ETHICS FINAL SOPHIA MILESTONE You passed this Milestone 1 Mai has moved to the United States from Myanmar. She does not know how to drive and is frightened by the freeways and traffic congestion. H... er husband insists that she learn to drive because they live in a suburb with no public transportation. “No,” says Mai firmly. “I am 38 years old and I have always been able to reach my destination without driving a car.” According to conventionalism, who has the stronger ethical stance— Mai or her husband? • Mai, because she does not want to learn to drive. • Her husband, because driving is a societal norm in the United States. • Her husband, because he cannot transport Mai everywhere she needs to go. • Mai, because driving is not valued in her society like it is in the United States. CONCEPT Applying Conventionalism 2 Henry vandalizes a local school on a friendly dare. How would a utilitarian classify this action? • Supererogatory • Neutral • Impermissible • Obligatory CONCEPT Commitments of Utilitarianism 3 Jimmy is a nurse who cares for the aging Mr. Buckner in New York City. Mr. Buckner is a very wealthy man who has saved a lot of money over the years. One day, Mr. Buckner takes Jimmy aside and tells him that he has decided what to do with his money after he dies. Mr. Buckner tells Jimmy that he wants Jimmy to give all of the money to the New York Knicks basketball team. He makes Jimmy promise three times that he will do this. Jimmy thinks Mr. Buckner has gone crazy, but Mr. Buckner dies before they can discuss it further. Which action is supported by utilitarianism but intuitively seems unethical? • Jimmy breaks his promise to Mr. Buckner and instead donates the money to a basketball league that helps inner city youth. • Jimmy breaks his promise to Mr. Buckner and uses the money to pay for an operation his mother needs. • Jimmy decides to keep Mr. Buckner’s fortune for himself, as payment for all his work. • Jimmy does what he promised and gives Mr. Buckner’s fortune to the New York Knicks. CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Utilitarianism 4 Why is utilitarianism an objectivist or relativist theory? • Utilitarianism is objectivist because although people might act in different ways, they all have one goal: to maximize utility. • Utilitarianism is objectivist because all people should consider their own happiness first. • Utilitarianism is relative because the good is proportionate to the individual’s intention. • Utilitarianism is relative because what is best for the individual may differ from societal norms. CONCEPT Utilitarianism 5 Choose the true statement about virtue-based ethics. • According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, actions are judged against the greater good. • According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, people can be judged by the consequences of their actions. • According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, actions are less important than the agent's moral character. • According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, only the actor’s intent is considered when assigning moral value. CONCEPT Virtue-Based Ethics 6 Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? • Meriwether is looking for an ethical framework that values the world culture over local groups. • Martin is looking for an ethical framework that says, "You do you." • Malie is looking for an ethical framework that says, "Greed is good." • Mara is looking for an ethical framework that can account for changing cultural attitudes. CONCEPT Support for Conventionalism 7 Russ plays the bassoon. Most bassoon players can easily learn the saxophone. It's therefore likely that Russ could easily learn the saxophone. Which type of argument is this? • Weak inductive • Strong inductive • Valid deductive • Invalid deductive CONCEPT Evaluating the Structure of an Argument 8 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with utilitarianism? • Wendy is looking for an ethical framework that relies on the Torah for moral guidance. • Warren is looking for an ethical framework that never allows any kind of theft. • Walt is looking for an ethical framework that places a high value on his culture's traditions. • Walburga is looking for an ethical framework that is based in observable facts. CONCEPT Support for Utilitarianism 9 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? • Divine command theory states that good and evil are determined by the conventions of each particular religion. • Divine command theory is inherently relativist. • Divine command theory is central to all religious practice. • Divine command theory states that God's command is the only way to know right from wrong. CONCEPT Divine Command Theory 10 "In some places, certain animals are considered divine and have more rights than humans." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? • Conventionalism • Kantian deontology • Virtue-based ethics • Utilitarianism CONCEPT Case Study: Animal Rights 11 Which of the following considerations is relevant to a person whose elderly parents are sick but refuse to make an appointment at the doctor? • Who has treated their illnesses in the past? • Is it her place to make decisions for her parents? • Does she have medical expertise? • Which days of the week are appointments available? CONCEPT Actions and Events 12 Which of the following ethical theories defines actions as right or wrong in and of themselves? • Deontology • Conventionalism • Consequentialism • Virtue-based ethics CONCEPT Different Considerations for Evaluating Actions 13 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? • Just because there is an objective truth doesn't mean everyone automatically knows it. • Some cultures subscribe to ethical frameworks like divine command theory rather than conventionalism. • If there were no universal ethical truths, it wouldn't be possible for cultures to have moral values at all. • No culture has ever willingly assimilated to another culture's beliefs and norms. CONCEPT Problems with Conventionalism 14 Karl receives a