Health Care > EXAM > NUR2063 / NUR 2063: Essentials of Pathophysiology Final Exam Review Study Guide (Latest 2021 / 2022) (All)

NUR2063 / NUR 2063: Essentials of Pathophysiology Final Exam Review Study Guide (Latest 2021 / 2022) Rasmussen College

Document Content and Description Below

1 Respiratory system includes: Nose and nasal cavity, Pharynx, larynx, trachea, Bronchi and their smaller branches, Lungs and the air sacs called alveoli, Hypoxemia - deficient oxygen in bloo... dstream / Hypoxia - a decrease in tissue oxygenation Hypercapnia – excessive carbon dioxide levels in blood / Dyspnea – shortness of breath Tachypnea – rapid respirations, >20 breaths per minute 1. Review the difference between primary and secondary brain injury  Primary brain injury - occurs as a direct result of the initial insult Example – Stroke, concussion  Secondary injury - refers to progressive damage resulting from the body’s physiologic response to the initial insult Example – brain swelling secondary to stroke  Critical factor in determining the neuronal cell fate after injury - degree of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion 2. Review causes of intracranial pressure; how does it lead to impaired neurological function? Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)  Volume of cranium composed of three elements: o Brain tissue o Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) o Blood  Normal ICP 0 to 15 mm Hg  Increased ICP can occur with space-occupying lesions, edema, or with obstruction or excessive Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)  Leads to impaired neurological functions due to:  Compression of brain tissue  Inability of the cranium to expand in adults – bones of skull fused in adulthood  Reduced blood flow to the brain from increased pressure  production of CSF 3. What are signs of increased ICP?  Clinical manifestations o Headache, vomiting, and altered level of consciousness (drowsiness) o Blurry vision o Pupil responsiveness to light becomes impaired 1 / 4 2 o Altered respiratory patterns and unresponsive to stimulation o Patient may become unable to move, verbalize, or open the eyes 4. Review the Glasgow coma scale, what is it used to assess? Standardized tool for assessing LOC in acutely brain-injured persons Numeric scores given to arousal-directed responses of eye opening, verbal utterances, and motor reactions Mild (>12), moderate (9 to 12), to severe (<8) Motor response is the most powerful predictor of patient outcome Decorticate posturing, abnormal flexor Decerebrate posturing, abnormal extension Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leading cause of death and disability in United States  Most head injuries incurred in transportation-related accidents, falls, firearms, and sports accidents  Severity of TBI is classified by the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) as:  Mild - GCS score 13 to 15  Moderate - GCS score 9 to 12  Severe - GCS score 8 or below  Primary injury  Usually caused by a sudden and violent blow or jolt to the head (closed injury) or a penetrating (open injury) head wound that disrupts the normal brain function  The injury can bruise the brain, damage nerve fibers, and cause hemorrhaging  Secondary Injury  Body’s response to initial injury may cause more harm than the initial injury 2 / 4 3  Can cause ischemia, hypoxic events, vasogenic/neurogenic edema, and other processes that lead to brain swelling and increased ICP  Ruptured vessels may rebleed or spasm, and CSF drainage can become clogged 5. Review the different types of stroke: ischemic versus hemorrhagic. How is a stroke diagnosed?  Ischemia and Hypoxia  Ischemia = decreased blood flow o Ischemia results in immediate neurologic dysfunction because of inability of neurons to generate ATP needed for energy-requiring processes  Hypoxia = decreased oxygen at cellular level  Usually ischemia and hypoxia occur together **** o Stroke is a sudden onset of neurologic dysfunction caused by cardiovascular disease that results in an area of brain infarction o Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) o Ischemic stroke o Hemorrhagic stroke Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the U.S. Most common form of stroke is ischemic Risk factors include:  Hypertension  DM  Hyperlipidemia  Smoking  Advancing age  Family history  Results from sudden blockage (occlusion) of cerebral artery secondary to thrombus formation or emboli  Thrombotic strokes associated with atherosclerosis and clotting disorders (coagulopathies)  Embolic strokes associated with cardiac dysfunction or dysrhythmias (atrial fibrillation) Clinical manifestations Ischemic stroke  Contralateral paralysis on one side of the body (hemiplegia)  Facial dropping, ptosis  Hemisensory loss  Contralateral visual field blindness  Difficulty with speech (aphasia) Hemorrhagic Stroke o Result of a bleed within the brain o Less common compared to ischemic stroke 3 / 4 4 o Usually occurs secondary to severe, chronic hypertension o Can also be the result of severe head trauma, an aneurysm, or an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) o Anticoagulant use puts an individual more at risk for hemorrhagic stroke HOW IS STROKE DIAGNOSED? Brain CT determines type and location o Cardiovascular stabilization o ICP monitoring and management o Ischemic stroke - treatment aimed at minimizing infarct size and preserving neurologic function o Thrombolytics, anticoagulant, antiplatelet, endarterectomy, angioplasty, stents o Hemorrhagic stroke - blood pressure management (keep patient mildly hypertensive at first) 6. Review the difference between meningitis versus encephalitis Meningitis - Inflammation of the meninges of the brain  Can be due to bacterial, viral or fungal infections  Most common causes: Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumoncoccus), Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus), Haemophilus influenzae  Bacteria usually reach the CNS via the bloodstream from sinuses or ears  Most cases of viral meningitis due to Enteroviruses  Other viruses include herpes virus, West Nile virus, mumps, HIV Classic presentations - headache, fever, stiff neck (nuchal rigidity), photophobia, “splotchy” purple rash, confusion, delirium Diagnosis - lumbar puncture Treatment - intravenous antibiotic therapy for bacterial, supportive measures for viral, corticosteroids Prevention - vaccinations for Hib and N. meningitidis [Show More]

Last updated: 1 year ago

Preview 1 out of 62 pages

Reviews( 0 )


Add to cart

Instant download

Can't find what you want? Try our AI powered Search



Document information

Connected school, study & course

About the document

Uploaded On

Aug 03, 2022

Number of pages


Written in



Member since 1 year

60 Documents Sold

Additional information

This document has been written for:


Aug 03, 2022





Document Keyword Tags

Recommended For You

What is Browsegrades

In Browsegrades, a student can earn by offering help to other student. Students can help other students with materials by upploading their notes and earn money.

We are here to help

We're available through e-mail, Twitter, Facebook, and live chat.
 Questions? Leave a message!

Follow us on

Copyright © Browsegrades · High quality services·