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NR 507 Exam 1 Review / NR507 Exam 1 Review : Advanced Pathophysiology: Chamberlain College of Nursing (Already graded A)

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NR-507 Advanced Pathophysiology Exam 1 Review 1. A 70-year-old woman was brought to an urgent care facility complaining, "I am weak and have been running off my bowels for 3 weeks." The onsite c... linical laboratory provided the following electrolyte values. The normal values are in (parenthesis). Sodium = 142 mEq/L (136-145mEq/L). Potassium = 2.1 mEq/L (3.5-5.0mEq/L). Chloride = 94 mEq/L (95-105mEq/L). Carbon dioxide = 30 mEq/L (28-32 mEq/L). A. What electrolyte levels are abnormal? B. Is there a medical emergency? C. If so, what is it? D. What treatment should be done? ANSWER: A. Potassium and chloride levels are low. B. An emergency exists. C. Low potassium levels can cause cardiac arrhythmia. D. The patient should be admitted to the hospital for IV fluids and monitoring of blood pressure, pulse, and cardiac function. 2. After checking the genetic report which indicates there is a gene defect on the long arm of chromosome 7, the nurse assesses the patient with cystic fibrosis for the following: - 3. All of the following chemicals will induce a fever during inflammation except: - 4. The blood pH is maintained near 7.4 by buffering systems. The sequence from the fastest-acting to the slowest-acting system is: - 5. A common cause of metabolic acidosis is: - 6. A common cause of metabolic alkalosis is: - 7. A contusion injury results in: - 8. A couple has two offspring; one child has an autosomal recessive disease trait and one is normal. What most likely conclusions can the nurse make about the parents? - Both parents could be carriers. 9. A couple is planning to have children. The father is affected by an autosomal dominant disease, but the mother does not have the disease gene. If the father is a heterozygote, what is the chance that their first child will be affected by the autosomal dominant disease - 10. The development of contractures during wound healing can result in which of the following problems? - 11. Distinguish between resolution and repair of injuries. - 12. During cellular swelling, dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum leads to: - 13. Edema is the accumulation of fluid within interstitial spaces. True or False? - 14. An elevation of which cell accounts for a "left shift" in the white blood cell count differential? - 15. Explain the similarities and differences in chronic and acute inflammation. Be specific. - 16. Fetal exposure to alcohol during pregnancy can result in: - 17. Function of the clotting cascade during inflammation include which of the following? - 18. Hypernatremia can result from: - 19. Hypoxia occurs in step. Put the following steps in their correct order. - 20. If the surface barriers such as skin or mucus membranes are breached, the second line of defense in innate immunity is the: - 21. An increase in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion will result in which of the following changes? - 22. An individual suffers from weakness, dizziness, irritability, and intestinal cramps. Laboratory studies reveal the following result (normal are in parenthesis). Sodium = 138 mEg/L (136-145 mEq/L) Potassium = 6.8 mEq/L (3.5-5.0 mEq/L) Blood pH = 7.38 (7.25-7.45) Bicarbonate = 24 mEq/L (20-24 mEq/L) An EKG with a tall, peaked T wave, but otherwise normal. - 23. Infectious injury is caused by: - 24. Inflammatory and immunologic injures are caused by: - 25. In general, respiratory acidosis is caused by: - 26. In strangulation injuries, airway injury can be cause by a fracture of which bone? - 27. Lead poisoning affects nervous system function by which of the following mechanisms? - 28. The major mechanism of injury in drowning is: - 29. A male patient has Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A nurse recalls this patient inherited this condition from the: - 30. Manifestation of local inflammation includes: - 31. A monocyte is a circulating white blood cell that transforms into which of the following cells once it enters the tissue during an inflammatory response? - 32. A patient has a genetic disease that manifests with progressive dementia in middle to later adulthood. Which diagnosis will the nurse observe documented on the chart? - 33. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by: - 34. Scar tissue is: - 35. Select all of the answers below that are true. - 36. Select all of the answers that are true. - 37. Select all the answers that are true. - 38. Select all the ways that free radicals can cause cellular injury. - 39. Symptoms of dehydration include: - 40. Tattooing and stippling occur with which of the following types of injuries? - 41. This is a common clinical syndrome in older adults which leaves a person vulnerable to falls, functional decline, disability, disease and death. - 42. What are the different types of necrosis? - 43. What are the major phagocytes of the inflammatory response and how do they move to the area of injury? - 44. What is a granuloma? - 45. What is algor mortis? - 46. What is apoptosis? - 47. What is autophagy? - 48. What is hemosiderosis? - 49. What is jaundice? - 50. What is livor mortis? - 51. What is rigor mortis? - 52. What is somatic death? - 53. When a pregnant woman asks the nurse what is the most important risk factor for Down syndrome, what is the nurse’s best response? - 54. When a staff member asks a nurse what a karyotype is, how should the nurse respond? - 55. When a zygote has a single chromosome missing in each cell the nurse calls this condition: - 56. Which genotype will the nurse most likely observe documented in the chart for a patient with Turner syndrome? - . 57. Which of the following aneuploidy disorders will the nurse assess for in females only? - 58. Which of the following are changes that happen to cells as they age? - 59. Which of the following conditions are known causes of hypokalemia? - 60. Which of the following electrolyte disturbances is manifested by muscle spasms? - 61. Which of the following electrolyte disturbances results from excess use of antacids such as calcium carbonate? - 62. Which of the following electrolytes disturbances occurs with renal failure? - 63. Which of the following events occurs during the reconstructive phase of wound healing? - 64. Which of the following genetic diseases will the nurse observe on the chart if the disease is transmitted through autosomal recessive inheritance? - 65. Which of the following molecules accumulates in liver cells as a result of alcohol abuse? - 66. Which of the following molecules act as buffers for acid in the blood? - 67. Which of the following spaces does not belong to the water compartment of the body? - 68. Which of the following statements by the nurse is an accurate characteristic of an autosomal recessive pedigree? - 69. Which state describes the ideal proportion of electrolyte-to water content in the body? - 70. Which statement indicates the nurse has a good understanding of multifactorial inheritance? Multifactorial inheritance describes the transmission of traits or diseases that are determined by: - 71. While caring for a patient with Down syndrome, the nurse remembers that trisomy occurs with which chromosomes? - 72. While caring for a person with Klinefelter syndrome the nurse checks the genetic report and will find which of the following genetic abnormalities? - 73. While planning care for a patient with a n X-linked recessive pedigree, which principle is most correct? - [Show More]

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