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Biodiversity Exam #3 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS(100% CORRECT)

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Biodiversity Exam #3 What are the supergroups of Eukaryotes? Correct Answer: -Excavata -SAR Clade -Archaeplastidu -Unikonta What is the hypothesis of supergroups of eukaryotes? Correct Ans... wer: The hypothesis about phylogeny of protists and other eukaryotes What type of group is Excavata? What is in it? Correct Answer: monophyletic group -protists What type of group is archaeplastida? What is in it? Correct Answer: algae (protists) and plants What type of group is SAR clade? What is in it? Correct Answer: monophyletic group -protists What type of group is unikonta? What is in it? Correct Answer: two major kingdoms and a group -fungi and animals, protists What is Trypanosoma Cruzi? Correct Answer: Part of the excavate supergroup -Euglenozoans (rod inside flagella) -Kinetoplastids (mass of DNA inside the mitochondria=kinetoplast) What is Trypanosoma Cruzi? -what is the arrangement of microtubules? -what are its characteristics as a genus? Correct Answer: the arrangement of microtubules in regular intervals, underneath plasma membrane surface -all parasitic -vectors are usually blood feeding invertebrates -Hosts include classes of all vertebrates What stage of the parasite is releases in the feces of the triatomine bug? (Trypansoma) Correct Answer: trypomastigote Why is it important for trypomatigote to be all to move well? Correct Answer: Its main function is to move , the need to move well to enter the bite would and cell. What type of human cells does the trypomatigote initially come into contact at the bite site? Correct Answer: macrophage, muscle cells, epithelial cells, neurons When the trypomatigote invade cells, what happens next? Correct Answer: They transform into amastigotes What stage is the parasite when it leaves the cells that were initally infected? (Trypansoma) Correct Answer: trypomastigote What cause the typomastigotes to leave the cell? Correct Answer: the constant movement of them is the stomach of the traitomine bug a good place for the parasites to stay? (Trypansoma) Correct Answer: No, the acids will kill them. Many of them die when they pass through the stomach After initial infection in subcutaneous tissue of Tyrpanosoma cruzi, what happens? Correct Answer: - Spread to regional lymph nodes - Host cells phagocytize them - Multiplication within host cells - Eventually burst out of cell and infect other tissues (especially nerve and muscle) What is the annual incidence of infection for Tyrpanosoma cruzi? Correct Answer: 561,000 individuals (Central and South America) How many people has the infection of trypanosoma cruzi? How many die? Accounts for about ___% of cardiac deaths in endemic areas Correct Answer: 8-19 million have infection 45,000 die each year Accounts for about 70% of cardiac deaths in endemic areas Approximately ________ people in US are infected - Who is likely infected - Endemic cases are _______ - 11 species of ________ _____ in 28 states - Common infection in what? Correct Answer: 300,000 - Immigrants, travelers - Endemic cases are rare but possible - Kissing Bugs - Common infection in wildlife and domestic pets Long-term effect of malaria on countries is what? In 2003, what did Uganda lose? Correct Answer: Reduction of GNP by more than half when compared to non-malarious countries Uganda lost 49,825,003 of GDP due to malaria morbidity Demographic consequences of malaria Correct Answer: High infant/childhood mortality = high fertility rates - Leads to lower rates of education in households with high fertility rates, especially for girls - Lower income for women = lower productivity for the village/nation human capital - Missed school days lead to what? - ________ _________ Correct Answer: - Lead to higher rates of failure or drop-out - Cognitive Development Physical capital - Loss of what? Correct Answer: Loss of disposable income for poor families Plant-like protists are what? Several are what? Many ________ and ___________ forms. Some have _________-______ qualities Correct Answer: Autotrophic Several are multicellular like plants Many unicellular and colonial forms Animal-like Where do the epimastigotes multiply in the host cell? Correct Answer: Into the mid gut; the intestines What type of reproduction is in protozoans? Correct Answer: Sexual and asexual reproduction (usually both in the life cycle) Asexual reproduction in Protozoans: Correct Answer: binary fission is the most common Sexual reproduction in protozoans: Correct Answer: diverse -true syngamy: fusion of whole gametes -conjugation: only in ciliates What are the two types of nuclei of paramecium? Correct Answer: Macronuclei: typical nucleus functions. (large because it has multiple copies of the genome) Micronuclei: used for sexual conjugation. (diploid) What type of asexual reproduction do paramecium undergo? Correct Answer: binary fission (transverse) What type of sexual reproduction do paramecium undergo? Correct Answer: conjugation -reproduction without sex and sex without reproduction. What is paramecium's mode of nutrition and where does it live? Correct Answer: -heterotrophic and feed in bacteria and small protists -freshwater [Show More]

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