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HESI CAT Exam Questions & Answers,. Graded A+

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A nurse is counseling the spouse of a client who has a history of alcohol abuse. What does the nurse explain is the main reason for drinking alcohol in people with a long history of alcohol abuse? 1 ... They are dependent on it. 2 They lack the motivation to stop. 3 They use it for coping. 4 They enjoy the associated socialization. - Ans-1 Alcohol causes both physical and psychological dependence; the individual needs the alcohol to function. Alcoholism is a disorder that entails physical and psychological dependence. Because alcohol is so physiologically addictive, the client's body craves the alcohol, so most clients lack the motivation to stop because they will go into withdrawal. Clients who abuse alcohol have numbed their ability to utilize other coping mechanisms, so alcohol is used as an excuse for coping. People with alcoholism usually drink alone or feel alone in a crowd; socialization is not the prime reason for their drinking. How do adolescents establish family identity during psychosocial development? Select all that apply. 1 By acting independently to make his or her own decisions 2 By evaluating his or her own health with a feeling of well-being 3 By fostering his or her own development within a balanced family structure 4 By building close peer relationships to achieve acceptance in the society 5 By achieving marked physical changes - Ans-13 An adolescent establishes family identity by acting independently for taking important decisions about self. They also need to foster their development along with maintaining a balanced family structure. Health identity is associated with the evaluation of one's own health with a feeling of well-being. By building close peer relationships, an adolescent develops a sense of belonging, approval, and the opportunity to learn acceptable behavior. These actions establish an adolescent's group identity. The sound and healthy growth of the adolescent, with marked physical changes, helps to build an adolescent's sexual identity. A clinic nurse observes a 2-year-old client sitting alone, rocking and staring at a small, shiny top that she is spinning. Later the father relates his concerns, stating, "She pushes me away. She doesn't speak, and she only shows feelings when I take her top away. Is it something I've done?" What is the most therapeutic initial response by the nurse? 1 Asking the father about his relationship with his wife 2 Asking the father how he held the child when she was an infant 3 Telling the father that it is nothing he has done and sharing the nurse's observations of the child 4 Telling the father not to be concerned and stressing that the child will outgrow this developmental phase - Ans-3 The nurse provides support in a nonjudgmental way by sharing information and observations about the child. This child exhibits symptoms of autism, which is not attributable to the actions of the parents. Asking the father about his relationship with his wife or how he held the child when she was an infant indirectly indicates that the parent may be at fault; it negates the father's need for support and increases his sense of guilt. Telling the father not to be concerned and stressing that the child will outgrow this developmental phase is false reassurance that does not provide support; the father recognizes that something is wrong. What is most appropriate for a nurse to say when interviewing a newly admitted depressed client whose thoughts are focused on feelings of worthlessness and failure? 1 "Tell me how you feel about yourself." 2 "Tell me what has been bothering you." 3 "Why do you feel so bad about yourself?" 4 "What can we do to help you while you're here?" - Ans-1 Because major depression is a result of the client's feelings of self-rejection, it is important for the nurse to have the client initially identify these feelings before developing a plan of care. Later discussion should be focused on other topics to prevent reinforcement of negative thoughts and feelings. "Tell me what has been bothering you" is asking the client to draw a conclusion; the client may be unable to do so at this time. Also, depression may be related not to external events but instead to a client's psychobiology. Asking why does not let a client explore feelings; it usually elicits an "I don't know" response. "What can we do to help you while you're here?" is beyond the scope of the client's abilities at this time. A client is admitted to the mental health unit with the diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Which statement alerts the nurse to the possibility of a suicide attempt? 1 "I don't feel too good today." 2 "I feel much better; today is a lovely day." 3 "I feel a little better, but it probably won't last." 4 "I'm really tired today, so I'll take things a little slower." - Ans-2 A rapid mood upswing and psychomotor change may signal that the client has made a decision and has developed a plan for suicide. "I don't feel too good today"; "I feel a little better, but it probably won't last"; and "I'm really tired today, so I'll take things a little slower" are all typical of the depressed client; none of these statements signals a change in mood. During a group discussion it is learned that a group member hid suicidal urges and committed suicide several days ago. What should the nurse leading the group be prepared to manage? 1 Guilt of the co-leaders for failing to anticipate and prevent the suicide 2 Guilt of group members because they could not prevent another's suicide 3 Lack of concern over the suicide expressed by several of the members in the group 4 Fear by some members that their own suicidal urges may go unnoticed and that they may go unprotected - Ans-4 Ambivalence about life and death, plus the introspection commonly found in clients with emotional problems, can lead to increased anxiety and fear among the group members. These feelings must be handled within the support and supervisory systems for the staff; the group members are the primary concern. Guilt that the group's leaders or members might feel because they could not prevent another's suicide will probably be a secondary concern of the group leader. Lack of concern over the suicide expressed by several of the members in the group is not a primary concern, but this should be explored later to determine the reason for such apparent indifference, which may be a mask to cover true feelings. [Show More]

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