Sophia Ethics Unit 3 Milestone You passed this Milestone 1 Which of the following represents a potential problem for Kantian deontology? • A person's intentions aren't given enough conside... ration. • A person can treat other people as means to an end without respect for them. • A person may have to follow different rules than others because of his or her circumstances. • A person who isn't aware of committing a crime can't be guilty of it. CONCEPT Problems with Kantian Deontology 2 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with Kantian deontology? • Felicity is looking for an ethical framework that is based on accepted societal norms. • Frannie is looking for an ethical framework that can evaluate actions beyond just their effects. • Ford is looking for an ethical framework where he can look out for his own wants and needs. • Ferdinand is looking for an ethical framework that uses the Bible as a basis for morality. CONCEPT Support for Kantian Deontology 3 What is meant by the formulation of humanity? • Anything agreed on by all humanity is true. • We shouldn't act in a way that has any harm to society. • We should respect other peoples' points of view. • Other people must be treated as ends, not only as means. CONCEPT The Formulation of Humanity 4 Jimmy is a nurse who cares for the aging Mr. Buckner in New York City. Mr. Buckner is a very wealthy man who has saved a lot of money over the years. One day, Mr. Buckner takes Jimmy aside and tells him that he has decided what to do with his money after he dies. Mr. Buckner tells Jimmy that he wants Jimmy to give all of the money to the New York Knicks basketball team. He makes Jimmy promise three times that he will do this. Jimmy thinks Mr. Buckner has gone crazy, but Mr. Buckner dies before they can discuss it further. Which action is supported by utilitarianism but intuitively seems unethical? • Jimmy breaks his promise to Mr. Buckner and instead donates the money to a basketball league that helps inner city youth. • Jimmy decides to keep Mr. Buckner’s fortune for himself, as payment for all his work. • Jimmy breaks his promise to Mr. Buckner and uses the money to pay for an operation his mother needs. • Jimmy does what he promised and gives Mr. Buckner’s fortune to the New York Knicks. CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Utilitarianism 5 How would a Kantian deontologist evaluate an action? • By evaluating the act's morality • By evaluating the relevant maxim • By evaluating the categorical imperative • By evaluating the total good and total bad it brings about CONCEPT The Formulation of Universal Law 6 Which of the following represents rule utilitarianism? • Opal grows lots of plants and flowers to help offset her carbon footprint. • Oswald gives 10% of his income to charity because giving to charity generally brings about greater good. • Odessa saves a drowning man because she knows his family needs him in order to be happy. • Omar breaks into a large store because he needs food and the store's loss will be insignificant. CONCEPT Act and Rule Utilitarianism 7 Which of the following pairs of goods are directly comparable according to hedonic utilitarianism? • All of the answer choices are correct. • $20 and a sandwich platter • My life and my wife's life • A car and a motorcycle CONCEPT Hedonic and Idealist Utilitarianism 8 According to Kantian deontology, which of the following would make an act impermissible? • It is done with bad intent. • Most people find it morally bad. • It violates applicable regulations. • It doesn't meet my own needs. CONCEPT Commitments of Kantian Deontology 9 Henry vandalizes a local school on a friendly dare. How would a utilitarian classify this action? • Neutral • Impermissible • Obligatory • Supererogatory CONCEPT Commitments of Utilitarianism 10 Theo is running for political office. It is a well-known fact that Theo is corrupt— he intends to use his office for his own personal and financial gain, to the detriment of the communities he serves. Yet polls show that he has a considerable lead over his opponents because he can afford aggressive advertising. A group of citizens decides to take matters into its own hands by blackmailing Theo so he will drop out of the election. Most people would agree that this action is immoral. How might it be evaluated by a utilitarian? • Blackmailing Theo is morally right because most citizens do not want him as their leader, even if they have fallen for his advertising. • Blackmailing Theo is morally wrong because it’s still possible that he won’t win the election, or that checks and balances will keep him from having too negative an impact. • Blackmailing Theo is morally wrong because blackmail is always wrong, even if you don’t agree with someone’s values. • Blackmailing Theo is morally right because the communities he serves will ultimately be happier with a leader who is not corrupt. CONCEPT Applying Utilitarianism 11 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with utilitarianism? • Wendy is looking for an ethical framework that relies on the Torah for moral guidance. • Walburga is looking for an ethical framework that is based in observable facts. • Walt is looking for an ethical framework that places a high value on his culture's traditions. • Warren is looking for an ethical framework that never allows any kind of theft. CONCEPT Support for Utilitarianism 12 I come home and my apartment building is on fire. There is a family of five living in the apartment next to mine and only my mother in my apartment. I can only evacuate one apartment. What is a problem with applying utilitarianism to this scenario? • Utilitarianism says I cannot determine which apartment to evacuate because my mother's happiness is equal to the happiness of the five strangers. • Utilitarianism says I should evacuate my apartment because that will make me the happiest. • Utilitarianism says I have to choose what to do based on who is responsible for starting the fire. • Utilitarianism says I should evacuate the apartment that has five occupants, even though my mother is more important to me. CONCEPT Problems with Utilitarianism 13 Which statement about Kantian deontology is true? • It is an objectivist theory because ethics must be determined by pure reason and apply to all persons. • It is a relativist theory because a commitment to the happiness of the individual ensures happiness for all. • It is a relativist theory because it focuses on character rather than on actions. • It is an objectivist theory because it uses consequences to evaluate actions for all people. CONCEPT Kantian Deontology 14 Which of the following considerations is important for a utilitarian when evaluating the morality of an action? • How likely it is to bring about happiness • How likely it is to advance one's own needs • How likely it is to make one a good person • How likely it is to be a violation of God's law CONCEPT Utilitarianism 15 How might a Kantian deontologist evaluate a jury voting to convict someone they know is innocent because they disagree with his political beliefs? • It is morally right because juries decide legal truth and can't be punished for any decisions they make. • It is morally right because the jurors' obligation to their party and their country are more important than one innocent man's freedom. • It is morally wrong because if their motives are obvious, it could hurt their own party's reputation just to prevent just one person from voting against them. • It is morally wrong because if all juries acted that way, the judicial system would cease to be about justice and become a vehicle for political oppression. CONCEPT Applying Kantian Deontology [Show More]
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