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Test bank -Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice By Janie B. Butts and Karen L. Rich

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Chapter 1 – Philosophy of Science: An Introduction 1. Why are natural sciences also referred to as “pure” sciences? A. They are considered stand-alone bodies of unique knowledge. B. They ... are the only sciences to which the scientific method can be applied. C. They are the original sciences upon which all others are based. D. They are not affected by subjectivity in the way other sciences are. Ans: A 2. Which is not an example of an applied science as used in health care today? A. Social work B. Psychotherapy C. Examination of care disparities D. Pathology Ans: D 3. Roberta firmly believes that individual experiences are the source of all knowledge in the world. As a scientist, she acknowledges her role as a participant in the experiments she performs and does consider herself merely a disconnected observer of phenomenon. Roberta’s views are most closTeElySrTefBleActNivKeSoEf wLhLiEchRs.chCoOoMl of scientific thought? A. Natural Science B. Human Science C. Applied Science D. Soft Science Ans: B 4. What is the ultimate goal of the scientific method? A. Application of scientific results to a related body of knowledge in order to meet some type of human need. B. Examination of the decisions made by a scientist to understand the ways in which subjectivity was introduced to the experiment. C. Reproducible experimental results that do not take researcher individuality into account. D. Improving the situation or process used in the experiment to yield more accurate results in repeat experiments. Ans: C 5. Which of the following best describes the aim of natural sciences? A. Affirmation of the importance of cultural understanding by uncovering the common subjective biases of different disciplines. B. Improvement of the quality of life by understanding what helps people maximize their functional abilities. C. Utilization of knowledge by applying it to a specific purpose in order to better a situation or change viewpoints. D. Development of knowledge for the sake of developing knowledge, discovering truth, and controlling outcomes. Ans: D 6. Gretchen and Peter are graduate students in the same Physics lab. Their supervisor has asked both of them to perform the same experiment using the same procedure and equipment. After they’ve both completed their task, the compare their results and discover that they are nearly identical. Which of the five criteria for science does Gretchen and Peter’s discovery exemplify? CONTINUED.......... [Show More]

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