Health Care > EXAM > Speech Science: Exam 1 (Ch. 1 & 2) TEST BANK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS| GRADED A+ (All)

Speech Science: Exam 1 (Ch. 1 & 2) TEST BANK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS| GRADED A+

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Speech Science: Exam 1 (Ch. 1 & 2) Sound occurs when a disturbance creates changes in ____ in a ____, ____, or ____. Correct Answer: pressure, gas, liquid, solid Scientific measurement systems ... are based on the modernized international metric system, the _____. This is comprised of the ____ & ____ systems. Correct Answer: International System of units (SI) The SI uses seven base units. What are they? Correct Answer: length mass time electric current thermodynamic temp amount of substance luminous intensity The SI comprises what two related systems? Correct Answer: MKS and CGS In the MKS system, m stands for ___, k stands for _____, and s stands for ____. Correct Answer: meters, kilograms, seconds In the CGS system, c stands for ____, g for _____, and s for ____. Correct Answer: centimeters, grams, seconds The ratio between the two systems (MKS and CGS) is usually _____ Correct Answer: some power of 10 Which system is usually preferred? Correct Answer: MKS Fundamental property of an object that refers to the amount of matter in the object, and it is measured in kilograms of grams Correct Answer: mass ___ is defined as any influence that causes an object to undergo a change in speed, a change in direction, or a change in shape. Correct Answer: force Force is measured in ____ in the MKS system and ____ in the CGS system. Correct Answer: newtons, dynes ___ is defined as the force of gravity on an object and is related to its mass. Correct Answer: weight Weight is a force and is therefore measured by the ____. Correct Answer: newton ____ is defined as the quantity of three-dimensional space occupied by a liquid, solid, or gas. Correct Answer: volume the standard unit of volume in the metric system is the ____ Correct Answer: liter ____ is defined as mass of a substance, a material, or an object per unit of volume, or mass divided by volume. Correct Answer: density Density is measured in terms of: Correct Answer: grams per cm cubed or kilograms per meter cubed or grams per milliliter ____ is the distance traveled by an object in a given unit of time. Correct Answer: speed speed is measured in ____ Correct Answer: meters/second Velocity has the same numerical value as speed (m/s) but also specifies the ____ of the movement. Correct Answer: direction ____ refers to the mass times velocity of an object during motion. Correct Answer: momentum ___ occurs when velocity changes as a function of time. Correct Answer: acceleration ____ is the resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or rest. Correct Answer: inertia _____ is Newton's First Law of Motion which states that the velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted on by an external force Correct Answer: inertia ____ is the property of a material that returns it to its original shape after it has been deformed by an external force . The external force is called ___. Conversely ____ refers to a change in the shape or size of an object due to an applied force. The relative amount of deformation undergone by the object is called the ____. Correct Answer: elasticity, stress, deformation, strain Elasticity is determined by the amount of force required to displace the object by some distance, and is measured in terms of ____. Correct Answer: stiffness (K) ___ occurs when a force is exerted over a distance and is measured in newtons times distance in meters. Correct Answer: work ____ is defined as the ability to do work Correct Answer: energy forms of energy include: Correct Answer: chemical energy electrical energy thermal energy (heat) radiant energy (light) mechanical energy (movement) sound energy nuclear energy ____ refers to the rate of work done or energy used in a period of time and is measured in watts Correct Answer: power (work/time) ____ refers to power per unit of area and is measured in watts per square meter in the MKS system or watts per square centimeter in the CGS system. Correct Answer: intensity ____ is defined as force acting perpendicularly on a specific surface area. The unit of measure in the MKS system is the ___, which is equivalent to a force of 1 newton over 1 square meter. Correct Answer: pressure; pascal (Pa) Multiples of the pascal are commonly used, such as ____ or ____. In the CGS system, the unit of measurement for pressure is ____, also called ____. Correct Answer: decapascal, kilopascal, dynes per square centimeter, microbar Microbar and pascal are related measures, such that 1 microbar equals ____, and 10 microbar equal _____. Correct Answer: 0.1 Pa, 1 Pa An older unit of measure of pressure is ____, which is still used in the United States. Correct Answer: pounds per square inch (psi) What is the notation for