateral ptosis and is drooling, and myasthenic crisis is suspected. The nurse assesses the client for which precipitating factor? 1. Getting too little exercise 2. Taking excess medication 3. Omitting doses of medication 4. Increasing intake of fatty foods Answers: 3. Omitting doses of medication Rationale: Myasthenic crisis often is caused by undermedication and responds to the administration of cholinergic medications. Cholinergic crisis (the opposite problem) is caused by excess medication and responds to withholding of medications. Too little exercise and excessive fatty food intake are incorrect. Overexertion and overeating possibly could trigger myasthenic crisis. 175. The nurse is positioning a client who has increased intracranial pressure. Which position should the nurse avoid? 1. Head midline 2. Head turned to the side 3. Neck in neutral position 4. Head of bed elevated 30 to 45 degrees Answer: 2. Head turned to the side Rationale: The head of a client with increased intracranial pressure should be kept in a neutral midline position. The nurse should avoid flexing or extending the client's neck or turning the head from side to side. The head of the bed should be raised to 30 to 45 degrees. Use of proper positions promotes venous drainage from the cranium to keep intracranial pressure down. 176. A client who has had a stroke (brain attack) has residual dysphagia. When a diet prescription is initiated, the nurse should take which actions? Select all that apply. 1. Giving the client thin liquids 2. Thickening liquids to the consistency of oatmeal 3. Placing food on the unaffected side of the mouth 4. Allowing plenty of time for chewing and swallowing 5. Leave the client alone so that the client will gain independence by feeding self Answers: 2. Thickening liquids to the consistency of oatmeal 3. Placing food on the unaffected side of the mouth 4. Allowing plenty of time for chewing and swallowing Rationale: The client with dysphagia is started on a diet only after the gag and swallow reflexes have returned. The client is assisted with meals as needed and is given ample time to chew and swallow. Food is placed on the unaffected side of the mouth. Liquids are thickened to avoid aspiration. The client is not left alone because of the risk of aspiration. 177. A postoperative craniotomy client who sustained a severe head injury is admitted to the neurological unit. What nursing intervention is necessary for this client? 1. Take and record vital signs every 4 to 8 hours. 2. Prophylactically hyperventilate during the first 24 hours. 3. Treat a central fever with the administration of antipyretic medications such as acetaminophen. 4. Keep the head of the bed elevated at least 30 degrees, and position the client to avoid extreme flexion or extension of the neck and head. Answer: 4. Keep the head of the bed elevated at least 30 degrees, and position the client to avoid extreme flexion or extension of the neck and head. Rationale: Avoiding extreme flexion and extension of the neck can enhance venous drainage and help prevent increased intracranial pressure. As a general rule, hyperventilation is avoided during the first 24 hours postoperatively because it may produce ischemia caused by cerebral vasoconstriction. Vital signs need to be taken and recorded at least every 1 to 2 hours. Central fevers caused by hypothalamic damage respond better to cooling (hypothermia blankets, sponge baths) than to the administration of antipyretic medications. 178. A client has a cerebellar lesion. The nurse would plan to obtain which item for use by this client? 1. Walker 2. Slider board 3. Raised toilet seat 4. Adaptive eating utensils Answer: 1. Walker Rationale: The cerebellum is responsible for balance and coordination. A walker provides stability for the client during ambulation. A raised toilet seat is useful if the client has sufficient mobility or ability to flex the hips. A slider board is used in transferring a client with weak or paralyzed legs from a bed to stretcher or wheelchair. Adaptive eating utensils are beneficial if the client has partial paralysis of the hand. 179. The nurse is caring for a client who was admitted for a stroke (brain attack) of the temporal lobe. Which clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to note in the client? 1. The client will be unable to recall past events. 2. The client will have difficulty understanding language. 3. The client will demonstrate difficulty articulating words. 4. The client will have difficulty moving 1 side of the body. Answer: 2. The client will have difficulty understanding language. Rationale: Wernicke's area consists of a small group of cells in the temporal lobe, the function of which is the understanding of language. {Receptive aphasia} The hippocampus is responsible for the storage of memory (the client will be unable to recall past events). Damage to Broca's area is responsible for aphasia (the client will demonstrate difficulty articulating words). {Expressive aphasia}. The motor cortex in the precentral gyrus controls voluntary motor activity (the client will have difficulty moving one side of the body). 181. A client who is experiencing an inferior wall myocardial infarction has had a drop in heart rate into the 50 to 56 beats/minute range. The client is also complaining of nausea. Which cranial nerve damage should the nurse expect that the client is experiencing? 1. Vagus (CN X) 2. Hypoglossal (CN XII) 3. Spinal accessory (CN XI) 4. Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) Answer: 1. Vagus (CN X) Rationale: The vagus nerve is responsible for sensations in the thoracic and abdominal viscera. It is also responsible for the decrease in heart rate because approximately 75% of all parasympathetic stimulation is carried by the vagus nerve. CN IX is responsible for taste in the posterior two thirds of the tongue, pharyngeal sensation, and swallowing. CN XI is responsible for neck and shoulder movement. CN XII is responsible for tongue movement. 183. The nurse caring for a client following craniotomy who has a supratentorial incision understands that the client should most likely be maintained in which position? 1. Prone position 2. Supine position 3. Semi Fowler's position 4. Dorsal recumbent position Answer: 3. Semi Fowler's position Rationale: In supratentorial surgery (surgery above the brain's tentorium), the client's head is usually elevated 30 degrees to promote venous outflow through the jugular veins. The client's head or the head of the bed is not lowered in the acute phase of care after supratentorial surgery. An exception to this is the client who has undergone evacuation of a chronic subdural hematoma, but a health care provider's (HCP's) prescription is required for positions other than those involving head elevation. In addition, the HCP's prescription regarding positioning is always checked and agency procedures are always followed. 184. The nurse is planning to perform an assessment of the client's level of consciousness using the Glasgow Coma Scale. Which assessments should the nurse include in order to calculate the score? Select all that apply. 1. Eye opening 2. Reflex response 3. Best verbal response 4. Best motor response 5. Pupil size and reaction Answers: 1. Eye opening 3. Best verbal response 4. Best motor response Rationale: Assessment of pupil size and reaction and reflex response are not part of the Glasgow Coma Scale. The 3 categories included are eye opening, best verbal response, and best motor response. Pupil assessment and reflex response is a necessary part of a total assessment of the neurological status of a client but is not part of this particular scale. NEURO (Continued) with 5 EAR Qs and 2 EYE Qs EAR [Show More]

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