SOPHIA MILESTONE 2 EXAMS You passed this Milestone 1 Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? • Egoism does not allow the egoist to evaluate others based on his or her pers... pective. • Egoism is a core part of human nature, so denying it is denying someone's humanity. • Egoism maximizes each individual's pleasure, which is something everyone wants. • Socially determined actions are usually more successful than self-determined actions. CONCEPT Problems with Egoism 2 Erika, like most people in her culture, grows flowers in her yard. What would a conventionalist call Erika's action? • Impermissible • Obligatory • Neutral • Supererogatory CONCEPT Commitments of Conventionalism 3 Which of the following is an advantage of divine command theory? • Divine command theory is about personal development. • Divine command theory prioritizes intent over outcome. • Divine command theory is often associated with motivations for being moral. • Divine command theory aims to satisfy personal needs. CONCEPT Support for Divine Command Theory 4 Which of the following represents a challenge to the intellectualist option of divine command theory? • The intellectualist option places a false dichotomy between ethics and religion, thereby saying God has no ethical authority. • The intellectualist option states that ethics are not outside or above God, but ethics must be interpreted by God. • The intellectualist option is subjective, whereas divine command theory is supposed to be objective. • “God makes commands because they are good” implies that something beyond God’s free command makes things good. CONCEPT Refutations of Divine Command Theory 5 Quentin's faith teaches that God commands everyone to give at least ten percent of their income to the poor. Quentin usually gives fifteen percent. According to divine command theory, Quentin's action is __________. • supererogatory • impermissible • obligatory • neutral CONCEPT Commitments of Divine Command Theory 6 Which of the following scenarios would be obligatory for an egoist? • Malachi sees an opportunity to cheat and get ahead at work, so he takes it. • Madison brings a wallet she found on the ground to the police station rather than keeping it for herself. • Michelle lets her husband decide what to eat since she's fine either way. • Rather than take his dream vacation, Milo serves as a foster parent so children can have a stable home. CONCEPT Commitments of Egoism 7 According to egoism, what might an egoist think about when compelled to serve on a jury? • It is a fair system when a panel of ordinary citizens are obligated to pass judgment. • I have an important project at work I am obligated to complete this week. • We are obligated to honor the Constitution and its directive that everyone has a right to face a jury. • The criminal justice system is obligated to work for all people. CONCEPT Applying Egoism 8 Which of the following statements supports egoism? • A society is more just if it distributes rewards to everyone equally. • Self-determined ethics are more successful than ethics dictated by others. • Working to meet the demands of the larger society can lead to prosperity. • All actions should be aimed at the greater good of society. CONCEPT Support for Egoism 9 Stefan is from Spain and is visiting Denmark. He finds himself very popular among native Danes because they like his casual and relaxed nature. When Stefan is invited to a local family’s home for dinner, he arrives late and is surprised that his hosts have seemingly taken offense. “This is how we do it in Spain,” he explained with a smile. “Dinner times are approximate and we arrive when we can.” “That is not how we do it in Denmark,” replied his host, rather stiffly. According to conventionalism, who has the stronger ethical stance— Stefan or his host? • The host, because in Denmark, everyone is expected to arrive on time. • Stefan, because his casual nature is why the Danes like him. • Stefan, because by Spanish standards, he had arrived early. • The host, because society functions best when individuals are punctual. CONCEPT Applying Conventionalism 10 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? • Morality is objective, so there are universal ethical truths. • No two cultures have the same ethical framework. • Some cultures are descended from common ancestors. • Even if two cultures disagree, there can still be a right answer. CONCEPT Problems with Conventionalism 11 The idea that people ought to act only in their own self interest is part of what kind of egoism? • Ethical egoism • Psychological egoism • Philosophical egoism • Logical egoism CONCEPT Egoism 12 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? • Divine command theory is just another name for religion. • Divine command theory states that the intention justifies the action. • Divine command theory states that if God says nothing about an action, that action is forbidden. • Divine command theory states that God's commands are universal ethical truths. CONCEPT Divine Command Theory 13 Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? • Karin is looking for an ethical framework that has a basis outside of humanity. • Kelly is looking for an ethical framework that respects diverse traditions. • Kayden is looking for an ethical framework that says, "Right is right, even if nobody is right." • Keith is looking for an ethical framework that focuses on his own character. CONCEPT Support for Conventionalism 14 Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist? • "Cultures don't differ much in what they call good." • "There are no moral truths that apply universally." • "Some things are always wrong no matter the culture." • "Some cultures are closer to the objective truth than others." CONCEPT Conventionalism 15 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? • God forbade eating pork in the Torah, but in the book of Acts, he got rid of that prohibition. • God commands that certain crimes be punished by death, but many people oppose capital punishment. • God forbids lying, but I lie in pretty much every other sentence I say. • God commands that we forgive everyone, so I told my brother that I still love him after he broke my car window. [Show More]
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