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CEN RESPIRATORY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Which respiratory emergency presents with fever, cough, pleuritic chest pain, and crackles that do not clear with coughing? Asthma, pulmonary edema, chronic... bronchitis OR Pneumonia Correct answer- Pneumonia Pneumonia presents with fever, cough, pleuritic chest pain, and lung sounds (such as crackles) that do not usually clear with coughing.. Which respiratory emergency causes permanent abnormal enlargement of the air spaces? Asthma, pulmonary edema, emphysema, pulmonary embolus Correct answer- Emphysema Patients with emphysema have a permanent, abnormal enlargement of air spaces. Asthma, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary embolus do not result in permanent alveolar changes. A woman, age 53, presents to the emergency department with shortness of breath. Which other finding should make you suspect that pulmonary embolism is the cause? Tachypnea, productive cough, calf pain, pleuritic chest pain Correct answer- Calf pain for the past week Most pulmonary emboli originate in the deep veins of the legs, which could cause prolonged calf pain. Tachypnea, productive cough, and pleuritic chest pain are common, nonspecific signs and symptoms of many respiratory conditions. A man, age 72, presents to the emergency department with respiratory distress. He arrived with portable oxygen from home and is now sitting in a tripod position. Your assessment reveals a barrel chest. Which respiratory condition should you suspect? Pulmonary embolism, asthma, emphysema, acute bronchitis Correct answer- Emphysema Barrel chest, home oxygen therapy, and the use of the tripod position are classic presentations in a patient with emphysema. Pulmonary embolism, asthma, and acute bronchitis are not associated with these findings. Which statement best defines ventilation? Ventilation is the 1. mechanical flow of air into and out of the lungs. 2. mechanical perfusion of air into and out of the lungs 3. mechanical respiration of air into and out of the lungs 4. mechanical diffusion of air into and out of the lungs Correct answer- Ventilation is the mechanical flow of air into and out of the lungs. Negative intrathoracic pressure causes a vacuum effect, pulling air into the lungs during inspiration. During expiration, the negative pressure decreases and air is passively expelled. Cilia (hairlike structures in the passageways) help move air toward the alveoli and move mucus and debris out of the pulmonary system. Mucus-secreting goblet cells help maintain the sterility of the lower airway. Surfactant allows the alveoli to remain open. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged at the cellular level in the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries. define perfusion Correct answer- the transport of blood to the tissues define respirations Correct answer- the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level. define diffusion Correct answer- Diffusion occurs when particles in fluid move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Which respiratory emergency causes increased fluid in the lungs? emphysema, pulmonary embolus, penumonia, pulmonary edema Correct answer- Pulmonary edema Pulmonary edema causes increased fluid in the lungs. Emphysema, pulmonary embolus, and pneumonia typically are not related to fluid overload. For a patient who presents with a severe exacerbation of asthma, administration of which agent is the priority? Prednisone (Deltasone) albuterol Magnesium sulfate Theophylline (Theolair) Correct answer- Albuterol (Ventolin) The bronchodilator albuterol (Ventolin) is used to relieve airflow obstruction, as in a severe exacerbation of asthma. Prednisone (Deltasone) or intravenous steroids are commonly administered to decrease airway inflammation. Magnesium sulfate may be administered to a patient with moderate to severe exacerbations who has not adequately responded to nebulized bronchodilators. Theophylline (Theolair) is a smooth muscle dilator. Its adverse effects and narrow therapeutic range have limited its use recently because newer, safer drugs have become available. NAME A bronchodilator that is used to relieve airflow obstruction, as in a severe exacerbation of asthma Correct answer- albuterol (Ventolin) name a steroid used to tx [Show More]

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