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Ancient Greek Philosophers Milestone 1

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Ancient Greek Philosophers Milestone 1 21 questions were answered correctly. 4 questions were answered incorrectly. 1 Roland is a compassionate person. He sometimes gives money that he needs for... himself to strangers who beg on the street. According to Aristotle’s ethics, Roland should do which of the following in order to cultivate the virtue of compassion?  Stop giving away his money so that he can focus on taking care of himself.  Find other ways to help people besides giving his money away.  Find middle ground between being too compassionate and not compassionate enough.  Spend time with compassionate people in order to learn the essence of compassion.  RATIONALE Aristotle's Doctrine of the Mean states that virtue must be cultivated as a rational mean between extremes. Therefore, Roland should find middle ground between being too compassionate and not compassionate enough in order to cultivate the virtue of compassion.  CONCEPT Aristotle's Highest Good 2 “I view the world as a mathematical entity of perfect harmony.” Which ancient philosopher would most likely have made this statement?  Pythagoras Your text here 1  Xenophanes  Protagoras  Anaxagoras  RATIONALE Pythagoras was the Pre-Socratic philosopher who incorporated mathematics into his philosophical worldview. He saw the world as a mathematical entity of perfect harmony, and assigned significance to numbers that occur in nature.  CONCEPT Cosmology and the First Philosophers 3 Choose the statement that both Plato and Aristotle would agree is true.  “The physical sciences are a source of eternal knowledge."  “The ideals of Beauty and Truth are not of this world.”  “A human being is 'human' because he or she reflects the Form of a Human.”  “Ideals are similar to mathematical objects or entities.”  RATIONALE Plato and Aristotle disagreed on all of these points except for the position that a human being is "human" because he or she reflects the Form of a Human. Although they also disagreed on where essences were located, Plato and Aristotle were both metaphysicians who believed that essences, or Forms, were real entities that existed and provided the basis for truth and knowledge.  CONCEPT Plato vs. Aristotle: The Mathematician or the Biologist 4 In the passage below, Socrates imagines a dialogue between himself and Athens, personified as the laws: “Then the laws will say: ‘Consider, Socrates, if we are speaking truly that in your present attempt you are going to do us an injury. For, having brought you into the world, and nurtured and educated you, and given you and every other citizen a share in every good which we had to give, we further proclaim to any Athenian by the liberty which we allow him, that if he does not like us when he has become of age and has seen the ways of the city, and made our acquaintance, he may go where he pleases and take his goods with him. None of us laws will forbid him or interfere with him. Anyone who does not like us and the city, and who wants to emigrate to a colony or to any other city, may go where he likes, retaining his property. But he who has experience of the manner in which we order justice and administer the state, and still remains, has entered into an implied contract that he will do as we command him.’” Reconstruct the argument from this text and choose the sentence that accurately states the main premise of Socrates’ argument.  By neither leaving Athens nor attempting to change its laws, Socrates consented to the terms of a Social Contract with Athens.  An unjust act is obvious, just as a just act is obvious, but unless we know the true essence of justice, we cannot judge others.  Socrates believes that taking advantage of opportunities to save his life would be giving in to his enemies, and approving his own destruction.  Our senses do not provide us with truth, so the soul must attain truth without the distraction and deception caused by bodily experiences.  RATIONALE In this selection from the Crito, "the laws" remind Socrates that Athens has provided him many benefits, including sustenance, education, and liberty, including the freedom to leave Athens with all of his worldly property if chose to do so. However, anyone (including Socrates) who "still remains . . . has entered into an implied contract . . .” to [Show More]

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