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1 PANCE Treatments and Tests of Choice Cardiology

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Normal values ABGs - pH 7.35 - 7.45 PCO2 45-35 HCO3 22-26 [Listed from Acidic to Basic] Normal Electrolyte levels - Sodium (Na+) 135-145 Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.5 Calcium (Ca+) 8.5-10.5 Phosphorou... s 3.0-4.5 Magnesium (Mg) 1.6-2.6 Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 Acidosis - Causes CNS depression [sleep] S/S of Acidosis - Decreased LOC, confusion, lethargy, coma, dysrhythmias Alkalosis - CNS Irritant (hyperventilation) S/S of Alkalosis - Twitching, restlessness, irritable, if severe...seizures. Alkalosis causes a decrease in Ca+ levels; hypocalcemia Respiratory Acidosis - High CO2 & Low RR, caused by not breathing (slow), coming out of anesthesia, COPD [difficulty with exhalation], Narcotic use Respiratory Acidosis Treatment - Find underlying cause, Start with ABC's; oxygen, bronchodilators, ambulate, narcan if narcotic related Respiratory Alkalosis - -LOW CO2 & HIGH RR [Imagine Lady freaking out], -Caused by: Anxiety [hyperventilating], Fever [Increased metabolic, increased O2 demand, increase RR], PAIN, and hypoxia Respiratory Alkalosis Treatment - treat underlying cause, Paper bag to rebreathe CO2 Metabolic Acidosis - Add (+) Acid, or Lose (-) Base -caused by renal failure (+acid) unable to excrete acid, Diabetes (+acid) zero insulin breaks down body fats resulting in increase ketones [which are acids], Diarrhea (-base) [**Lose base out your Ass...cidosis] Metabolic Acidosis Treatment - know cause to treat; insulin in diabetics, antidiarrheals Metabolic Alkalosis - Loss of (-) Acid, or Excessive (+) Base; caused by VOMITING or GI suctioning (-acid), or Antacid [like TUMS] OVERDOSE (TOO much base) [Show More]

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