pressure? Correct Answer: P What is the notation for atmospheric pressure? Correct Answer: P atmos (subscript) Pressure that is higher/lower than P atmos is called ? Correct Answer: positive pressure (Ppos) negative pressure (Pneg) Pressure within the lungs? within the trachea? within the oral cavity? Correct Answer: Palveolar Ptrach Poral Because air is a gas, it moves in predictable ways. Molecules of air have a natural tendency to spread themselves around _____. Correct Answer: more or less equally To achieve equalization, air always moves from an area of ____ pressure to an area of ____ pressure. It is the difference in pressure called a _____, which causes air to flow and creates a driving pressure. Correct Answer: high; lower; pressure differential The movement of air through a particular area in a certain interval of time is called _____. If there is no difference in pressure between two areas, air will ____ between them, and there will be no driving pressure. Correct Answer: flow; NOT flow How is flow measured? Correct Answer: Liters/second (l/s), liters/minute (l/m), milliliters/second (ml/s), or milliliters/min (ml/min) The rate of flow is called ____. It refers to the speed of a volume of air traveling in a certain direction. Correct Answer: volume velocity Air can flow with various degrees of smoothness or turbulence. Air that flows smoothly with molecules moving in a parallel manner and at the same speed is called ____. Correct Answer: laminar flow _____ occurs when an obstacle in its way disturbs the flow. When this happens, the flow becomes less regular in its movement, resulting in little swirls or eddies of currents. Correct Answer: turbulent flow There is an ____ relationship between air volume and pressure and a ____ relationship between air pressure and density. Correct Answer: inverse; direct As the volume of a space increases, the pressure of the air within that space _____ as long as the density and temperature remain constant. Correct Answer: decreases As the volume of the space decreases, the pressure of the air ____, given a constant air density and temperature. These relationships are known as ____. Correct Answer: increases, Boyle's law What happens to density when pressure is increased? Correct Answer: It increases as well. Amount of space occupied in three dimensions Correct Answer: volume amount of mass per unit of volume Correct Answer: density Molecules of air are not stationary, but due to their thermal energy constantly move around in random patterns and at extremely high speeds. This random movement is called ____. Correct Answer: Brownian motion Air molecules undergo Brownian motion, creating a relatively steady pressure called ____. Sound occurs when a disturbance creates alternating increases and decreases in P-am. Correct Answer: ambient pressure (P-am) When molecules approach and collide to create positive air pressure Correct Answer: compression when molecules stretch apart to create negative air pressure Correct Answer: rarefaction The changing distances between groups of molecules result in increasing and decreasing amounts of ____ and corresponding increases and decreases in ____. The changes in pressure continue in a wavelike motion that propagates (travels) from the source of the sound through the air in an ever-widening sphere. Correct Answer: density; air pressure If an ear is in the path of some of these shifting molecules, the compression of air moves the ____ inward slightly, whereas the rarefaction of air allows the tympanic membrane to move slightly ____. The TM is therefore set into vibration through the changes in ____ arriving at the ear. The vibration of the TM sets bones within the middle ear (____) into vibration, which in turn sets the ____ in the inner ear into vibration, resulting in the stimulation of _____ in the inner ear. This then triggers a nerve impulse which is conducted along the auditory pathway to the appropriate areas of the nervous system and is then interpreted by the ___ as sound. Correct Answer: tympanic membrane (eardrum), outward, air pressure, ossicles, fluid, hair cells (nerve cells), brain Waves of compression and rarefaction propagate in a ____ motion through the air which is ever ____ Correct Answer: wavelike, widening When air molecules are set into vibration by a disturbance such as a tuning fork being struck, they vibrate around their equilibrium positions and eventually come to a stop. What three forces interact to keep them swinging back and forth for awhile before they settle down? Correct Answer: elasticity, inertia, and friction ____ is a restoring force; it refers to the property of an object to be able to spring back to its original size, form, location, and shape after being stretch, displaced, or deformed. Correct Answer: Elasticity ____ states that the restoring force is proportional to the distance of displacement and acts in the opposite direction. Thus, the farther an object is displaced from its original location, the