*NURSING > EXAM > BIO 2440 (BIO 2440) Final Exam: Microbiology Final Exam; 2021/2022 (Answered and Graded A+) Free (All)

BIO 2440 (BIO 2440) Final Exam: Microbiology Final Exam; 2021/2022 (Answered and Graded A+) Free

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Microbio Final Exam Who first proposed the "Germ Theory of Disease"? What were they studying? Approximately how much of the total biomass on Earth is composed of microorganisms? Explain why m... ilkmaids rarely developed smallpox in 18th century England. Who took this knowledge to revolutionize medicine? 3 forces stabilizing double helix, strongest? Name all properties from our lecture of all cellular organism Name four properties from our lecture of some cellular organisms. Provide three reasons why ribosomal RNA is used to determine phylogeny. Provide one negative and one positive way that microbes impact your life. Which famous microbiologists lab did Fanny Hesse assist in? What suggestion did she have that revolutionized microbiology? Scientist that sued rRNA to determine phylogeny Suppose a hypothetical bacterium, Murraystatium awesomessii, grows normally at 30 C and has a membrane lipid composition of 50% SFA and 50% UFA. How would you expect the lipid composition to change if the bacterium was shifted to a lower growth temperature of 15 C? Explain why. Why is being small advantageous for microbial cells? How does this affect growth rate? What would happen to a cell without a cell wall? explain? Does lysozyme kill archaea? why or why not? Define metabolism, catabolism, and anabolism Does fermentation or respiration yield more energy? Explain? Where does the energy to power ATP synthase come from? Name and briefly describe three specific functions of the cytoplasmic membrane . Briefly describe three pieces of evidence that supports the concept of endosymbiosis. 30. Briefly describe the famous Meselson-Stahl experiment. What did this demonstrate? During replication, which strand requires more primase activity? In one sentence, explain why. What would you expect if a glutamine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase charged tRNA with alanine instead of glutamine? The template strand reads: 5' ATCGACGCACTC 3'. What is the sequence of the transcript and coding strand? Specify 5' and 3' Will AT-rich or GC-rich DNA require a higher temperature to melt apart? Why? What subunit of RNA polymerase recognizes DNA? What element of the DNA is recognized? Where is this element in relation to the gene being transcribed? Three types of active transport By weight, is the ribosome more RNA or protein. Which is responsible for catalysis? Know leading and lagging (especially on that diagram showing the forks) Differentiate archaeal and bacteria membranes Most bacteria and archaea can't be cultured and grown in lab. How do we know that they are there and their relation to other life? What differentiates defined media from complex media? **If at 7am, there are 8 cells of bacteria Murraystatium awesomolii and at 11 am, there are 512 cells. How many generations have occurred? What is the generation time? What are two enzymes important to the survival of many bacteria exposed to oxygen? Why are these enzymes important? Cardinal temperatues for an organism What are the four growth stages of bacterial growth in a closed batch culture What are two types of cells that Caulobacter can form? which type can reproduce Briefly define "growth" as it related to bacteria A culture is growing in media lacking tryptophan. Tryptophan is then added to the culture. What happens to the expression levels of the Trp operon following tryptophan addition? Is this considered positive control/induction, positive control/repression, negative control/induction, negative control/repression? Describe what TrpR is doing in the cell before and after tryptophan addition. Consider the Lac operon. Describe a nutritional condition where transcription is maximal. Describe a nutritional condition where transcription occurs, but not at maximum levels. Describe a nutritional condition where transcription is off. Describe what CRP (also known as CAP) and LacI be doing in the cell in an environment lacking glucose and lacking lactose. (ALSO UNDERSTAND WHAT HAPPENS IF cAMP IS NEVER BOUND)You have isolated a mutant CRP (also known as CAP) that behaves as if cAMP is always bound. In an environment containing glucose and containing lactose, would the lac operon be transcribed? If so, at what level? Explain you answer. . You have isolated a mutant LacI that behaves as if lactose (allolactose) is always bound. In an environment containing glucose and lacking lactose, will the lac operon genes be transcribed? If so, at what levels? Explain your answer. **You have isolated an operator mutant in the trp operon. You notice that the operon is expressed regardless of the tryptophan concentration in the cell. Propose an explanation for these observations. You have recently discovered Mur operon produces catabolic genes to degrade murrayose and has a MurE repressor protein that is active and bound to the operon when synthesized The presence of murrayose inactivates the repressor and it no longer binds to the murrayose operon. What kind of control/repression/induction? LuxI makes AHL. You have isolated a LuxI mutant that is 10 times less active. How would this influence the bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri as it relates to population size? Explain your answer. . If LuxR of Vibrio fischeri is deleted, how would this influence bioluminescence as it relates to population size? Describe the two proteins of a two-component regulatory system and briefly explain the function of each protein. Explain how active levels of RpoH are controlled post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Indicate which is post-transcriptional and which is post-translational. a. Post-Transcription: rpoH mRNA secondary structure that allows increased translation under normal conditions. What small molecule does the enzyme RelA synthesize? What nutritional condition is being sensed? OR What enzyme synthesizes magic spot (ppGpp)? What precisely is being sensed by this enzyme? Name one type of gene that is downregulated in response to magic spot production Diauxic growth(what it is and chart) Negative/Positive Induction/ Repression 71. What are the 5 overall steps of chromosome replication and segregation? Once replication of the chromosome has begun, which protein blocks DnaA from immediately binding to OriC? What feature of the DNA does this protein recognize? E. coli is a rod-shaped bacterium. You've isolated a mutant that appears to form a spherical cocci. Which protein we discussed has most likely been inactivated? Name three resistance mechanisms that are utilized by bacteria to survive antibiotics. Name three specific cellular processes targeted by antibiotics. If the FtsZ became inactive in the rod-shaped bacterium E. coli, how would this influence cell division? If the Min proteins became inactivated in E. coli, how would this influence cell division? [Show More]

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