*NURSING > EXAM REVIEW > NSG 6420: FNP I Adult/Gero Final Review Study Guide-comprehensive 2022 (All)

NSG 6420: FNP I Adult/Gero Final Review Study Guide-comprehensive 2022

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1. General Concepts in Geriatrics Impact of physiological changes with aging: Kennedy Chapter 1. The major impact of all of these physiological changes can be highlighted with three primary points... . First, there is a reduced physiological reserve of most body systems, particularly cardiac, respiratory, and renal. Second, there are reduced homeostatic mechanisms that fail to adjust regulatory systems such as temperature control and fluid and electrolyte balance. Third, there is impaired immunological function: infection risk is greater, and autoimmune diseases are more prevalent. Reduced renal function, particularly the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), affects the clearance of many drugs, and creatinine clearance provides an index of renal function for use in choosing doses of renally eliminated or nephrotoxic drugs (such as digoxin, H2 blockers, lithium, and water-soluble antibiotics). Normal age related changes: Changes in kidney function begin in the fourth decade of life and continue to decline with each subsequent decade. by age 70, an individual might reasonably have a 40% to 50% decrease in renal function, even in the absence of disease. With advancing age, the ability of the liver to metabolize drugs does not decline. Although liver size and blood flow do decline with age, routine liver function test results are typically normal when no disease exists. Decreased liver size and blood flow can result in decreased first-pass metabolism. Older adults often experience more sedation from central nervous system drugs than younger persons at the same concentration. Signs and symptoms of depression: Altered presentation is another common feature in older adults. The patient with depression may not present with a dysphoric mood but rather agitation and psychotic features. CONTINUED........... [Show More]

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