*NURSING > EXAM > Patho Exam 3 (Chapters 10, 12, 13 TEST BANK) Questions and Answers Graded A+ (All)

Patho Exam 3 (Chapters 10, 12, 13 TEST BANK) Questions and Answers Graded A+

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What happens in the lungs when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax? a. Air is forced out of the lungs. b. Lung volume increases. c. Intrapulmonic pressure decreases. d. Intraple... ural pressure decreases. - ANSWER a The respiratory mucosa is continuous through the: 1. upper and lower respiratory tracts. 2. nasal cavities and the sinuses. 3. nasopharynx and oropharynx. 4. middle ear cavity and auditory tube. a. 1 only b. 1, 2 c. 2, 3 d. 1, 3, 4 e. 1, 2, 3, 4 - ANSWER e Which of the following activities does NOT require muscle contractions and energy? a. Quiet inspiration b. Forced inspiration c. Quiet expiration d. Forced expiration - ANSWER c The maximum volume of air a person can exhale after a maximum inspiration is termed the: a. expiratory reserve volume. b. inspiratory reserve volume. c. total lung capacity. d. vital capacity. - ANSWER d Which of the following applies to the blood in the pulmonary artery? a. PCO2 is low. b. PO2 is low. c. Hydrostatic pressure is very high. d. It is flowing into the left atrium. - ANSWER b Which of the following causes bronchodilation? a. Epinephrine b. Histamine c. Parasympathetic nervous system d. Drugs that block 2-adrenergic receptors - ANSWER a The central chemoreceptors in the medulla are normally most sensitive to: a. low oxygen level. b. low concentration of hydrogen ions. c. elevated oxygen level. d. elevated carbon dioxide level. - ANSWER d Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood because: a. PO2 is higher in the blood. b. PO2 is lower in the blood. c. CO2 is diffusing out of the blood. d. more CO2 is diffusing out of cells into the blood. - ANSWER b Carbon dioxide is primarily transported in the blood: a. as dissolved gas. b. attached to the iron molecule in hemoglobin. c. as bicarbonate ion. d. as carbonic acid. - ANSWER c What would hypercapnia cause? a. Increased serum pH b. Decreased respirations c. Respiratory acidosis d. Decreased carbonic acid in the blood - ANSWER c Which of the following would result from hyperventilation? a. Respiratory acidosis b. Respiratory alkalosis c. Metabolic alkalosis d. Metabolic acidosis - ANSWER b Which of the following values is always decreased with respiratory alkalosis (compensated or decompensated)? a. Serum bicarbonate b. PaCO2 c. Serum pH d. Urine pH - ANSWER b (Decompensation occurs when compensatory mechanisms cannot maintain a normal pH range.) What would be the most effective compensation for respiratory acidosis? a. The kidneys eliminating more bicarbonate ions b. The kidneys producing more bicarbonate ions c. The kidneys reabsorbing more hydrogen ions d. An increase in respiratory rate - ANSWER b What is the acid-base status of a patient with the following values for arterial blood gases? Serum bicarbonate 36.5 mmol/L (normal range: 22-28) PCO2 75 mm Hg (normal range: 35-45) Serum pH 7.0 a. Compensated metabolic acidosis b. Decompensated metabolic acidosis c. Compensated respiratory acidosis d. Decompensated respiratory acidosis - ANSWER d (Decompensation occurs when compensatory mechanisms cannot maintain a normal pH range.) (Compensatory Mechanisms: When a pathologic condition exists, the pH balance moves outside of the normal range and the lungs or kidneys compensate. Compensation is a short-term solution. The goal is to resolve the underlying cause of the imbalance.) What does carbaminohemoglobin refer to? a. Replacement of oxygen by carbon monoxide on hemoglobin molecules b. Full saturation of all heme molecules by oxygen c. Carbon dioxide attached to an amino group on the hemoglobin molecule d. Oxygen combined with iron in the hemoglobin molecule - ANSWER c Approximately what percentage of bound oxygen is released to the cells for metabolism during an erythrocyte's journey through the circulatory system? a. 80% b. 25% c. 10% d. 50% - ANSWER b The production of yellowish-green, cloudy, thick sputum is often an indication of: a. bacterial infection. b. cancer tumor. c. damage of lung tissue due to smoking. d. emphysema. - ANSWER a What does the term hemoptysis refer to? a. Thick, dark red sputum associated with pneumococcal infection b. Reddish-brown granular blood found in vomitus c. Bright red streaks of blood in frothy sputum d. Bloody exudate in the pleural cavity - ANSWER c Orthopnea is: a. very deep, rapid respirations. b. difficulty breathing when lying down. c. waking up suddenly, coughing, and struggling for breath. d. noisy breathing with stridor or rhonchi. - ANSWER b Light bubbly or crackling breathing sounds associated with serous secretions are called: a. rhonchi. b. stridor. c. rales. d. wheezing. - ANSWER c Choose the correct information applying to laryngotracheobronchitis: a. Viral