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Portage Learning A&P I Final Exam. All questions with 100% accurate answers. Graded A+. Download to score. LATEST 2022.

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List two organs contained in the abdominal cavity. - Ans-The abdominal cavity contains the stomach, intestines, spleen and liver True or False? a. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria. ... (T or F) b. The purpose of cellular respiration is to produce ATP. (T or F) c. Integral proteins are only found on the inner surface of a cell membrane. (T or F) d. Endocytosis is the process that occurs to eject biomacromolecules from the cell. (T or F) e. Pinocytosis uses a signaling molecule from another cell, binding to the cell membrane to bring about changes within the cell proteins. (T or F) - Ans-a. True b. True c. False d. False e. False You are observing two cells under the microscope. They are the same type of eukaryotic cell but one appears much larger. Based on appearance alone, which one would you expect to be carrying out respiration at a more active rate, the larger or smaller cell? Explain why. - Ans-I believe it is the smaller cell that will breathe at a more active rate because in order for respiration to occur efficiently and more actively the surface area to volume ratio is very critical; also, if the larger surface area is present then the diffusion of gases occur at a higher rate; so, larger cells will have a smaller surface to volume ratio and diffusion that will occur at a slower rate creating a less active respiration; and, on the other hand smaller cells will have a larger surface area to volume ratio and an improved diffusion rate, so the higher rate and more active respiration. The smaller cell. Cells need to remain relatively small because as a cell expands the amount of surface area relative to the volume of the cell decreases. The smaller cell is more active because relative to its volume, its surface area is larger than a bigger cell. With a larger surface area (relative to its volume) this allows the metabolic processes to occur faster. Note: Essay answers must clearly be in your own words. Explain what happens to the epiglottis during swallowing. Why? - Ans-During swallowing the epiglottis moves inferiorly to close off and prevent aspiration by covering the trachea and creating a passage for liquid, food, or bolus into the esophagus; and, preventing these things from entering into the lungs. Air and food pass in which one of the following areas: - Ans-Oropharynx Label the following five items from the diagram: Label B- ___________ Label D- __________ Label E- __________ Label F- __________ Label G- __________ - Ans-B - Oral Cavity D - Epiglottis E - Glottis F - Trachea G - Esophagus From widest to narrowest, the branches of the bronchial tree are: - Ans-Primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles Explain why someone who has hypergastrinemia (excessive secretion of gastrin) might develop gastric/stomach ulcers. - Ans-Hypergastrinemia leads to excess secretion of the gastrin hormone, which induces excess secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach; and, the excess acid then acts as a protective mucousa layer causing disruption that can lead to those ulcers. Gastrin stimulates the secretions of pepsinogens and hydrochloric acid. Excess amounts would lead to erosion of the stomach lining. Look carefully at the diagram below. Label the following 5 organs of the digestive system. To receive credit for the intestines you must label the specific region. 3: ___________ 4: ___________ 7: ___________ 9: ___________ 10: ___________ - Ans-3. Stomach 4. Gallbladder 7. Jejunum 9. Appendix 10. Rectum Note: Essay answers must clearly be in your own words. Answer the following essay question: Describe parietal cells and chief cells: name their location, secretions and purposes. - Ans-Parietal and chief cells are located in the stomach wall and they secrete gastric juices and mucous, secrete hormones that regulate digestive activity; also, parietal cells produce HCl in the stomach; and, chief cells secrete te enzymes pepsinogen, rennin, and gastric lipase. The parietal cells (located in the wall of the stomach body) secrete hydrochloric acid, generating a pH of 1.3-3.5. This very acidic pH kills many of the bacteria ingested along with food. In addition, the low pH stops the activity of salivary amylase. The secretion of hydrochloric acid is essential in the activation of pepsin. Chief cells: secrete pepsinogen. Pepsinogen (a pre-enzyme) is secreted by the chief cells in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid converts the inactive pepsinogen (secreted by the