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Course Notes > University of LouisvilleBIO 240 Ch 7 Osmosis and Diffusion Notes

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University of Louisville BIO 240 ch 7 Osmosis and Diffusion Notes KEY TERMS  Selective Permeability - some substances cross biological membranes easier than others  Amphipathic - has both ... hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions  Fluid Mosaic Model - fluid structure with an array of proteins in and attached to the phospholipid bilayer  Integral Proteins - Proteins that penetrate the interior of the bilayer o Transmembrane Proteins - Integral proteins that penetrate the bilayer through both sides  Peripheral Proteins - Proteins attached to the surface of the membrane  Glycolipids - membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to lipids  Glycoproteins - membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to proteins  Transport Proteins - "scapegoats" o Channel proteins (hydrophilic channels used as tunnels through the membrane) and carrier proteins (hold onto passengers and change shape in a way that shuttles them across the membrane)  Aquaporins- specific transport protein used to transport water molecules; channel proteins  Diffusion - movement of molecules to spread out evenly in the available space  Concentration Gradient - a substance diffuses from most concentration to least concentration, so in other words, down it's "concentration gradient."  Passive Transport - diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane  Osmosis - diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane  Tonicity - the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water  Isotonic - no net movement of water across the membrane; flaccid  Hypertonic - the cell loses water, shrivels; plasmolyzed  Hypotonic - the cell gains water, swells; turgid  Osmoregulation - control of solute concentrations and water balance  Turgid - very firm cell because of a hypotonic solution; opposes further water intake; healthy form for plant cells  Flaccid - cells that have no tendency for water to enter, limp from isotonic solutions  Plasmolysis - a cell that has lost all of it's water; related to hypertonic solutions; shriveled up  Facilitated Diffusion - passive transport aided by proteins  Ion Channels - channel proteins that transport ions  Gated Channels - channels that open and close in response to stimuli (change)  Active Transport - pumping a solute against its concentration gradient, therefore requiring some form of energy (all carrier proteins, no channel proteins)  Sodium-Potassium Pump - an active transport system that transfers a terminal phosphate group to the transport protein in order generate and utilize ATP as an energy source  Membrane Potential - the voltage across a membrane  Electrochemical Gradient - the combination of a chemical force and an electrical force that work together to execute diffusion; the act of this force acting upon an ion is called the "electrochemical gradient"  Electrogenic Pump - a transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane  Proton Pump - a pump that actively transports protons out of a cell  Cotransport - active transport driven by a concentration gradient [Show More]

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