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ATLS Pretest questions and answers graded A+

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A 22-year-old man is hypotensive and tachycardic after a shotgun wound to the left shoulder. His blood pressure is initially 80/40 mm Hg. After initial fluid resuscitation his blood pressure increases... to 122/84 mm Hg. His heart rate is now 100 beats per minute and his respiratory rate is 28 breaths per minute. A tube thoracostomy is performed for decreased left chest breath sounds with the return of a small amount of blood and no air leak. After chest tube insertion, the most appropriate next step is: - re-examine the chest A construction worker falls two stories from a building and sustains bilateral calcaneal fractures. In the emergency department, he is alert, vital signs are normal, and he is complaining of severe pain in both heels and his lower back. Lower extremity pulses are strong and there is no other deformity. The suspected diagnosis is most likely to be confirmed by: - complete spine x-ray series Which of the following is true regarding the initial resuscitation of a trauma patient? - Evidence of improved perfusion after fluid resuscitation could include improvement in Glasgow Coma Scale score on reevaluation. In managing a patient with a severe traumatic brain injury, the most important initial step is to: - secure the airway A previously healthy, 70-kg (154-pound) man suffers an estimated acute blood loss of 2 liters. Which one of the following statements applies to this patient? - An ABG would demonstrate a base deficit between -6 and -10 mEq/L. The physiological hypervolemia of pregnancy has clinical significance in the management of the severely injured, gravid woman by: - increasing the volume of blood loss to produce maternal hypotension The best assessment of fluid resuscitation of the adult burn patient is: - urinary output of 0.5 mL/kg/hr The diagnosis of shock must include: - evidence of inadequate organ perfusion A 7-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department by his parents several minutes after he fell through a window. He is bleeding profusely from a 6-cm wound of his medial right thigh. Immediate management of the wound should consist of: - direct pressure on the wound For the patient with severe traumatic brain injury, profound hypocarbia should be avoided to prevent: - cerebral vasoconstriction with diminished perfusion After being involved in a motor vehicle crash, a 25-year-old man is brought to a hospital that has surgery capabilities available.. Computed tomography of the chest and abdomen shows an aortic injury and splenic laceration with free abdominal fluid. His blood pressure falls to 70 mm Hg after CT. The next step is: - perform an exploratory laparotomy Which one of the following statements regarding abdominal trauma in the pregnant patient is TRUE? - Leakage of amniotic fluid is an indication for hospital admission. The first maneuver to improve oxygenation after chest injury is: - administer supplemental oxygen A 25-year-old man, injured in a motor vehicular crash, is admitted to the emergency department. His pupils react sluggishly and his eyes open to pressure. He does not follow commands, but he does moan periodically. His right arm is deformed and does not respond to pressure; however, his left hand reaches purposefully toward the stimulus. Both legs are stiffly extended. His GCS score is: - 9 A 20-year-old woman who is at 32 weeks gestation, is stabbed in the upper right chest. In the emergency department, her blood pressure is 80/60 mm Hg. She is gasping for breath, extremely anxious, and yelling for help. Breath sounds are diminished in the right chest. The most appropriate first step is to: - perform needle or finger decompression of the right chest Which one of the following findings in an adult is most likely to require immediate management during the primary survey? - respiratory rate of 40 breaths per minute The most important, immediate step in the management of an open pneumothorax is: - placement of an occlusive dressing over the wound The following are contraindications for tetanus toxoid administration: - history of neurological reaction or severe hypersensitivity to the product A 56-year-old man is thrown violently against the steering wheel of his truck during a motor vehicle crash. On arrival in the emergency department he is diaphoretic and complaining of chest pain. His blood pressure is 60/40 mm Hg and his respiratory rate is 40 breaths per minute. Which of the following best differentiates cardiac tamponade from tension pneumothorax as the cause of his hypotension? - breath sounds Bronchial intubation of the right or left mainstem bronchus can easily occur during infant endotracheal intubation because: - The trachea is relatively short. A 23-year-old man sustains 4 stab wounds to the upper right chest during an altercation and is brought by ambulance to a hospital that has full surgical capabilities. His wounds are all above the nipple. He is endotracheally intubated, closed tube thoracostomy is performed, fluid resuscitation is initiated through 2 large-caliber IVs. FAST exam does not reveal intraabdominal injuries. His blood pressure now is 60/0 mm Hg, heart rate is 160 beats per minute, and respiratory rate is 14 breaths per minute (ventilated with 100% O2). 