chief cells) into the active enzyme pepsin which begins the breakdown of proteins. Label the following bones of the skeleton from the figure below: 1: ____________ 3:____________ 5:____________ 7: ____________ 8: ____________ - Ans-1: Frontal bone/frontal sinuses 3: Maxilla 5: Vomer 7: Maxilla 8: Mandible Label the bones in the figure below: A: ____________ B: ____________ C: ____________ D: ____________ E: _____________ - Ans-A. Pisiform B. Hamate C. Capitate D. Trapezoid E. Trapezium A patient has a diagnosis of osteoporosis. (1) In your own words, describe this diagnosis and (2) What type of bone cell would they be lacking? Explain your answer. - Ans-(1) The textbook states that osteoporosis is a bone tissue disease where the bone tissue degenerates faster than it is replaced making the bones weak, causing increased pain, and more likely to fracture due to them being brittle. (2) Furthermore, there would be a decreased number of osteoblasts, which are responsible for bone repair; also, the bone repair would be unable to keep up with the ongoing breakdown of the bone which is responsible in the process that included the osteoblasts that take the calcium from the blood. Label the following five muscles: B: _____________ C: _____________ E: _____________ G: _____________ J: ______________ - Ans-B: Temporalis C: Orbicularis oculi E: Zygomaticus major G: Buccinator J: Depressor labii inferioris When extensor digitorum contracts, what action(s) occurs? A. Elbow extension B. Wrist extension C. Extension of digit 1 D. Extension of digits 2-5 E. A&C F. B&D - Ans-F. B&D Would you expect a male to have estrogen in their bloodstream? Explain why or why not. - Ans-Yes, the textbook stated that both the male and female bodies produce "all" the sex hormones; however, the ratios are different; also, the adrenal glands are largely responsible for producing this "opposite" hormone that the gonads of the person does not. List the hormone(s) that best describes the statement below: I promote the reabsorption of water at the collecting ducts of the kidneys. - Ans-ADH List the hormone(s) that best describes the statement below: I am secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas. - Ans-Insulin Explain in detail why the thyroid becomes enlarged during an iodine deficiency? - Ans-When there is a low level of thyroxin in the blood, the anterior pituitary gland continues to produce TSH; so, the thyroid reacts by increasing in size and producing a goiter, but this increase in size is ineffective because active thyroxin cannot be produced without iodine. A- Identify the sensory cell receptor highlighted in blue, below, also indicated by the arrow. B- What sensory information is detected by this type of receptor? - Ans-A) Pacinian corpuscle B) Detects pressure (mechanoreceptor) Match the cell with its single best description, using each description only once. Fibroblasts Produces collagen Keratinocytes Produces a protein to protect the skin Langerhans cells Assists in immune responses Melanocytes Produces a pigment that absorbs UV rays - Ans-Fibroblasts Produces collagen Keratinocytes Produces a protein to protect the skin Langerhans cells Assists in immune responses Melanocytes Produces a pigment that absorbs UV rays Other Incorrect Match Options: Detects pain Detects light touch What is the name and function of the structure below? (Highlighted in blue, also indicated by the arrow) - Ans-Sebaceous gland (oil gland) produces oil (sebum) to protect the skin and hair from drying. What is the study of the function of the human body? - Ans-Physiology Epithelium is an example of what level of organization in the human body? - Ans-Tissue What is the breakdown of nutrients? - Ans-Catabolism List the four basic types of tissues. - Ans-Epithelium, Muscle, Connective, and Nervous tissues. List the three layers of the skin in order from superficial to deep. The most superficial layer of the skin should be at the top of your list. To receive credit the layers must be in this order. - Ans-Epidermis (Outer Layer), Dermis (Middle Layer), and Hypodermis (Subcutaneous and Inner Layer) Note: Essay answers must clearly be in your own words. Glucagon stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in the liver. Based upon your learning of metabolism, would this be considered an anabolic or catabolic hormone? Explain why. - Ans-Catabolic hormone because it is breaking down of a larger substance, glycogen, into their simpler, smaller building blocks within the liver (releasing energy in the process). What anatomical orientation term is used to indicate "toward the back of the body"? - Ans-Dorsal What anatomical orientation term is used to indicate "toward the upper part of a