call from the local police, who are concerned that his son may be growing and distributing an illegal (but not dangerous) drug. Karl knows this suspicion to be true. If he admits it to the police, his son will be arrested, and their family’s name will be tarnished. If he lies, the police will assume the tip they got was false and go away. Most people are split on this issue. How might it be evaluated by a utilitarian? • Karl’s lying is morally right because he has an obligation to protect his son, even if his son’s actions cause harm to others. • Karl’s lying is morally right because keeping his son out of trouble and his family’s reputation clear will bring about more happiness than if his son is arrested. • Karl’s lying is morally wrong because it is sinful to lie, even when the consequences are less than desirable. • Karl’s lying is morally wrong because his obligation to the state is more important than his son staying out of trouble, even though it would bring about no benefit for the state. CONCEPT Applying Utilitarianism 15 According to egoism, what might an egoist consider when faced with the issue of world hunger? • We are obligated to do a better job distributing food. • Individuals are obligated to feed themselves. • We all have an obligation to ensure all people have access to food. • Governments of poor nations are obligated to feed their citizens. CONCEPT Applying Egoism 16 How might a Kantian deontologist evaluate cheating on an assignment? • It is morally right because it can prevent you from failing a class, losing the tuition, and getting in trouble with your parents. • It is morally right because it doesn't violate your freedom or ability to reason. • It is morally wrong because lying to the teacher deprives her of information she needs. • It is morally wrong because it violates the humanity of the person you cheated off of. CONCEPT Applying Kantian Deontology 17 Many people confuse topics of religion, social etiquette, and law with ethical topics. Select the example related to social etiquette. • Tara installs a wheelchair ramp at her business to meet government regulations. • Anthony follows the flow of traffic, even if he is exceeding the speed limit. • Marcy disapproves of working on Sundays because she was taught it was a day of rest. • Nathan talks loudly on his cell phone while standing in line at the store. CONCEPT Ethical and Non-Ethical Topics 18 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? • God says to love him above all else, a fact of which my mother often reminds me. • God commands people to be generous, so I give 10% of my paycheck to an organization that helps at-risk youth in my community. • God forbids wearing mixed fibers, but most people aren't concerned with what their clothes are made of. • God says to support the poor, so there are a lot of religious charities. CONCEPT Applying Divine Command Theory 19 Francis believes that every person should have ambition. Which of the following actions is inconsistent with his belief? • Francis commits to learning a new skill every year. • Francis dresses for the job he wants rather than the one he has. • Francis is content to keep his dead-end job. • Francis starts a new company with two friends. CONCEPT Establishing a Consistent Value System 20 Which of the following is an argument? • Everyone should try learning an instrument at some point. • If I don't go out tonight, I won't be crabby tomorrow. • My coworkers are all eating lunch. I'm not eating lunch, though. • There's not a cloud in the sky today, so you should wear sunscreen if you go outside. CONCEPT Introduction to Arguments 21 Which of the following actions represents the step, "Identify positions on the question"? • A medical student asks a professor whether a certain drug is effective against the flu. • An undergraduate argues that funding for school-sponsored clubs should be based on the number of active members. • A graduate student spends several hours in the library reading books on a particular ethical issue. • A law student weighs arguments on the interpretation of a particular law against decisions from the Supreme Court. CONCEPT The Philosophical Approach to Inquiry 22 Which action demonstrates a shortcoming of virtue-based ethics? • Participating in an anti-war protest due to personal convictions about the morality of war • Donating to a charity out of a sense of superiority and ego • Refusing to engage in gossip out of a sense of respect for others’ privacy • Lying so that a coworker will lose his job CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Virtue-Based Ethics 23 Select the statement that reveals upbringing as a source of bias in ethical evaluation. • I call myself a conservative, but I vote for liberal candidates when their policies benefit me financially. • I never talk back to the teacher because, as a child, my parents taught me to respect educators. • I scold a student for allowing his parents to help with an assignment, but I help my own child when I believe the work is too hard for her. • I ride the packed subway in New York City all the time, but it seems rude to me when I see people in Japan crowd onto full trains. CONCEPT Sources of Bias in Ethical Decisions 24 Which of the following is a philosophical question? • Will you continue with your college education? • How many people are religious? • What is the best system of morality? • What time does the movie start on Friday? CONCEPT Philosophical and Non-Philosophical Inquiry 25 Which of the following is a deductive argument? • Traffic is very heavy today. When traffic is heavy, I take the bus to work. I will take the bus to work today. • Helen was seen exiting the alley after a robbery had taken place. It follows that Helen committed the robbery. • It has snowed on my birthday every year since I was born. Therefore, it will snow on my birthday this year. • Every time I’ve visited the farmer’s market, I’ve found heirloom tomatoes. So, this week when I go to the farmer’s market, I will find heirloom tomatoes. [Show More]
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