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Course Notes > University of LouisvilleBIO 240ch 5 the structure and function of large molecules notes

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University of Louisville BIO 240 ch 5 the structure and function of large molecules notes The structure and function of large biological moleculesMacromolecules=> critically important large molecul... es of all living things.  Four main classes: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers Polymer=> a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds, a single building block is called a monomer.  Some monomers within polymers have functions of their own The synthesis and breakdown of polymers  The chemical mechanisms by which cells make and break down polymers are basically the same for different polymers Condensation reaction (dehydration reaction) => monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecules. Enzymes=> specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells. Hydrolysis=> a process by which polymers are disassembled and is basically the reverse of the dehydration reaction.  Hydrolysis means to break using water  Bonds between the monomers are broken by the addition of water molecules  Ex. digestion *Figure 5.2 The diversity of polymers  Molecules are constructed from only 40 to 50 common monomers and some others that occur rarely  Huge variety occurs due to arrangement 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material Carbohydrates=> sugars and polymers of sugars  Simplest carbs are monosaccharides, or simple sugars  Most common is glucose  Depending on the location of the carbonyl group, a sugar is either an aldose (end) or a keytose (middle). [Show More]

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