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Course Notes > University of LouisvilleBIO 240ch 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle Notes

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University of Louisville BIO 240 ch 13 meiosis and sexual life cycle notes Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles  Overview: Variations on a Theme o Living Organisms are distinguished by their ability... to reproduce their own kind. o Genetics is the scientific study of heredity and variation o Heredity is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next o Variation is demonstrated by the difference in appearance that offspring show from parents and siblings o In a literal case, children do not inherit particular physical traits from their parents o It is genes that are actually inherited  Inheritance of Genes o Genes are the units of heredity, and are made up of segments of DNA o Genes are passed to the next generation via reproductive cells called gametes (sperm and eggs) o Each gene has a specific location called a locus on a certain chromosome o Most DNA is packaged into chromosomes  Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles o A life cycle is the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism o A gamete contains a single set of chromosomes, and is haploid o For humans, the haploid number is 23 o Each set consists of 23 chromosomes with 22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome o In an unfertilized egg (ovum), the sex chromosome is X o In a sperm, the sex chromosome may be either X or Y  Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid o Like mitosis, meiosis is preceded by the replication of chromosomes o Meiosis takes place in two sets of cell divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II o The two cell divisions result in four daughter cells, rather than the two daughter cells in mitosis [Show More]

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