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Human Growth and Development Ch. 1 Question and Answers latest 2022

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What is the main problem with survey research? - ANSWER participants may give inaccurate responses Someone with an extremely rare condition, like lycanthropy, would most likely be studied using wha... t method? - ANSWER Some professors want to teach about the life-span approach in a Human Development course, whereas others want to keep the traditional developmental approach. They disagree about A. the plasticity of development. B. the multidimensional nature of development. C. whether development is lifelong. D. whether development is multidirectional. - ANSWER whether development is lifelong Baltes describes development as multidirectional. What does this mean? A. Development is not dominated by any single age period. B. Development consists of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions. C. Development is characterized by both growth and decline. D. Development needs psychologists, sociologists, biologists, and neuroscientists to work together in unlocking the mysteries of development. - ANSWER development is characterized by both growth and decline Kathy believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, social, and cognitive aspects. Kathy believes that development is A. lifelong. B. multidirectional. C. multidimensional. D. plastic. - ANSWER multidimensional ) Researchers increasingly study the development of adulthood. This implies that development is A. lifelong. B. multidisciplinary. C. multidirectional. D. contextual. - ANSWER lifelong Which of the following is NOT one of Paul Baltes' eight characteristics of the life-span perspective on development? A. lifelong and multidirectional B. multidimensional and plastic C. contextual D. unidirectional - ANSWER unidirectional Many older adults become wiser by calling on experiential knowledge, yet they perform poorly on cognitive speed tests. This is an example of how development is A. plastic. B. contextual. C. multidimensional. D. multidirectional. - ANSWER multidirectional The capacity for acquiring second and third languages decreases after early childhood, whereas experiential wisdom increases with age. This is an example of how development is A. lifelong. B. multidisciplinary. C. multidirectional. D. contextual. - ANSWER multidirectional Which of the following is an example of how development is contextual? A. Reasoning ability is biologically finite and cannot be improved through retraining. B. Parents in the United States are more likely to rear their children to be independent than parents in Japan. C. Older adults call on experience to guide their decision making. D. Intelligence may be studied by looking at genetics, anthropology, sociology, and other disciplines. - ANSWER Parents i the United States are more likely to rear their children to be independent than parents in Japan In the United States, most individuals begin school around age 5, whereas in Australia they start at 3. This is an illustration of how development is A. lifelong. B. multidisciplinary. C. multidirectional. D. contextual. - ANSWER contextual Normative age-graded influences, normative history-graded influences, and nonnormative life events are all ways in which development can be classified as A. multidirectional. B. multidimensional. C. contextual. D. plastic. - ANSWER contextual Anna attributes her thriftiness to having been raised during the Great Depression. This is an example of a A. nonnormative life event. B. normative history-graded influence. C. normative age-graded influence. D. nonnormative age-graded influence - ANSWER normative history-graded influence The fact that I use e-mail virtually every day and my mother has never sent or received an e-mail is an example of a difference in A. normative history-graded influences. B. nonnormative life events. C. normative age-graded influences. D. nonnormative age-graded influence - ANSWER normative history-graded influences Biological processes such as puberty and menopause are A. nonnormative life events. B. normative age-graded influences. C. normative history-graded influences. D. normative contextual influences. - ANSWER normative age-graded influences ) Neleh was on a popular reality TV show and got widespread exposure. This is an example of a A. nonnormative life event. B. normative age-graded influence. C. normative history-graded influence. D. normative contextual influence - ANSWER nonnormative life event Lauro is 83 years old. Much of his development will now focus on A. growth and maintenance. B. maintenance and regulation of loss. C. regulation of loss. D. growth and regulation of loss. - ANSWER maintenance and regulation of loss Contemporary concerns in life-span development perspective include A. health and well-being issues. B. parenting and education issues. C. sociocultural, ethnicity, gender, and policy issues. D. All of these answers are correct. - ANSWER all of these answers are correct ) Of special consideration for social policy intervention are children who grow up A. in poverty. B. in single-parent homes. C. addicted to heroin. D. as part of a minority group - ANSWER in poverty Children living in poverty are more likely to A. be separated from a parent. B. be exposed to violence. C. be exposed to family turmoil. D. be