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ATI Pharmacology Final Review

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ATI Pharmacology Final Review Antihypertensives - These drugs affect both the blood pressure and the rhythm of the heart. Monitor patient blood pressure. *Orthostatic hypotension is a common side e... ffect*. 1) Betablockers 2) Alpha 1 Blockers 3) Calcium Channel blockers 4) ACE Inhibitors 5) ARB Inhibitors 6) Diuretics Betablockers - Usually end in *-olol*. Propranolol (Inderal) Atenolol (Tenormin) Metoprolol (Lopressor) What additional effects of betablockers should the nurse monitor? - The nurse should monitor for broncho constriction and bronchospasms due to beta-2 adrenergic blocking mechanisms. In what population should betablockers be used cautiously in? - Betablockers should be used cautiously in patients who suffer from asthma. Beta blockers can mask tachycardia in patients suffering from *hypovolemia* and hypoglycemic symptoms seen in diabetic patients. What affects do betablockers cause? - Therapeutic effects include decreasing blood pressure and heart rate. Alpha 1 blocker - Clonidine (Catapres)What affects do alpha 1 blockers cause? - They cause systemic vasodilation by directly acting on smooth muscle of arteries. What adverse effects can alpha 1 blockers cause? - Hypotension, dizziness, sedation. In what form are alpha 1 blockers usually administered? - Alpha 1 blockers are generally administered as a patch and are changed once a week. Calcium Channel Blockers - Verapamil (Calan) Dilitiazem (Cardizem) Amlodipine (Norvasc) Nifedipine (Procardia) How do calcium channel blockers work? - They block the influx of calcium into myocardium resulting in a decrease in contractility. It helps keep vasculature relaxed and decreases SA and AV node conduction. What is a common adverse effect caused by verapamil (Calan)? - A common adverse effect is *constipation*. What should the nurse monitor in a patient receiving calcium channel blockers? - The nurse should monitor for edema and hypotension. ACE Inhibitors - Usually end in *-pril*. Enalapril (Vasotec) Lisinopril (Zestril) Captopril (Capoten) How do ACE-Is work?- They block angiotensin converting enzymes in the renin-angiotensin loop resulting in decreased blood pressure which decreases workload on the heart. What are adverse effects of ACE Inhibitors? - Adverse effects include hypotension, *dry cough*, and *angioedema*. What should the nurse monitor for in patients receiving ACE Inhibitors? - The nurse should monitor the patient's renal function. [Show More]

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