structure"? - Ans-Superior What anatomical orientation term is used to indicate "toward the body surface"? - Ans-Superficial (External) What anatomical orientation term is used to indicate "further from the origin of the body part"? - Ans-Distal You are looking at a diagram of a patient standing in anatomical position. On the sheet of paper containing the diagram, which thumb points to the left side of the paper, right or left? - Ans-Right Is the spine part of the axial or appendicular region of the body? - Ans-Axial region A patient is standing in anatomical position. The patient moves his hand to scratch his nose. What anatomical action term is best used to indicate the motion occurring at his elbow? - Ans-Flexion What anatomical action term is used to indicate "movement away from midline"? - Ans-Abduction Describe the position of the diaphragm in relation to the thoracic cavity in anatomical position terms. Use a full sentence for your description. - Ans-The diaphragm (muscle) assists in dividing the abdominopelvic region of the thoracic cavity by being superior to the organs (stomach, intestines, spleen, liver) of the abdominal cavity. Which anatomical action is occurring at the elbow joint, in the direction of the arrow? (Photo of arrow going down humerus pointing toward hand) - Ans-Elbow Extension (Mod ule 1) Look at the figure below. The right femur is moved in the direction of the arrow. What anatomical action term best describes this movement? - Ans-Adduction (Femur is moving towards the midline). True or False: The ventral body cavity contains the cranial cavity, the thoracic cavity, and the abdominal cavity. If your answer is false, rephrase the statement to make it a true statement. - Ans-False The body is divided into anterior and posterior sections by what type of plane? - Ans-Frontal (Coronal) A section that is diagonal between horizontal and vertical planes is called what? - Ans-Oblique sections Look at the diagram below. What type of plane is shown? (Red plane cutting the body anteriorly/posterioly) - Ans-Frontal (Coronal) Using the letters given, match the cell with the type of solution it has been placed in: - Ans-A cell beginning to swell = Hypotonic A red blood cell placed in ocean water = Hypertonic A cell containing an equal amount of solute as the solution = Isotonic Using the letters given, match each molecule/item with its typical means of entering a cell. You may need to use some means of entry more than once. - Ans-Lipid insoluble molecules = Facilitated diffusion Other cells = Endocytosis Water = Diffusion Which one of the following is not true of active transport? - Ans-Active transport moves particles with the concentration gradient List the three organelles, in order, involved in the synthesis, transport and shipping of proteins. - Ans-ribosomes, rough ER, Golgi complex Label the 5 organelles listed below: 3: ___________ 4: ___________ 5: ___________ 7: ___________ 8: ___________ - Ans-3: Nucleolus 4: Nuclear Envelope 5: Mitochondria 7: Lysosome 8: Endoplasmic Reticulum Note: Essay answers must clearly be in your own words. In your own words, discuss Tay-Sachs disease. What organelle within the cell is impacted? What are the symptoms of the disease and why do they occur? - Ans-Tay-Sachs disease is a result from a lack of an enzyme that degrades another specific type of glycolipid; and, these glycolipids build up in the lysosomes (organelle within the cells that is impacted) of the brain, leading to progressive neural dysfunction and typically death by age 4 or 5 years; furthermore, other symptoms include seizures, muscle, weakness, vision and hearing loss, etc. 1. Lysosomes 2. Build up of toxic lipids inside the cell (biomacromolecules) 3. Disability or death Note: Essay answers must clearly be in your own words. You are observing two cells under the microscope. They are the same type of eukaryotic cell but one appears much larger. Based on appearance alone, which one would you expect to be carrying out respiration at a more active rate, the larger or smaller cell? Explain why. - Ans-The smaller cell. Cell needs to remain relatively small because as a cell expands the amount of surface area relative to the volume of the cell decreases. The smaller cell is more active because relative to its volume, its surface area is larger than a bigger cell. With a larger surface area (relative to its volume) this allows metabolic processes to occur faster. How many lobes does the left human lung have? - Ans-Left lung has 2 lobes in a human. Rings of cartilage line much of the respiratory tract. In which of one the following would cartilage NOT be found? - Ans-Alveoli [Show More]

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