in all these situations. - ANSWER be in all of these situations The U.S. percentage of children living in poverty is A. only half as much as some other industrialized nations. B. more than twice as much as that in Canada. C. lowest among the industrial countries. D. not high enough to draw people's concerns. - ANSWER more than twice as much as that in Canada ) A primary concern in relation to social policy for older adults is the A. increasing numbers who live in poverty. B. increase in elder abuse. C. failure of the health care system to address their needs. D. need for funding public pensions. - ANSWER failure of the health care systems to address their needs At age 3, Jillian is beginning to engage her imagination. This is the _______ process of Jillian's life-span development. A. ecological B. biological C. socioemotional D. cognitive - ANSWER cognitive Diego feels a strong happiness that he never had before as he holds his newborn child. This signifies development in the _______ process. A. neurological B. biological C. socioemotional D. cognitive - ANSWER socioemotional Doctors measure and chart a baby's height, weight, and head growth at each medical checkup. What processes are being tracked? A. abstract B. biological C. socioemotional D. cognitive - ANSWER biological Which of the following statements BEST describes the relationship between biological, cognitive, and socioemotional development? A. These processes develop independently of one another. B. The development of these processes is intricately interwoven. C. Social development is independent of biological and cognitive development. D. Cognitive development sets the upper limits for biological and social development - ANSWER the development of these processes is intricately interwoven The developmental period during which a being grows from a single cell to an organism complete with brain and behavioral capabilities in 9 months is called A. prenatal. B. infancy. C. early childhood. D. middle childhood - ANSWER prenatal Children in preschool years become more self-sufficient and can care for themselves. What period of development are they in? A. prenatal B. infancy C. early childhood D. middle/late childhood - ANSWER early childhood Alec is almost completely dependent on his parents and is beginning to develop his language and sensorimotor coordination. What period of development is he most likely in? A. prenatal B. infancy C. early childhood D. middle/late childhood - ANSWER infancy The period of early childhood ends when the child A. is toilet trained. B. learns to dress herself. C. starts first grade. D. has mastered reading, writing, and arithmetic - ANSWER starts first grade Jen has mastered the fundamental skills of how to read and write. What period of development is she most likely in? A. middle childhood B. late childhood C. adolescence D. primary years - ANSWER middle childhood Most traditional college students are considered to be in what developmental period? A. late childhood B. emerging adulthood C. early adulthood D. middle adulthood - ANSWER emerging adulthood Paulo is struggling to juggle school, work, and relationships while he is beginning to become more independent and responsible. What period of development is he most likely in? A. late childhood B. adolescence C. early adulthood D. middle adulthood - ANSWER early adulthood Len feels greatly contented in his career. He has more time to spend with his family, contribute to community activities, and mentor young people. What period of development is he most likely in? A. late adulthood B. middle adulthood C. early adulthood D. stability and regulation - ANSWER middle adulthood Margaret spends a lot of time thinking about the choices she has made in her life and the events she has witnessed. However, she needs to pay more attention to her health condition. Margaret is most likely in A. late adolescence. B. early adulthood. C. middle adulthood. D. late adulthood. - ANSWER late adulthood At what age do most people claim to be happiest in the U.S.? A. 19 years B. 25 years C. 42 years D. 88 years - ANSWER 88 years At what age do people enter the "oldest old" age group? A. 50 years B. 65 years C. 75 years D. 85 years - ANSWER 85 ) What developmental period is marked by sizeable losses in cognitive potential, chronic stress, and frailty? A. oldest old B. young old C. late adulthood D. middle adulthood - ANSWER oldest old Each fall, the choir teacher faces the task of retraining the deepening voices of some of his male students. What period of development are these students most likely in? A. middle childhood B. adolescence C. young adulthood D. late childhood - ANSWER adolescence Leo is 65 years old. He is coping well with his change of lifestyle and is highly motivated to learn new things. Leo is young in his __________ age. A. social B. biological C. chronological D. psychological - ANSWER psychological Which of the following is NOT a commonly conceptualized way of viewing age? A. biological age B. cognitive age C. social age D. psychological age - ANSWER cognitive Becoming a grandmother is an example of _____ age. A. biological B. cognitive C. social D. psychological - ANSWER social Mrs. B is a 66-year-old. She dreads retirement, saying that she has no hobbies and no ideas about how she will structure her new abundance of time. She is experiencing difficulty with her _____ age. A. biological B. social C. chronological D. psychological - ANSWER psychological The functional capacities of a person's vital organ system indicate _____ age. A. chronological B. biological C. psychological D. social - ANSWER biological ) Jerry is 60 years old and is training for his first marathon. He has strong muscles and is in perfect health. Jerry is relatively young in his _____ age. A. chronological B. biological C. psychological D. social - ANSWER biological A person's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age are called _____ age. A. psychological B. social C. biological D. coping - ANSWER psychological Brent has a son diagnosed with ADHD and believes that this is primarily due to genetics, given that his father had ADHD as well. Brent most likely believes that ADHD is primarily influenced by A. nature. B. nurture. C. stability. D. continuity. - ANSWER nature In the nature/nurture debate, one's _____ is related to "nature," while one's _____ is related to "nurture." A. biological inheritance; environment B. age; environment C. biological inheritance; behavior D. environment; biological inheritance - ANSWER biological inheritance; environment During her intake interview, Jody's psychiatrist asks for a familial history of mental disorders, as well as for details about her childhood friends, neighborhood, and schools. The psychiatrist is gathering information related to the influence of _____ on development. A. biology and environment B. biology C. environment D. cognitive acuity and coping skills - ANSWER biology and environment Although Angie was somewhat irresponsible as a teen, she changed her ways when she entered college and leased her first apartment. This example relates to the developmental issue of A. stability and nature. B. stability and change. C. continuity and discontinuity. D. nature and nurture. - ANSWER stability and change In the final analysis, most developmentalists tend to believe that A. development is more continuous than discontinuous. B. for the most part, people can't change. C. nature is more important than nurture. D. development is influenced by nature and nurture, and is characterized by continuity and discontinuity, and also by stability and change. - ANSWER development is influenced by nature and nurture, and is characterized by continuity and discontinuity, and also by stability and change. The life-span development concept of plasticity aligns most closely with which of the following? A. stability B. change C. nature D. nurture - ANSWER change Reactive Attachment Disorder is thought to be a lifelong condition caused by a lack of nurturing care during the early years of life. This diagnosis aligns with the developmental issue of A. stability. B. change. C. nature. D. discontinuity. - ANSWER stability Tammy was shy as a child but became more outgoing and confident when she attended a university far from her hometown. This is an example of which developmental issue? A. multidirectionality B. multidimensionality C. nature and nurture D. stability and change - ANSWER stability and change ) The controversy of stability versus change is closely linked to which of the following concepts? A. plasticity. B. contextualism. C. multidimensionalism. D. multidirectionality. - ANSWER plasticity Conceptualize a problem to be studied, collect data, analyze data, and draw conclusions. These steps describe A. discontinuity in development. B. the scientific method. C. a hypothesis. D. a theory - ANSWER the scientific method Nala decides to explore teenage pregnancy prevention for her Master's thesis. According to the scientific method, what should be her first step in getting started? A. Analyze the information she has gathered. B. Draw conclusions from the collected data. C. Conceptualize the problem to be studied. D. Begin to collect information. - ANSWER conceptualize the problem to be studied Which of the following statements is NOT true of a theory? A. A theory is an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps explain phenomena. B. A theory is an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps make predictions. C. When studying a topic, it is advisable to choose one developmental theory and disregard all others. D. A theory is an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that suggests hypotheses - ANSWER When studying a topic, it is advisable to choose one developmental theory and disregard all others Psychoanalytic theories hold that development primarily depends on A. the unconscious mind. B. thinking, reasoning, language, and other cognitive processes. C. behavior's link to environment. D. biology and evolution. - ANSWER the unconscious mind Psychoanalytic theories stress what in development? A. the child's cognitive creativity B. genes inherited from parents C. late experiences with parents D. early experiences with parents - ANSWER . early experiences with parents Ben has repressed his sexual urges and has started to develop social and intellectual skills. Ben is in the psychosexual stage called the _____ stage. A. phallic B. anal C. latency D. oral - ANSWER latency Erikson's theory emphasizes which of the following aspects of human development? A. experiences in early life B. psychosexual C. experiences in late life D. psychosocial - ANSWER psychosocial Each stage in Erikson's theory presents a crisis that must be resolved. These crises are