*NURSING > EXAM REVIEW > NURS 3561-Med-Surg Final Exam Review-comprehensive-2022 (All)

NURS 3561-Med-Surg Final Exam Review-comprehensive-2022

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NURS 3561-Med-Surg Final Exam Review-comprehensive-2022 NURS 3561-Med-Surg Final Exam Review-comprehensive-2022 Fluid and Electrolyte Sodium: 135-145 Potassium: 3.5-5.0 Calcium: 8.6-10.2 M... agnesium: 1.3-2.3 Chloride: 97-107 Hypernatremia > 145 • Causes: excess fluid/water loss, too much Na+, heat stroke, DI • S&S: thirst, elevated temp., dry swollen tongue, stick mucosa, neuro signs, restlessness and weakness, Inc. HR/BP • Management: hypotonic, isotonic (D5W), adequate tube feeding Hyponatremia < 135 • Causes: overuse diuretics, adrenal insufficiency, SIADH, N/V/D, anticonvulsants • S&S: poor skin turgor, dry mucosa, headaches, decreased salivation, low BP, N, abdominal cramping, neuro changes (AMS, seizures and coma), edema, anorexia • Management: water restriction and sodium replacement Hypercalcemia > 10.2 • Causes: Malignant tumor, hyperparathyroidism, immobility • S&S: muscle weakness, constipation, anorexia, N/V, dysrhythmias, decreased DTR, bone pain, dehydration, mental changes • Management: ambulation, encourage fluids, fiber for constipation Hypocalcemia < 8.6 • Causes: post thyroidectomy, pancreatitis, hypoparathyroidism, renal failure, corticosteroids, antacids w/ aluminum • S&S: tetany, increased DTR, numbness/tingling, Trousseaus/Chvostek sign, seizures, respiratory depression, SOB, D, decreased HR/BP • Management: vitamin D and calcium supplements, increased calcium in diet, IV calcium gluconate, weight bearing exercises Hyperkalemia > 5.0 CONTINUED..... [Show More]

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