stronger the restoring force that pulls it back toward that position. Correct Answer: Hooke's Law All objects that have mass, including air molecules, possess a certain degree of ____. Correct Answer: elasticity law of physics stating that an object will remain at rest or continue in a fixed direction unless an outside force acts upon it Correct Answer: inertia After a tuning fork is initially struck and the molecules have been displaced, they start moving back toward their equilibrium positions due to ____. However they do not immediately stop at their original positions, but due to ___ they overshoot the mark, swinging out further in the opposite direction. The farther the molecules travel, the stronger the _____, which eventually overcomes the inertia and starts to pull the molecules back toward equilibrium again. Correct Answer: elasticity, inertia, elastic recoil The molecules swing back and forth around their original positions due to the interaction of ____ and ____. Correct Answer: elasticity & inertia Maximum distance away from rest position Correct Answer: amplitude The vibration of air molecules does not last indefinitely. Because of the frictional resistance of the air, each time the molecules move back and forth around their ____ positions, they do so with slightly less ___. This is called ____. Correct Answer: equilibrium, amplitude, damping Damping finally causes the molecules to settle down once again at their equilibrium positions. At this point, no further changes in ____ occur, and consequently, no further sound is generated. Correct Answer: P-am Sound is an ____ set in motion by a disturbance of ___ Correct Answer: air wave, air A wave is a disturbance of ___ that moves through a ____. Once molecules have been set into vibration, each molecule does NOT itself travel long distances to get to a listener's ear. Rather, the molecules travel only a tiny distance around their equilibrium positions before their motion dies away. Correct Answer: pressure; medium In the case of sound, the wave motion is ____. The individual air molecules move ____ to the direction that the wave is traveling. Correct Answer: longitudinal, parallel Wave motion of water is ____, that is, the individual molecules of water move ____ at ____ angles to the direction that the wave is traveling. Correct Answer: transverse, up and down, right We are all familiar with the phenomenon of water rippling outward in widening circles when a stone is dropped into a pond. These ripples are the waves, formed by water molecules moving _____ and transmitting the disturbance in all directions. In a very similar way, when a sound wave is generated by a tuning fork, the air all around the fork is disturbed, so the changes in pressure radiate from the fork in all directions. The area of compression around the vibrating source is followed by an area of _____, followed by another of compression and rarefaction and so on, spreading outward in a ____. the outermost area of the sphere is called the ____. Correct Answer: up and down, rarefaction, sphere, wave front The farther the changes in air pressure travel from the source, the more ____ they become because the area of the wave front is directly proportional to the ______. This is called the ____. Correct Answer: damped, square of its distance from the source, inverse square law This means that as the sound wave propagates, the constant amount of energy in the wave is distributed over an exponentially ___ area. Stated another way, the sound's acoustic energy diminishes by a factor of 1/distance^2. Correct Answer: increasing The energy of a sound wave that is twice the distance from the source is distributed over ___ times the area and therefore has ____ of the intensity compared to the source. The energy of a wave that is three times the distance of the source is distributed over ____ the area with a correspondingly decreased energy, and so on. Correct Answer: 4; one fourth; 9 times One cycle of vibration occurs when the tine or molecule moves to a maximum distance _____, back toward the _____, moves to a maximal point in the ____, and then moves back again to the equilibrium position. Correct Answer: away from its original spot, rest position, opposite direction Cycles of vibration are measured in terms of time in ____. The tines of a tuning fork might vibrate at the rate of _____, causing the surrounding air molecules to vibrate at the rate of 100cps as well. If this vibration eventually reaches a listener, that person's eardrum will vibrate at 100 cps too. Correct Answer: seconds, 100 cycles per second (cps) The number of cycles per second is called _____, and the unit of measurement of frequency is _____. Thus, a tuning fork vibrating at 100cps has a frequency of 100Hz. Correct Answer: frequency, hertz (Hz) Frequency can also be expressed in terms of ____ Correct Answer: kilohertz (kHz) what comprises 1 kHz? Correct Answer: 1000 Hz [Show More]

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