1500 mL of blood has drained from the right chest. The most appropriate next step in managing this patient is to: - urgently transfer the patient to the operating room A 39-year-old man is admitted to the emergency department after an automobile collision. He is cyanotic, has insufficient respiratory effort, and has a GCS score of 6. His full beard makes it difficult to fit the oxygen facemask to his face. The most appropriate next step is to: - restrict cervical motion and attempt orotracheal intubation using 2 people A patient is brought to the emergency department after a motor vehicle crash. He is conscious and there is no obvious external trauma. He arrives at the hospital completely immobilized on a long spine board. His blood pressure is 60/40 mm Hg and his heart rate is 70 beats per minute. His skin is warm. Which one of the following statements is TRUE? - Flaccidity of the lower extremities and loss of deep tendon reflexes are expected. Which one of the following is the most effective method for initially treating frostbite? - moist heat A 32-year-old man's right leg is trapped beneath his overturned car for nearly 2 hours before he is extricated. On arrival in the emergency department, his right lower extremity is cool, mottled, insensate, and motionless. Despite normal vital signs, pulses cannot be palpated below the right femoral artery and the muscles of the lower extremity are firm and hard. During the management of this patient, which of the following is most likely to improve the chances for limb salvage? - surgical consultation for right lower extremity fasciotomy A patient arrives in the emergency department after being beaten about the head and face with a wooden club. He is comatose and has a palpable depressed skull fracture. His face is swollen and ecchymotic. He has gurgling respirations and vomitus on his face and clothing. The most appropriate step after providing supplemental oxygen and elevating his jaw is to: - suction the oropharynx A 22-year-old man sustains a gunshot wound to the left chest and is transported to a small community hospital no surgical capabilities are available. In the emergency department, a chest tube is inserted and 700 mL of blood is evacuated. The trauma center accepts the patient in transfer. Just before the patient is placed in the ambulance for transfer, his blood pressure decreases to 80/68 mm Hg and his heart rate increases to 136 beats per minute. The next step should be to: - repeat the primary survey and proceed with transfer A 64-year-old man involved in a high-speed car crash, is resuscitated initially in a small hospital without surgical capabilities. He has a closed head injury with a GCS score of 13. He has a widened mediastinum on chest x-ray with fractures of left ribs 2 through 4, but no pneumothorax. After initiating fluid resuscitation, his blood pressure is 110/74 mm Hg, heart rate is 100 beats per minute, and respiratory rate is 18 breaths per minute. He has gross hematuria and a pelvic fracture. You decide to transfer this patient to a facility capable of providing a higher level of care. The facility is 128 km (80 miles) away. Before transfer, you should first: - call the receiving hospital and speak to the surgeon on call Hemorrhage of 20% of the patient's blood volume is associated usually with: - tachycardia Which one of the following statements concerning intraosseous infusion is TRUE? - Aspiration of bone marrow confirms appropriate positioning of the needle. A young woman sustains a severe head injury as the result of a motor vehicle crash. In the emergency department, her GCS is 6. Her blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg and her heart rate is 80 beats per minute. She is intubated and mechanically ventilated. Her pupils are 3 mm in size and equally reactive to light. There is no other apparent injury. The most important principle to follow in the early management of her head injury is to: - avoid hypotension A 33-year-old woman is involved in a head-on motor vehicle crash. It took 30 minutes to extricate her from the car. Upon arrival in the emergency department, her heart rate is 120 beats per minute, BP is 90/70 mm Hg, respiratory rate is 16 breaths per minute, and her GCS score is 15. Examination reveals bilaterally equal breath sounds, anterior chest wall ecchymosis, and distended neck veins. Her abdom [Show More]

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