infection in infant under 12 months b. Viral infection in child, 3 months to 3 years c. Bacterial infection in infant under 6 months d. Bacterial infection in child, 3 to 7 years - ANSWER b Signs and symptoms of acute sinusitis usually include: a. serous nasal discharge and chronic cough. b. copious frothy sputum and dyspnea. c. severe localized pain in the facial bone and tenderness in the face. d. fetid breath and sore throat. - ANSWER c What are early signs and symptoms of infectious rhinitis? a. Purulent nasal discharge and periorbital pain b. Serous nasal discharge, congestion, and sneezing c. Copious purulent sputum, particularly in the morning d. Harsh barking cough and wheezing - ANSWER b Why does the influenza virus cause recurrent infection in individuals? a. Elderly patients are predisposed to secondary infections. b. The virus is transmitted by numerous routes. c. The virus is very difficult to destroy. d. Viral mutation reduces immunity from prior infections. - ANSWER d What are typical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis? a. Hyperinflation of the chest and stridor b. Hoarse voice and barking cough c. Sudden fever, sore throat, and drooling saliva d. Sneezing, mild cough, and fever - ANSWER c What is the most common cause of viral pneumonia? a. Rhinovirus b. Influenza virus c. Haemophilus influenzae d. Pneumococcus - ANSWER b Which of the following describes lobar pneumonia? a. Sudden onset of fever and chills, with rales and rusty sputum b. Insidious onset, diffuse interstitial infection c. Viral infection causing nonproductive cough and pleuritic pain d. Opportunistic bacteria causing low-grade fever with cough and thick greenish sputum - ANSWER a How does severe hypoxia develop with pneumonia? a. Acidosis depresses respirations. b. Oxygen diffusion is impaired by the congestion. c. Inflammatory exudate absorbs oxygen from the alveolar air. d. Infection reduces effective compensation by the heart. - ANSWER b Rust-colored sputum in a patient with pneumonia usually indicates: a. secondary hemorrhage in the lungs. b. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the infecting agent. c. prolonged stasis of mucous secretions in the airways. d. persistent coughing has damaged the mucosa in the bronchi. - ANSWER b What is the cause of Legionnaires' disease? a. Mycoplasma b. A fungus c. A gram-negative bacterium d. Pneumococcus - ANSWER c Select the statement related to tuberculosis: a. The microbe is present in the sputum of all patients with a positive TB skin test. b. The infection is transmitted primarily by blood from an infected person. c. TB is usually caused by an acid-fast bacillus, resistant to many disinfectants. d. The microbe is quickly destroyed by the immune response. - ANSWER c How is primary tuberculosis identified? a. Cavitation in the lungs and spread of the microbe to other organs b. Persistent productive cough, low-grade fever, and fatigue c. Caseation necrosis and formation of a tubercle in the lungs d. Multiple granulomas in the lungs and rapid spread of the microbe - ANSWER c When does active (secondary) infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis with tissue destruction occur? a. When host resistance is decreased b. When a hypersensitivity reaction is initiated c. When the BCG vaccine is not administered immediately following exposure to the microbe d. When Ghon complexes form in the lungs - ANSWER a Which of the following statements does NOT apply to M. tuberculosis? a. Microbes can survive for a long time inside tubercles. b. The bacilli can survive some adverse conditions such as drying and heat. c. Infection is limited to the lungs. d. The bacilli can be destroyed by antibacterial drugs. - ANSWER c Which of the following confirms the presence of active (reinfection) tuberculosis? a. A positive skin test for TB b. A calcified tubercle shown on a chest X-ray c. Identification of acid-fast bacilli in a sputum sample d. A history of exposure to individuals being treated for TB - ANSWER c Areas in the United States that show higher rates than the national rate of TB are areas that have a high incidence of: a. HIV and homelessness. b. obesity and tobacco use. c. elderly persons and radon. d. steroid use and alcoholism. - ANSWER a Histoplasmosis is caused by a: a. fungus. b. virus. c. bacillus. d. protozoa. - ANSWER a Cystic fibrosis is transmitted as a/an: a. X-linked recessive gene. b. autosomal recessive gene. c. autosomal dominant gene. d. chromosomal defect. - ANSWER b The basic pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis is centered on a/an: a. defect of the exocrine glands. b. impaired function of the endocrine glands. c. chronic inflammatory condition of the lungs. d. abnormal immune response in the lungs and other organs. - ANSWER a Growth and development of a child with cystic fibrosis may be delayed because of: a. deficit of gastric enzymes for protein digestion. b. mucus plugs obstructing the flow of pancreatic enzymes. c. lack of available treatment for steatorrhea. d. abnormal salivary secretions. - ANSWER b Persistent thick mucus in the bronchioles of a child with cystic fibrosis may cause: 1. air trapping. 