*NURSING > EXAM REVIEW > NR 224 FUNDAMENTALS FINAL EXAM REVIEW. (LATEST 2020) DOWNLOAD TO SCORE A (All)

NR 224 FUNDAMENTALS FINAL EXAM REVIEW. (LATEST 2020) DOWNLOAD TO SCORE A

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NR 224 FUNDAMENTALS FINAL EXAM REVIEW. (LATEST 2020) DOWNLOAD TO SCORE A.1. Infectious disease stages: a. Incubation: Interval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptoms ... (e.g., chickenpox, 14 to 16 days after exposure; common cold, 1 to 2 days; influenza, 1 to 4 days; measles, 10 to 12 days; mumps, 16 to 18 days; Ebola 2 to 21 days (CDC, 2015b). b. Prodromal: Interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms (malaise, low-grade fever, fatigue) to more specific symptoms. (During this time microorganisms grow and multiply, and patient may be capable of spreading disease to others.) For example, herpes simplex begins with itching and tingling at the site before the lesion appears. c. Illness Stage: Interval when patient manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection. For example, strep throat is manifested by sore throat, pain, and swelling; mumps is manifested by high fever, parotid and salivary gland swelling. d. Convalescence: Interval when acute symptoms of infection disappear. (Length of recovery depends on severity of infection and patient's host resistance; recovery may take several days to months.) 2. What are the normal levels of WBCs in the blood? a. 5,000 to 10,000 mm3 but typically rises to 15,000 to 20,000 mm3 and higher during inflammation. Fever is caused by phagocytic release of pyrogens from bacterial cells, which causes a rise in the hypothalamic set point. 3. How does the nurse teach patients about infection control? a. Keep it dry b. Change dressing c. Adequate diet d. Hydration e. Shower but no bath 4. Risk factors for patients with pneumonia a. Age b. Heart failure c. Dysphagia d. Immobility e. smokers f. Smokers g. Immunocompromised 5. How to assess pulse? a. Palpate bilaterally except for carotid artery 6. Rate for pulses: 60-100 bpm 7. A patient wound has become infected, what does the nurse do? a. Assess white blood cells b. Temperature c. Fever d. Erythema or redness e. Swelling 8. Critical thinking a. Basic critical thinking is concrete and based on a set of rules or principles, such as the guidelines in a hospital procedure manual. The nurse’s approach is not accurate, as accuracy requires use of all of the facts (e.g. the patient’s discomfort). A critical thinker is willing to take risks in trying different ways to solve problems; following one basic approach is not risk taking. This is also not an example of reflection. b. Discipline is being thorough in whatever you do. Using known criteria for assessment and evaluation, as in the case of pain, is an example of discipline c. The correct order of the steps of the scientific method are: 1. Identifying the problem, 2. Collecting data, 3. Formulating a question or hypothesis, 4. Testing the question or hypothesis, and 5. Evaluating results of the test or study. d. The nurse relies on experience and the ability to adapt a procedure such as a dressing change (complex critical thinking) to make it successful. e. A nurse’s specific knowledge base will vary but includes basic nursing education, continuing education courses, and additional college degrees. In addition, it includes the knowledge gained from a nurse reading the nursing literature, and acquiring information and theory from the basic sciences, humanities, behavioral sciences, and nursing. Nurse’s knowledge base also involves a different way of thinking holistically about patient problems. f. Reflection, using a pain rating scale to be precise and specific, and nursing assessment (the first step of the nursing process) are examples of critical thinking skills. Explaining a procedure based on policy is not critical thinking – however performing a procedure following policy is basic critical thinking. Offering support to a colleague is an important way to assist another in managing stress but is not a critical thinking skill. g. Diagnostic reasoning begins when you interact with a patient or make physical or behavioral observations. An expert nurse sees the context of a patient situation (e.g., Patient lives alone, has fallen in past, observes patterns and themes and makes a diagnostic decision [Show More]

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