A. developmental landmarks with increased vulnerability. B. developmental landmarks with both increased vulnerability and enhanced potentials. C. catastrophic events that toughen the individual for future crises. D. developmental landmarks with enhanced potentials. - ANSWER . developmental landmarks with both increased vulnerability and enhanced potentials. The successful outcome of Erikson's stage of _____ results in a healthy sense of independence. A. autonomy versus shame and doubt B. initiative versus guilt C. industry versus inferiority D. identity versus identity confusion - ANSWER autonomy versus shame and doubt Piaget theorized that children move through distinct stages of cognitive development, with each stage being qualitatively different from the one preceding. His theory reflects which aspect of developmental philosophy? A. discontinuity B. multidirectionality C. stability D. nature - ANSWER discontinuity ) If you believe that development occurs in stages, and you focus on cognitive development in an attempt to explain how children actively construct their own view of the world, then your personal theory is most similar to that of A. Vygotsky. B. Piaget. C. Erikson. D. Freud. - ANSWER Piaget While maintaining that children actively construct their knowledge, Vygotsky focused on _____ in explaining child cognitive development. A. social interaction. B. concrete operations. C. formal operations. D. organization and adaptation. - ANSWER social interaction Carlos is just starting to learn about the world. According to Vygotsky's sociocultural cognitive theory, what is the most important tool he will use to do this? A. mobility B. sensory perceptions C. language D. information-processing - ANSWER language Who among the following is a cognitive theorist? A. Vygotsky B. Freud C. Erikson D. Both Freud and Erikson were cognitive theorists. - ANSWER Vygotsky ) The information-processing approach to development is mainly concerned with A. the influence of culture on development. B. how people interpret and use knowledge. C. the influence of age on learning. D. the influence of biology and evolution on an individual's development - ANSWER how people interpret and use knowledge Which of the following theories is NOT a stage theory and claims that development is continuous rather than discontinuous? A. Erikson's theory of psychosocial development B. Freud's theory of personality development C. the information-processing theory D. Piaget's theory of cognitive development - ANSWER the information-processing theory Skinner claimed that we should only study that which can be _____ and _____. A. observed; measured B. observed; changed C. learned; changed D. rewarded; punished - ANSWER observed; measured Which theory would provide the BEST support for your belief in using incentives and time-outs as ways to help children behave? A. Skinner's behaviorism B. Piaget's cognitive theory C. Erikson's psychosocial stages D. Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory - ANSWER Skinner's behaviorism Which of the following is a criticism of behavioral and social cognitive theories? A. devotes inadequate attention to environmental determinants B. devotes inadequate attention to developmental changes C. devotes inadequate attention to behavioral changes D. devotes inadequate attention to how people learn - ANSWER . devotes inadequate attention to developmental changes A major common characteristic shared by behavioral and social cognitive theories is A. developmental changes. B. environmental influences on behavior. C. the role of unconsciousness in behavior. D. the role of cognition in development. - ANSWER environmental influences on behavior. Which theory most strongly emphasizes the role of biology and evolution in development? A. ecological B. behavioral C. cognitive D. ethological - ANSWER ethological Amy will be having her first child soon. She insists that she be the first to see and hold her baby after delivery in order to foster bonding. Her belief is consistent with which theory? A. cognitive B. ecological C. ethological D. behavioral - ANSWER ethological Joe is the second of seven children in his very conservative family. Jackie is the only child of liberal parents. When we compare such differences in studying their ecological systems, we are focusing on the difference in _____. A. microsystem B. mesosystem C. exosystem D. macrosystem - ANSWER microsystem Shawn's job requires lots of travel, and the demands of his job are affecting his marriage and his child's attachment relations with him. This type of interaction illustrates Bronfenbrenner's concept of a A. microsystem. B. exosystem. C. chronosystem. D. macrosystem. - ANSWER exosystem Baltes' assertion that development is contextual best fits with which developmental theory? A. psychoanalytic B. social cognitive C. ecological D. ethological - ANSWER ecological ) An eclectic theoretical orientation assumes that A. development is a predictable and rigid process. B. no single theory can account for all of human development. C. the different developmental theories are all correct and complete within their own contexts. D. contemporary theories are more accurate than those created before 1950 - ANSWER . no single theory can account for all of human development An eclectic theoretical orientation assumes that [Show More]

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