2. atelectasis. 3. repeated infections. 4. irreversible damage to lung tissue. a. 1, 2 b. 2, 4 c. 1, 3, 4 d. 1, 2, 3, 4 - ANSWER d What is a common indicator of cystic fibrosis in the newborn? a. Infant respiratory distress syndrome b. Failure to excrete meconium c. Taste of ammonia on the skin d. Lack of bile secretions - ANSWER b What is an early sign of bronchogenic carcinoma? a. Air trapping and overinflation of the lung b. Weight loss c. Bone pain d. Chronic cough - ANSWER d Cigarette smoking predisposes to malignant neoplasms because smoking: a. can cause metaplasia and dysplasia in the epithelium. b. promotes malignant changes in all types of benign tumors in the lungs. c. causes paraneoplastic syndrome. d. increases exposure to carbon monoxide in the lungs. - ANSWER a Why does hypercalcemia occur with bronchogenic carcinoma? a. Invasion of the parathyroid gland by the tumor b. Secretion of parathyroid or parathyroid like hormones by the tumor c. Destruction of the ribs d. Failure of the kidney to excrete calcium ions - ANSWER b What is a sign indicating total obstruction of the airway by aspirated material? a. Hoarse cough b. Rapid loss of consciousness c. Dyspnea d. Inflammation of the mucosa - ANSWER b Which of the following predisposes to postoperative aspiration? a. Reduced pressure of the abdominal organs on the diaphragm b. Depression of the vomiting center by anesthetics and analgesics c. Vomiting caused by drugs or anesthesia d. Lack of food intake for the previous 24 hours - ANSWER c What is the pathophysiology of an acute attack of extrinsic asthma? a. Gradual degeneration and fibrosis b. Continuous severe attacks unresponsive to medication c. A hypersensitivity reaction involving release of chemical mediators d. Hyperresponsive mucosa - ANSWER c During an acute asthma attack, how does respiratory obstruction occur? 1. Relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle 2. Edema of the mucosa 3. Increased secretion of thick, tenacious mucus 4. Contraction of elastic fibers a. 1, 2 b. 1, 3 c. 2, 3 d. 2, 4 - ANSWER c What cause the expanded anteroposterior (A-P) thoracic diameter (barrel chest) in patients with emphysema? a. Air trapping and hyperinflation b. Persistent coughing to remove mucus c. Recurrent damage to lung tissues d. Dilated bronchi and increased mucous secretions - ANSWER a Which of the following is typical of progressive emphysema? a. Vital capacity increases. b. Residual lung volume increases. c. Forced expiratory volume increases. d. Tidal volume increases. - ANSWER b Destruction of alveolar walls and septae is a typical change in: a. chronic bronchitis. b. acute asthma. c. emphysema. d. asbestosis. - ANSWER c A group of common chronic respiratory disorders characterized by tissue degeneration and respiratory obstruction is called: a. mesothelioma. b. COPD. c. CF. d. MD. - ANSWER b Which statement does NOT apply to emphysema? a. The surface area available for gas exchange is greatly reduced. b. A genetic defect may lead to breakdown of elastic fibers. c. The ventilation/perfusion ratio remains constant. d. Expiration is impaired. - ANSWER c What is the cause of chronic bronchitis? a. Chronic irritation, inflammation, and recurrent infection of the larger airways b. A genetic defect causing excessive production of mucus c. Hypersensitivity to parasympathetic stimulation in the bronchi d. Deficit of enzymes, preventing tissue degeneration - ANSWER a Which of the following is typical of chronic bronchitis? a. Decreased activity of the mucous glands b. Fibrosis of the bronchial wall c. Overinflation of bronchioles and alveoli d. Formation of blebs or bullae on the lung surface - ANSWER b What are typical pathological changes with bronchiectasis? a. Bronchospasm and increased mucous secretion b. Adhesions and fibrosis in the pleural membranes c. Airway obstructions and weak, dilated bronchial walls d. Fixation of the ribs in the inspiratory position - ANSWER c Which of the following are significant signs of bronchiectasis? a. Persistent nonproductive cough, dyspnea, and fatigue b. Persistent purulent nasal discharge, fever, and cough c. Chronic cough, producing large quantities of purulent sputum d. Wheezing and stridor - ANSWER c Why does cor pulmonale develop with chronic pulmonary disease? a. The right ventricle pumps more blood than the left ventricle. b. Pulmonary fibrosis and vasoconstriction increase vascular resistance. c. Demands on the left ventricle are excessive. d. Blood viscosity is increased, adding to cardiac workload. - ANSWER b Restrictive lung disorders may be divided into two groups based on: [Show More]

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